Abstract

High-harmonic generation (HHG) in crystals offers a simple, affordable and easily accessible route to carrier-envelope phase (CEP) measurements, which scales favorably towards longer wavelengths. We present measurements of HHG in ZnO using few-cycle pulses at 3.1µm. Thanks to the broad bandwidth of the driving laser pulses, spectral overlap between adjacent harmonic orders is achieved. The resulting spectral interference pattern provides access to the relative harmonic phase, and hence, the CEP.

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2020 (1)

2019 (6)

X. Song, R. Zuo, S. Yang, P. Li, T. Meier, and W. Yang, “Attosecond temporal confinement of interband excitation by intraband motion,” Opt. Express 27(3), 2225–2234 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. P. Butler, D. Gerz, C. Hofer, J. Xu, C. Gaida, T. Heuermann, M. Gebhardt, L. Vamos, W. Schweinberger, J. A. Gessner, T. Siefke, M. Heusinger, U. Zeitner, A. Apolonski, N. Karpowicz, J. Limpert, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Watt-scale 50-MHz source of single-cycle waveform-stable pulses in the molecular fingerprint region,” Opt. Lett. 44(7), 1730–1733 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Samsonova, S. Höfer, V. Kaymak, S. Ališauskas, V. Shumakova, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Siefke, S. Kroker, A. Pukhov, O. Rosmej, I. Uschmann, C. Spielmann, and D. Kartashov, “Relativistic Interaction of Long-Wavelength Ultrashort Laser Pulses with Nanowires,” Phys. Rev. X 9(2), 021029 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Ghimire and D. A. Reis, “High-harmonic generation from solids,” Nat. Phys. 15(1), 10–16 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Tsatrafyllis, S. Kühn, M. Dumergue, P. Foldi, S. Kahaly, E. Cormier, I. A. Gonoskov, B. Kiss, K. Varju, S. Varro, and P. Tzallas, “Quantum Optical Signatures in a Strong Laser Pulse after Interaction with Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(19), 193602 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Miranda, F. Silva, L. Neoričić, C. Guo, V. Pervak, M. Canhota, A. S. Silva, ÍJ Sola, R. Romero, P. T. Guerreiro, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, and H. Crespo, “All-optical measurement of the complete waveform of octave-spanning ultrashort light pulses,” Opt. Lett. 44(2), 191–194 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (9)

D. Zille, D. Adolph, M. Möller, A. M. Sayler, and G. G. Paulus, “Chirp and carrier-envelope-phase effects in the multiphoton regime: measurements and analytical modeling of strong-field ionization of sodium,” New J. Phys. 20(6), 063018 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Garg, H.-Y. Kim, and E. Goulielmakis, “Ultimate waveform reproducibility of extreme-ultraviolet pulses by high-harmonic generation in quartz,” Nat. Photonics 12(5), 291–296 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Shirai, F. Kumaki, Y. Nomura, and T. Fuji, “High-harmonic generation in solids driven by subcycle midinfrared pulses from two-color filamentation,” Opt. Lett. 43(9), 2094–2097 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. T. Luu and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement of the Berry curvature of solids using high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 916 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. S. Johnson, D. R. Austin, D. A. Wood, C. Brahms, A. Gregory, K. B. Holzner, S. Jarosch, E. W. Larsen, S. Parker, C. S. Strüber, P. Ye, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “High-flux soft x-ray harmonic generation from ionization-shaped few-cycle laser pulses,” Sci. Adv. 4(5), eaar3761 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Kruchinin, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Colloquium: Strong-field phenomena in periodic systems,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 90(2), 021002 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Gholam-Mirzaei, J. E. Beetar, A. Chacón, and M. Chini, “High-harmonic generation in ZnO driven by self-compressed mid-infrared pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35(4), A27–A31 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Thiré, R. Maksimenka, B. Kiss, C. Ferchaud, G. Gitzinger, T. Pinoteau, H. Jousselin, S. Jarosch, P. Bizouard, V. Di Pietro, E. Cormier, K. Osvay, and N. Forget, “Highly stable, 15 W, few-cycle, 65 mrad CEP-noise mid-IR OPCPA for statistical physics,” Opt. Express 26(21), 26907–26915 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Hoff, F. J. Furch, T. Witting, K. Rühle, D. Adolph, A. M. Sayler, M. J. J. Vrakking, G. G. Paulus, and C. P. Schulz, “Continuous every-single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement and control at 100  kHz,” Opt. Lett. 43(16), 3850–3853 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (8)

Y. Zhang, P. Kellner, D. Adolph, D. Zille, P. Wustelt, D. Würzler, S. Skruszewicz, M. Möller, A. Max Sayler, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot, real-time carrier-envelope phase measurement and tagging based on stereographic above-threshold ionization at short-wave infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 42(24), 5150–5153 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Gholam-Mirzaei, J. Beetar, and M. Chini, “High harmonic generation in ZnO with a high-power mid-IR OPA,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(6), 061101 (2017).
[Crossref]

U. Elu, M. Baudisch, H. Pires, F. Tani, M. H. Frosz, F. Köttig, A. Ermolov, P. S. J. Russell, and J. Biegert, “High average power and single-cycle pulses from a mid-IR optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier,” Optica 4(9), 1024–1029 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Gaumnitz, A. Jain, Y. Pertot, M. Huppert, I. Jordan, F. Ardana-Lamas, and H. J. Wörner, “Streaking of 43-attosecond soft-X-ray pulses generated by a passively CEP-stable mid-infrared driver,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27506–27518 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Sivis, M. Taucer, G. Vampa, K. Johnston, A. Staudte, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, C. Ropers, and P. B. Corkum, “Tailored semiconductors for high-harmonic optoelectronics,” Science 357(6348), 303–306 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, Y. Li, Y. S. You, S. Ghimire, T. F. Heinz, and D. A. Reis, “High-harmonic generation from an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nat. Phys. 13(3), 262–265 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. S. You, M. Wu, Y. Yin, A. Chew, X. Ren, S. Gholam-Mirzaei, D. A. Browne, M. Chini, Z. Chang, K. J. Schafer, and S. Ghimire, “Laser waveform control of extreme ultraviolet high harmonics from solids,” Opt. Lett. 42(9), 1816–1819 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. S. You, Y. Yin, Y. Wu, A. Chew, X. Ren, F. Zhuang, S. Gholam-Mirzaei, M. Chini, Z. Chang, and S. Ghimire, “High-harmonic generation in amorphous solids,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 724 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

G. Ndabashimiye, S. Ghimire, M. Wu, D. A. Browne, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and D. A. Reis, “Solid-state harmonics beyond the atomic limit,” Nature 534(7608), 520–523 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Wolter, M. G. Pullen, A. T. Le, M. Baudisch, K. Doblhoff-Dier, A. Senftleben, M. Hemmer, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, T. Pfeifer, R. Moshammer, S. Gräfe, O. Vendrell, C. D. Lin, and J. Biegert, “Ultrafast electron diffraction imaging of bond breaking in di-ionized acetylene,” Science 354(6310), 308–312 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Shumakova, P. Malevich, S. Ališauskas, A. Voronin, A. M. Zheltikov, D. Faccio, D. Kartashov, A. Baltuška, and A. Pugžlys, “Multi-millijoule few-cycle mid-infrared pulses through nonlinear self-compression in bulk,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12877 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, and P. B. Corkum, “Linking high harmonics from gases and solids,” Nature 522(7557), 462–464 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Wolter, M. G. Pullen, M. Baudisch, M. Sclafani, M. Hemmer, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and J. Biegert, “Strong-Field Physics with Mid-IR Fields,” Phys. Rev. X 5(2), 021034 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

J. Weisshaupt, V. Juvé, M. Holtz, S. Ku, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, and A. Baltuška, “High-brightness table-top hard X-ray source driven by sub-100-femtosecond mid-infrared pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 927–930 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Ghimire, G. Ndabashimiye, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, M. I. Stockman, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Strong-field and attosecond physics in solids,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(20), 204030 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493(7430), 70–74 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Hemmer, M. Baudisch, A. Thai, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Self-compression to sub-3-cycle duration of mid-infrared optical pulses in dielectrics,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28095–28102 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, and A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrier–envelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(7), 074003 (2012).
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C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. Dichiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. Dimauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483(7388), 194–197 (2012).
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2011 (1)

S. Ghimire, A. D. Dichiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. Dimauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 138–141 (2011).
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2008 (1)

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
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2007 (1)

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of Wave-Packet Dynamics in an Intense Midinfrared Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 013901 (2007).
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2003 (2)

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
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G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(25), 253004 (2003).
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2001 (1)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
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2000 (1)

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1996 (1)

1988 (1)

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J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of Wave-Packet Dynamics in an Intense Midinfrared Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 013901 (2007).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Experimental setup for CEP measurements in the mid-IR using HHG in ZnO. Mid-IR laser pulses with controllable CEP are focused onto a ZnO crystal. The fundamental laser light is removed using a fused silica window. The high harmonic signal is collected with a CaF2 lens and detected with a UV-VIS spectrometer. (b) Pulse characterization results using frequency resolved optical gating (FROG). Shown are (from left to right) the measured and reconstructed FROG traces, the retrieved pulse shape in the time domain, and the measured spectrum (blue, solid line) and retrieved spectral phase. The dashed black line shows the spectrum without spectral broadening.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. a) Typical spectrum showing high harmonics of various orders, as indicated. Data is presented using two different crystal geometries and pulse durations, as specified in the legend. b) Measured series of high harmonic spectra using 25fs pulse and a c-cut ZnO crystal, while the CEP is varied using the Dazzler. The colorbar encodes the measured signal strength on a logarithmic scale.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Spectral interference in the 5th harmonic. (a) Measured spectrum in the vicinity of the 5th harmonic, exhibiting a narrow fringes pattern due to interference between harmonics generated on the front and back surface of the ZnO sample. (b) Measured and calculated (using Eq. (1)) spectral fringe spacing in the 5th harmonic.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. CEP measurement using HHG in ZnO. Shown are series of spectra in the region around the 9th and 11th harmonic. The CEP of the fundamental pulses is varied in a triangular pattern (a) or a sinusoidal pattern (b) with a frequency of 1/20 Hz. The fringe patterns in between the harmonic signals is used to obtain the relative phase between adjacent odd-order harmonics, which corresponds to twice the CEP ϕ. Panels (c) and (d) show the reconstructed values of 2ϕ (blue solid lines) along with the corresponding values recorded by the f-2f interferometer (red dotted lines).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. CEP dependence of the high harmonic spectrum generated by a few-cycle laser pulses at 3.1 µm. The color code denotes the normalized difference between the signal obtained at a given CEP and the CEP-averaged signal. The relative CEP ϕ is obtained from the interference fringes between the harmonics using the method described in the text. Harmonic orders and the filter edge near 400 nm are indicated in the spectrum

Equations (1)

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Δ λ = λ 2 c Δ t = λ 2 c d ( 1 ν g ( λ ) 1 ν g ( λ / 5 ) ) 1

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