Abstract

Compared with multicolor-chip integrated white LEDs, phosphor-based white LEDs are more attractive for daily illumination due to lower cost and complexity, and thus they are preferable for future commercial use of visible light communication (VLC) systems. However, the application of phosphorescent white LEDs has a lower data rate than multicolor-chip integrated LEDs because of severe nonlinear impairments and limited bandwidth caused by the slow-responding phosphor. In this paper, for the first time we propose to employ phosphorescent white LEDs based on silicon substrate with adaptive bit-loading discrete multitone (DMT) modulation and a memoryless polynomial based nonlinear equalizer to achieve a high-speed VLC system. We also present a comprehensive comparison among nonlinear equalizers based on the Volterra series model, memory polynomial model, memoryless polynomial model and deep neural network (DNN) with experimental results utilizing a silicon substrate phosphorescent white LED, and provide detailed suggestions on how to choose the most suitable nonlinear mitigation scheme considering different practical conditions and the tradeoff between complexity and performance. Beyond 3.00 Gb/s DMT VLC transmission over 1-m indoor free space is successfully demonstrated with bit error rate (BER) under the 7% forward error correction (FEC) limit of 3.8×10−3. As far as we know, this is the highest data rate ever reported for VLC systems based on a single high-power phosphorescent white LED.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2019 (3)

2018 (2)

2017 (2)

R. Deng, J. He, Z. Zhou, J. Shi, M. Hou, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of software-configurable asynchronous real-time OFDM signal transmission in a hybrid fiber-VLLC system,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Zhang, J. Zhang, X. Hong, and S. He, “Low-complexity frequency domain nonlinear compensation for OFDM based high-speed visible light communication systems with light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3780–3794 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

X. Liu, J. Liu, Q. Mao, X. Wu, J. Zhang, G. Wang, Z. Quan, C. Mo, and F. Jiang, “Effects of p-AlGaN EBL thickness on the performance of InGaN green LEDs with large V-pits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(2), 025012 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

G. Wang, X. Tao, J. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diodes on silicon with different quantum-well structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(1), 015018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Huang, L. Tao, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “4.5-Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing CAP modulation and RLS based adaptive equalization,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13626–13633 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, S. Chen, Z. Wang, J. Shi, Y. Wang, J. Xiao, and N. Chi, “2.0-Gb/s visible light link based on adaptive bit allocation OFDM of a single phosphorescent white LED,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G.-K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wireless Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, X. Huang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “Enhanced performance of a high-speed WDM CAP64 VLC system employing Volterra series-based nonlinear equalizer,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, X. Huang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “8-Gb/s RGBY LED-Based WDM VLC system employing high-order CAP modulation and hybrid post equalizer,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

H. Qian, S. J. Yao, S. Z. Cai, and T. Zhou, “Adaptive postdistortion for nonlinear LEDs in visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(4), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “High speed WDM VLC system based on multi-band CAP64 with weighted pre-equalization and modified CMMA based post-equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(10), 1719–1722 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

G. Stepniak, J. Siuzdak, and P. Zwierko, “Compensation of a VLC phosphorescent white LED nonlinearity by means of Volterra DFE,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1597–1600 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, S. Sinanovic, and H. Haas, “Complete modeling of nonlinear distortion in OFDM-based optical wireless communication,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(18), 3064–3076 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, “Visible light communication: opportunities, challenges and the path to market,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(12), 26–32 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. D. Bandara, P. Niroopan, and Y. Chung, “Improved indoor visible light communication with PAM and RLS decision feedback equalizer,” IETE J. Res. 59(6), 672–678 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

F. Wu, C. Lin, C. Wei, C. Chen, H. Huang, and C. Ho, “1.1-Gb/s white-LED-based visible light communication employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1730–1732 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Indoor optical wireless communication: potential and state of the Art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56–62 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kamalakis, J. Walewski, and G. Mileounis, “Empirical Volterra-series modeling of commercial light-emitting diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(14), 2146–2155 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Bandara, K.

K. Bandara and Y. Chung, “Reduced training sequence using RLS adaptive algorithm with decision feedback equalizer in indoor visible light wireless communication channel,” in IEEE International Conference on ICT Convergence (2012).

Bandara, K. D.

K. D. Bandara, P. Niroopan, and Y. Chung, “Improved indoor visible light communication with PAM and RLS decision feedback equalizer,” IETE J. Res. 59(6), 672–678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baxley, R. J.

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G.-K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wireless Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cai, S. Z.

H. Qian, S. J. Yao, S. Z. Cai, and T. Zhou, “Adaptive postdistortion for nonlinear LEDs in visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(4), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, G.-K.

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G.-K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wireless Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

F. Wu, C. Lin, C. Wei, C. Chen, H. Huang, and C. Ho, “1.1-Gb/s white-LED-based visible light communication employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1730–1732 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

R. Deng, J. He, Z. Zhou, J. Shi, M. Hou, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of software-configurable asynchronous real-time OFDM signal transmission in a hybrid fiber-VLLC system,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

X. Huang, S. Chen, Z. Wang, J. Shi, Y. Wang, J. Xiao, and N. Chi, “2.0-Gb/s visible light link based on adaptive bit allocation OFDM of a single phosphorescent white LED,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chi, N.

N. Chi and F. Hu, “Nonlinear adaptive filters for high-speed LED based underwater visible light communication,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 17(10), 100011 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, X. Zhu, F. Hu, J. Shi, F. Wang, P. Zou, J. Liu, F. Jiang, and N. Chi, “Common-anode LED on a Si substrate for beyond 15 Gbit/s underwater visible light communication,” Photonics Res. 7(9), 1019–1029 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Chi, Y. Zhao, M. Shi, P. Zou, and X. Lu, “Gaussian kernel-aided deep neural network equalizer utilized in underwater PAM8 visible light communication system,” Opt. Express 26(20), 26700–26712 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Chi, Y. Zhou, S. Liang, F. Wang, J. Li, and Y. Wang, “Enabling technologies for high-speed visible light communication employing CAP modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(2), 510–518 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, X. Huang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “8-Gb/s RGBY LED-Based WDM VLC system employing high-order CAP modulation and hybrid post equalizer,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, X. Huang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “Enhanced performance of a high-speed WDM CAP64 VLC system employing Volterra series-based nonlinear equalizer,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, S. Chen, Z. Wang, J. Shi, Y. Wang, J. Xiao, and N. Chi, “2.0-Gb/s visible light link based on adaptive bit allocation OFDM of a single phosphorescent white LED,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Huang, L. Tao, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “4.5-Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing CAP modulation and RLS based adaptive equalization,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13626–13633 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “High speed WDM VLC system based on multi-band CAP64 with weighted pre-equalization and modified CMMA based post-equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(10), 1719–1722 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, G. Li, Y. Ha, S. Han, and N. Chi, “A 2.5 Gb/s Real-Time Visible-Light Communication System Based on Phosphorescent White LED,” in IEEE 7th International Conference on Information Communication and Networks, (2019).

Y. Ha, W. Niu, and N. Chi, “Frequency reshaping and compensation scheme based on deep neural network for a FTN CAP 9QAM signal in visible light communication system,” in 17th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (2019).

Y. Zhou, J. Zhao, M. Zhang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “2.32 Gbit/s phosphorescent white LED visible light communication aided by two-staged linear software equalizer,” in IEEE 2016 10th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (2016).

Chung, Y.

K. D. Bandara, P. Niroopan, and Y. Chung, “Improved indoor visible light communication with PAM and RLS decision feedback equalizer,” IETE J. Res. 59(6), 672–678 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Bandara and Y. Chung, “Reduced training sequence using RLS adaptive algorithm with decision feedback equalizer in indoor visible light wireless communication channel,” in IEEE International Conference on ICT Convergence (2012).

Deng, R.

R. Deng, J. He, Z. Zhou, J. Shi, M. Hou, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of software-configurable asynchronous real-time OFDM signal transmission in a hybrid fiber-VLLC system,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Elgala, H.

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Indoor optical wireless communication: potential and state of the Art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56–62 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fei, C.

Gao, Q.

X. Li, Q. Gao, C. Gong, and Z. Xu, “Nonlinearity Mitigation for VLC with an Artificial Neural Network Based Equalizer,” in IEEE Globecom Workshops (2018).

Gong, C.

X. Li, Q. Gao, C. Gong, and Z. Xu, “Nonlinearity Mitigation for VLC with an Artificial Neural Network Based Equalizer,” in IEEE Globecom Workshops (2018).

Ha, Y.

C. Wang, G. Li, Y. Ha, S. Han, and N. Chi, “A 2.5 Gb/s Real-Time Visible-Light Communication System Based on Phosphorescent White LED,” in IEEE 7th International Conference on Information Communication and Networks, (2019).

Y. Ha, W. Niu, and N. Chi, “Frequency reshaping and compensation scheme based on deep neural network for a FTN CAP 9QAM signal in visible light communication system,” in 17th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (2019).

Haas, H.

D. Tsonev, S. Sinanovic, and H. Haas, “Complete modeling of nonlinear distortion in OFDM-based optical wireless communication,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(18), 3064–3076 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Indoor optical wireless communication: potential and state of the Art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56–62 (2011).
[Crossref]

Han, S.

C. Wang, G. Li, Y. Ha, S. Han, and N. Chi, “A 2.5 Gb/s Real-Time Visible-Light Communication System Based on Phosphorescent White LED,” in IEEE 7th International Conference on Information Communication and Networks, (2019).

He, J.

R. Deng, J. He, Z. Zhou, J. Shi, M. Hou, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of software-configurable asynchronous real-time OFDM signal transmission in a hybrid fiber-VLLC system,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

He, S.

Ho, C.

F. Wu, C. Lin, C. Wei, C. Chen, H. Huang, and C. Ho, “1.1-Gb/s white-LED-based visible light communication employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1730–1732 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hong, X.

Hou, M.

R. Deng, J. He, Z. Zhou, J. Shi, M. Hou, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of software-configurable asynchronous real-time OFDM signal transmission in a hybrid fiber-VLLC system,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hu, F.

Y. Zhou, X. Zhu, F. Hu, J. Shi, F. Wang, P. Zou, J. Liu, F. Jiang, and N. Chi, “Common-anode LED on a Si substrate for beyond 15 Gbit/s underwater visible light communication,” Photonics Res. 7(9), 1019–1029 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Chi and F. Hu, “Nonlinear adaptive filters for high-speed LED based underwater visible light communication,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 17(10), 100011 (2019).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

F. Wu, C. Lin, C. Wei, C. Chen, H. Huang, and C. Ho, “1.1-Gb/s white-LED-based visible light communication employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1730–1732 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

Y. Wang, X. Huang, L. Tao, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “4.5-Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing CAP modulation and RLS based adaptive equalization,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13626–13633 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, S. Chen, Z. Wang, J. Shi, Y. Wang, J. Xiao, and N. Chi, “2.0-Gb/s visible light link based on adaptive bit allocation OFDM of a single phosphorescent white LED,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, X. Huang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “8-Gb/s RGBY LED-Based WDM VLC system employing high-order CAP modulation and hybrid post equalizer,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, X. Huang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “Enhanced performance of a high-speed WDM CAP64 VLC system employing Volterra series-based nonlinear equalizer,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

Inan, B.

Jiang, F.

Y. Zhou, X. Zhu, F. Hu, J. Shi, F. Wang, P. Zou, J. Liu, F. Jiang, and N. Chi, “Common-anode LED on a Si substrate for beyond 15 Gbit/s underwater visible light communication,” Photonics Res. 7(9), 1019–1029 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J. Liu, Q. Mao, X. Wu, J. Zhang, G. Wang, Z. Quan, C. Mo, and F. Jiang, “Effects of p-AlGaN EBL thickness on the performance of InGaN green LEDs with large V-pits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(2), 025012 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, X. Tao, J. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diodes on silicon with different quantum-well structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(1), 015018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jovicic, A.

A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, “Visible light communication: opportunities, challenges and the path to market,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(12), 26–32 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kamalakis, T.

Lau, A.

T. Shen and A. Lau, “Fiber nonlinearity compensation using extreme learning machine for DSP-based coherent communication systems,” in IEEE 16th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (2011).

Le, Q.

P. Ramachandran, B. Zoph, and Q. Le, “Searching for activation functions,” arXiv preprint arXiv, 1710.05941 (2017).

Li, G.

C. Wang, G. Li, Y. Ha, S. Han, and N. Chi, “A 2.5 Gb/s Real-Time Visible-Light Communication System Based on Phosphorescent White LED,” in IEEE 7th International Conference on Information Communication and Networks, (2019).

Li, J.

N. Chi, Y. Zhou, S. Liang, F. Wang, J. Li, and Y. Wang, “Enabling technologies for high-speed visible light communication employing CAP modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(2), 510–518 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, “Visible light communication: opportunities, challenges and the path to market,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(12), 26–32 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

X. Li, Q. Gao, C. Gong, and Z. Xu, “Nonlinearity Mitigation for VLC with an Artificial Neural Network Based Equalizer,” in IEEE Globecom Workshops (2018).

Liang, S.

Lin, C.

F. Wu, C. Lin, C. Wei, C. Chen, H. Huang, and C. Ho, “1.1-Gb/s white-LED-based visible light communication employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1730–1732 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Y. Zhou, X. Zhu, F. Hu, J. Shi, F. Wang, P. Zou, J. Liu, F. Jiang, and N. Chi, “Common-anode LED on a Si substrate for beyond 15 Gbit/s underwater visible light communication,” Photonics Res. 7(9), 1019–1029 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J. Liu, Q. Mao, X. Wu, J. Zhang, G. Wang, Z. Quan, C. Mo, and F. Jiang, “Effects of p-AlGaN EBL thickness on the performance of InGaN green LEDs with large V-pits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(2), 025012 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, X. Tao, J. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diodes on silicon with different quantum-well structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(1), 015018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, J. Liu, Q. Mao, X. Wu, J. Zhang, G. Wang, Z. Quan, C. Mo, and F. Jiang, “Effects of p-AlGaN EBL thickness on the performance of InGaN green LEDs with large V-pits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(2), 025012 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lu, X.

Mao, Q.

X. Liu, J. Liu, Q. Mao, X. Wu, J. Zhang, G. Wang, Z. Quan, C. Mo, and F. Jiang, “Effects of p-AlGaN EBL thickness on the performance of InGaN green LEDs with large V-pits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(2), 025012 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mesleh, R.

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Indoor optical wireless communication: potential and state of the Art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56–62 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mileounis, G.

Mo, C.

X. Liu, J. Liu, Q. Mao, X. Wu, J. Zhang, G. Wang, Z. Quan, C. Mo, and F. Jiang, “Effects of p-AlGaN EBL thickness on the performance of InGaN green LEDs with large V-pits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(2), 025012 (2016).
[Crossref]

Neokosmidis, I.

Niroopan, P.

K. D. Bandara, P. Niroopan, and Y. Chung, “Improved indoor visible light communication with PAM and RLS decision feedback equalizer,” IETE J. Res. 59(6), 672–678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Niu, W.

Y. Ha, W. Niu, and N. Chi, “Frequency reshaping and compensation scheme based on deep neural network for a FTN CAP 9QAM signal in visible light communication system,” in 17th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (2019).

Qian, H.

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G.-K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wireless Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Qian, S. J. Yao, S. Z. Cai, and T. Zhou, “Adaptive postdistortion for nonlinear LEDs in visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(4), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Quan, Z.

X. Liu, J. Liu, Q. Mao, X. Wu, J. Zhang, G. Wang, Z. Quan, C. Mo, and F. Jiang, “Effects of p-AlGaN EBL thickness on the performance of InGaN green LEDs with large V-pits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(2), 025012 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ramachandran, P.

P. Ramachandran, B. Zoph, and Q. Le, “Searching for activation functions,” arXiv preprint arXiv, 1710.05941 (2017).

Richardson, T.

A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, “Visible light communication: opportunities, challenges and the path to market,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(12), 26–32 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shen, T.

T. Shen and A. Lau, “Fiber nonlinearity compensation using extreme learning machine for DSP-based coherent communication systems,” in IEEE 16th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (2011).

Shi, J.

Y. Zhou, X. Zhu, F. Hu, J. Shi, F. Wang, P. Zou, J. Liu, F. Jiang, and N. Chi, “Common-anode LED on a Si substrate for beyond 15 Gbit/s underwater visible light communication,” Photonics Res. 7(9), 1019–1029 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Deng, J. He, Z. Zhou, J. Shi, M. Hou, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of software-configurable asynchronous real-time OFDM signal transmission in a hybrid fiber-VLLC system,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, X. Huang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “8-Gb/s RGBY LED-Based WDM VLC system employing high-order CAP modulation and hybrid post equalizer,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, X. Huang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “Enhanced performance of a high-speed WDM CAP64 VLC system employing Volterra series-based nonlinear equalizer,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Huang, L. Tao, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “4.5-Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing CAP modulation and RLS based adaptive equalization,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13626–13633 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, S. Chen, Z. Wang, J. Shi, Y. Wang, J. Xiao, and N. Chi, “2.0-Gb/s visible light link based on adaptive bit allocation OFDM of a single phosphorescent white LED,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, J. Zhao, M. Zhang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “2.32 Gbit/s phosphorescent white LED visible light communication aided by two-staged linear software equalizer,” in IEEE 2016 10th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (2016).

Shi, M.

Sinanovic, S.

Siuzdak, J.

G. Stepniak, J. Siuzdak, and P. Zwierko, “Compensation of a VLC phosphorescent white LED nonlinearity by means of Volterra DFE,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1597–1600 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sphicopoulos, T.

Stepniak, G.

G. Stepniak, J. Siuzdak, and P. Zwierko, “Compensation of a VLC phosphorescent white LED nonlinearity by means of Volterra DFE,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1597–1600 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tao, L.

Y. Wang, X. Huang, L. Tao, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “4.5-Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing CAP modulation and RLS based adaptive equalization,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13626–13633 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, X. Huang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “Enhanced performance of a high-speed WDM CAP64 VLC system employing Volterra series-based nonlinear equalizer,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, X. Huang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “8-Gb/s RGBY LED-Based WDM VLC system employing high-order CAP modulation and hybrid post equalizer,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “High speed WDM VLC system based on multi-band CAP64 with weighted pre-equalization and modified CMMA based post-equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(10), 1719–1722 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tao, X.

G. Wang, X. Tao, J. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diodes on silicon with different quantum-well structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(1), 015018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tsonev, D.

Walewski, J.

Walewski, J. W.

Wang, C.

C. Wang, G. Li, Y. Ha, S. Han, and N. Chi, “A 2.5 Gb/s Real-Time Visible-Light Communication System Based on Phosphorescent White LED,” in IEEE 7th International Conference on Information Communication and Networks, (2019).

Wang, F.

Y. Zhou, X. Zhu, F. Hu, J. Shi, F. Wang, P. Zou, J. Liu, F. Jiang, and N. Chi, “Common-anode LED on a Si substrate for beyond 15 Gbit/s underwater visible light communication,” Photonics Res. 7(9), 1019–1029 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Chi, Y. Zhou, S. Liang, F. Wang, J. Li, and Y. Wang, “Enabling technologies for high-speed visible light communication employing CAP modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(2), 510–518 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

X. Liu, J. Liu, Q. Mao, X. Wu, J. Zhang, G. Wang, Z. Quan, C. Mo, and F. Jiang, “Effects of p-AlGaN EBL thickness on the performance of InGaN green LEDs with large V-pits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(2), 025012 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, X. Tao, J. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diodes on silicon with different quantum-well structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(1), 015018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

N. Chi, Y. Zhou, S. Liang, F. Wang, J. Li, and Y. Wang, “Enabling technologies for high-speed visible light communication employing CAP modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(2), 510–518 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, X. Huang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “8-Gb/s RGBY LED-Based WDM VLC system employing high-order CAP modulation and hybrid post equalizer,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, X. Huang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “Enhanced performance of a high-speed WDM CAP64 VLC system employing Volterra series-based nonlinear equalizer,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Huang, L. Tao, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “4.5-Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing CAP modulation and RLS based adaptive equalization,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13626–13633 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, S. Chen, Z. Wang, J. Shi, Y. Wang, J. Xiao, and N. Chi, “2.0-Gb/s visible light link based on adaptive bit allocation OFDM of a single phosphorescent white LED,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “High speed WDM VLC system based on multi-band CAP64 with weighted pre-equalization and modified CMMA based post-equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(10), 1719–1722 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “High speed WDM VLC system based on multi-band CAP64 with weighted pre-equalization and modified CMMA based post-equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(10), 1719–1722 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

X. Huang, S. Chen, Z. Wang, J. Shi, Y. Wang, J. Xiao, and N. Chi, “2.0-Gb/s visible light link based on adaptive bit allocation OFDM of a single phosphorescent white LED,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wei, C.

F. Wu, C. Lin, C. Wei, C. Chen, H. Huang, and C. Ho, “1.1-Gb/s white-LED-based visible light communication employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1730–1732 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

F. Wu, C. Lin, C. Wei, C. Chen, H. Huang, and C. Ho, “1.1-Gb/s white-LED-based visible light communication employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1730–1732 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

X. Liu, J. Liu, Q. Mao, X. Wu, J. Zhang, G. Wang, Z. Quan, C. Mo, and F. Jiang, “Effects of p-AlGaN EBL thickness on the performance of InGaN green LEDs with large V-pits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(2), 025012 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xiao, J.

X. Huang, S. Chen, Z. Wang, J. Shi, Y. Wang, J. Xiao, and N. Chi, “2.0-Gb/s visible light link based on adaptive bit allocation OFDM of a single phosphorescent white LED,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

X. Li, Q. Gao, C. Gong, and Z. Xu, “Nonlinearity Mitigation for VLC with an Artificial Neural Network Based Equalizer,” in IEEE Globecom Workshops (2018).

Yao, S. J.

H. Qian, S. J. Yao, S. Z. Cai, and T. Zhou, “Adaptive postdistortion for nonlinear LEDs in visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(4), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ying, K.

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G.-K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wireless Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G.-K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wireless Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

Zhang, J.

G. Zhang, J. Zhang, X. Hong, and S. He, “Low-complexity frequency domain nonlinear compensation for OFDM based high-speed visible light communication systems with light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3780–3794 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J. Liu, Q. Mao, X. Wu, J. Zhang, G. Wang, Z. Quan, C. Mo, and F. Jiang, “Effects of p-AlGaN EBL thickness on the performance of InGaN green LEDs with large V-pits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(2), 025012 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

Y. Zhou, J. Zhao, M. Zhang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “2.32 Gbit/s phosphorescent white LED visible light communication aided by two-staged linear software equalizer,” in IEEE 2016 10th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (2016).

Zhao, J.

Y. Zhou, J. Zhao, M. Zhang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “2.32 Gbit/s phosphorescent white LED visible light communication aided by two-staged linear software equalizer,” in IEEE 2016 10th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (2016).

Zhao, Y.

Zhou, G. T.

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G.-K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wireless Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, T.

H. Qian, S. J. Yao, S. Z. Cai, and T. Zhou, “Adaptive postdistortion for nonlinear LEDs in visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(4), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, X. Zhu, F. Hu, J. Shi, F. Wang, P. Zou, J. Liu, F. Jiang, and N. Chi, “Common-anode LED on a Si substrate for beyond 15 Gbit/s underwater visible light communication,” Photonics Res. 7(9), 1019–1029 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Chi, Y. Zhou, S. Liang, F. Wang, J. Li, and Y. Wang, “Enabling technologies for high-speed visible light communication employing CAP modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(2), 510–518 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, J. Zhao, M. Zhang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “2.32 Gbit/s phosphorescent white LED visible light communication aided by two-staged linear software equalizer,” in IEEE 2016 10th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (2016).

Zhou, Z.

R. Deng, J. He, Z. Zhou, J. Shi, M. Hou, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of software-configurable asynchronous real-time OFDM signal transmission in a hybrid fiber-VLLC system,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

Y. Zhou, X. Zhu, F. Hu, J. Shi, F. Wang, P. Zou, J. Liu, F. Jiang, and N. Chi, “Common-anode LED on a Si substrate for beyond 15 Gbit/s underwater visible light communication,” Photonics Res. 7(9), 1019–1029 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zoph, B.

P. Ramachandran, B. Zoph, and Q. Le, “Searching for activation functions,” arXiv preprint arXiv, 1710.05941 (2017).

Zou, P.

Y. Zhou, X. Zhu, F. Hu, J. Shi, F. Wang, P. Zou, J. Liu, F. Jiang, and N. Chi, “Common-anode LED on a Si substrate for beyond 15 Gbit/s underwater visible light communication,” Photonics Res. 7(9), 1019–1029 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Chi, Y. Zhao, M. Shi, P. Zou, and X. Lu, “Gaussian kernel-aided deep neural network equalizer utilized in underwater PAM8 visible light communication system,” Opt. Express 26(20), 26700–26712 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zwierko, P.

G. Stepniak, J. Siuzdak, and P. Zwierko, “Compensation of a VLC phosphorescent white LED nonlinearity by means of Volterra DFE,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1597–1600 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

Y. Wang, L. Tao, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “High speed WDM VLC system based on multi-band CAP64 with weighted pre-equalization and modified CMMA based post-equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(10), 1719–1722 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Indoor optical wireless communication: potential and state of the Art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56–62 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, “Visible light communication: opportunities, challenges and the path to market,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(12), 26–32 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (5)

R. Deng, J. He, Z. Zhou, J. Shi, M. Hou, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of software-configurable asynchronous real-time OFDM signal transmission in a hybrid fiber-VLLC system,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, S. Chen, Z. Wang, J. Shi, Y. Wang, J. Xiao, and N. Chi, “2.0-Gb/s visible light link based on adaptive bit allocation OFDM of a single phosphorescent white LED,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, X. Huang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “Enhanced performance of a high-speed WDM CAP64 VLC system employing Volterra series-based nonlinear equalizer,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, X. Huang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “8-Gb/s RGBY LED-Based WDM VLC system employing high-order CAP modulation and hybrid post equalizer,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Qian, S. J. Yao, S. Z. Cai, and T. Zhou, “Adaptive postdistortion for nonlinear LEDs in visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(4), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

F. Wu, C. Lin, C. Wei, C. Chen, H. Huang, and C. Ho, “1.1-Gb/s white-LED-based visible light communication employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1730–1732 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Stepniak, J. Siuzdak, and P. Zwierko, “Compensation of a VLC phosphorescent white LED nonlinearity by means of Volterra DFE,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1597–1600 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Wireless Commun. (1)

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G.-K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wireless Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

IETE J. Res. (1)

K. D. Bandara, P. Niroopan, and Y. Chung, “Improved indoor visible light communication with PAM and RLS decision feedback equalizer,” IETE J. Res. 59(6), 672–678 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Opt. Express (3)

Photonics Res. (1)

Y. Zhou, X. Zhu, F. Hu, J. Shi, F. Wang, P. Zou, J. Liu, F. Jiang, and N. Chi, “Common-anode LED on a Si substrate for beyond 15 Gbit/s underwater visible light communication,” Photonics Res. 7(9), 1019–1029 (2019).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (2)

X. Liu, J. Liu, Q. Mao, X. Wu, J. Zhang, G. Wang, Z. Quan, C. Mo, and F. Jiang, “Effects of p-AlGaN EBL thickness on the performance of InGaN green LEDs with large V-pits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(2), 025012 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, X. Tao, J. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diodes on silicon with different quantum-well structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(1), 015018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

C. Wang, G. Li, Y. Ha, S. Han, and N. Chi, “A 2.5 Gb/s Real-Time Visible-Light Communication System Based on Phosphorescent White LED,” in IEEE 7th International Conference on Information Communication and Networks, (2019).

K. Bandara and Y. Chung, “Reduced training sequence using RLS adaptive algorithm with decision feedback equalizer in indoor visible light wireless communication channel,” in IEEE International Conference on ICT Convergence (2012).

P. Ramachandran, B. Zoph, and Q. Le, “Searching for activation functions,” arXiv preprint arXiv, 1710.05941 (2017).

X. Li, Q. Gao, C. Gong, and Z. Xu, “Nonlinearity Mitigation for VLC with an Artificial Neural Network Based Equalizer,” in IEEE Globecom Workshops (2018).

Y. Zhou, J. Zhao, M. Zhang, J. Shi, and N. Chi, “2.32 Gbit/s phosphorescent white LED visible light communication aided by two-staged linear software equalizer,” in IEEE 2016 10th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (2016).

T. Shen and A. Lau, “Fiber nonlinearity compensation using extreme learning machine for DSP-based coherent communication systems,” in IEEE 16th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (2011).

Y. Ha, W. Niu, and N. Chi, “Frequency reshaping and compensation scheme based on deep neural network for a FTN CAP 9QAM signal in visible light communication system,” in 17th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (2019).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of equalizers based on (a) second-order Volterra series, (b) Kth-order memory polynomial, (c) Kth-order memoryless polynomial, and (d) DNN (R: ReLU).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental setup of the VLC system.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) CIE diagram showing the chromaticity coordinates of the Si substrate phosphorescent white LED operating from 0 mA to 180 mA; (b) optical spectra operating at 40, 100 and 180 mA.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Bit allocation scheme for 128 subcarriers.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. log10(BER) versus bias current and signal Vpp (a) w/o nonlinear equalizer, (b) w/ second-order memoryless polynomial, (c) w/ second-order memory polynomial, (d) w/ second-order Volterra, and (e) w/ DNN.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Frequency spectra comparison of transmitted signal and received signal (a) w/o nonlinear equalizer, after the nonlinear equalizer based on (b) second-order memoryless polynomial, (c) second-order memory polynomial, (d) second-order Volterra, and (e) DNN.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Time-domain waveform comparison of transmitted signal and received signal (a) w/o nonlinear equalizer, after the nonlinear equalizer based on (b) second-order memoryless polynomial, (c) second-order memory polynomial, (d) second-order Volterra, and (e) DNN; (f) time-domain mismatch between the transmitted and received signals.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. BER performance using the DNN equalizer with different node numbers of (a) the input layer, and (b) hidden layers. Insets: AM/AM response of received signals w/o equalization using (i) 375 MHz and (ii) 525 MHz bandwidth, w/ equalization using (iv) 375 MHz and (v) 525 MHz bandwidth, constellations w/ equalization using (iii) 375 MHz and (vi) 525 MHz bandwidth, and constellations with node numbers of (vii) 2, (viii) 8 of the first hidden layer and (ix) 16 of the second hidden layer.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. BER performance using the second-order Volterra based equalizer with different (a) linear and (b) nonlinear memory depth. Insets: constellations with corresponding bandwidth and memory depth.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. BER performance using the Kth-order memory polynomial based equalizer with different (a) nonlinear orders and (b) nonlinear memory depth. Insets: AM/AM response of received signals using 375 MHz bandwidth (i) w/o equalization and w/ equalization when (ii) K = 2 and (iii) K = 5, constellations for M = 6, 6 and 8 using 375, 450 and 525 MHz bandwidth respectively.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. BER performance using the Kth-order memoryless polynomial based equalizer with different nonlinear orders. Insets: AM/AM response of received signals using 375 MHz bandwidth (i) w/o equalization and (ii) w/ equalization, constellations using 375 MHz bandwidth (iii) w/o equalization and (iv) w/ equalization and K = 5.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. (a) Comparison of BER performance utilizing different equalizers using (a) various data rates with Vpp = 0.8 V and (b) various Vpp with 3 Gb/s data rate.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Training parameters.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Complexity comparison.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d ( n ) = d l ( n ) + d n l ( n ) = i = 0 N a i ( n ) x ( n i ) d l ( n ) + m 1 = 0 M m 2 = 0 M a m 1 m 2 ( n ) x ( n m 1 ) x ( n m 2 ) + m 1 = 0 M m 2 = 0 M m 3 = 0 M a m 1 m 2 m 3 ( n ) x ( n m 1 ) x ( n m 2 ) x ( n m 3 ) + d n l ( n )
d ( n ) = d l ( n ) + d n l ( n ) = i = 0 N a i ( n ) x ( n i ) d l ( n ) + m 1 = 0 M m 2 = 0 M a m 1 m 2 ( n ) x ( n m 1 ) x ( n m 2 ) d n l ( n )
A ( n + 1 ) = A ( n ) + ε ( n ) G ( n )
ε ( n ) = y ( n ) d ( n )
G ( n ) = S ( n 1 ) X ( n ) { λ + X T ( n ) S ( n 1 ) X ( n ) } 1
S ( 0 ) = I / δ
S ( n ) = λ 1 S ( n 1 ) λ 1 G ( n ) X T ( n ) S ( n 1 )
d ( n ) = d l ( n ) + d n l ( n ) = i = 0 N b i ( n ) x ( n i ) d l ( n ) + k = 2 K m = 0 M b k m ( n ) x k ( n m ) d n l ( n )
d ( n ) = d l ( n ) + d n l ( n ) = c 1 ( n ) x ( n ) d l ( n ) + c 2 ( n ) x 2 ( n ) + + c k ( n ) x k ( n ) + + c K ( n ) x K ( n ) d n l ( n )
v i j l V l = [ v 11 l v 12 l v 1 j l v 21 l v 22 l v 2 j l v i 1 l v i 2 l v i j l ] , l = 1 , 2 , , L  - 1
H l 1 = V l 1 T B l 1 = [ v 11 l 1 v 12 l 1 v 1 j l 1 v 21 l 1 v 22 l 1 v 2 j l 1 v i 1 l 1 v i 2 l 1 v i j l 1 ] T [ b 1 l 1 b 2 l 1 b i l 1 ] = [ h 1 l 1 h 2 l 1 h i l 1 ] , l = 2 , 3 , , L
B l = f ( H l 1 ) ,  where  f ( x ) = { x , x 0 0 , x < 0 , l = 2 , 3 , L  - 2
C = 1 2 d = 1 B S ( y d a d ) 2

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