Expand this Topic clickable element to expand a topic
OSA Publishing

13 April 2020, Volume 28, Issue 8, pp. 10714-12497   150 articles

Sort:

Integrated Optics

MHz-repetition rate fs-laser-inscribed crystalline waveguide lasers inscribed at 100 mm/s

Opt. Express 28(8), 12011-12019 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Lasers, Optical Amplifiers, and Laser Optics

OPCPA investigation with control over the temporal shape of 1.2 ps pump pulses

Opt. Express 28(8), 12020-12027 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Instrumentation, Measurement, and Optical Sensors

Demonstration of multi-channel fiber optic interrogator based on time-division locking technique in subway intrusion detection

Opt. Express 28(8), 11472-11481 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Plasmonics

All optic-fiber coupled plasmon waveguide resonance sensor using ZrS2 based dielectric layer

Opt. Express 28(8), 11280-11289 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Spectroscopy and Spectrometers

Random temporal laser speckles for the robust measurement of sub-microsecond photoluminescence decay

Opt. Express 28(8), 12363-12372 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Lasers, Optical Amplifiers, and Laser Optics

Experimental photoluminescence and lifetimes at wavelengths including beyond 7 microns in Sm3+-doped selenide-chalcogenide glass fibers

Opt. Express 28(8), 12373-12384 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Nanophotonics, Metamaterials, and Photonic Crystals

Integration of MEMS IR detectors with MIR waveguides for sensing applications

Opt. Express 28(8), 11524-11537 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Nonlinear Optics

Measurement of four-photon absorption in GaP and ZnTe semiconductors

Opt. Express 28(8), 12352-12362 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Environmental Optics

Light-emitting Diodes

Study on organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanocrystals with regular morphologies and their effect on photoluminescence properties

Opt. Express 28(8), 10714-10724 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Optimal ITO transparent conductive layers for InGaN-based amber/red light-emitting diodes

Opt. Express 28(8), 12311-12321 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Solar Energy

Tailored disorder: a self-organized photonic contact for light trapping in silicon-based tandem solar cells

Opt. Express 28(8), 10909-10918 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Plasmonic and photonic enhancement of photovoltaic characteristics of indium-rich InGaN p-n junction solar cells

Opt. Express 28(8), 11806-11821 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Atomic and Molecular Physics

Microscope objective for imaging atomic strontium with 0.63 micrometer resolution

Opt. Express 28(8), 11106-11116 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Molecular Rydberg-state excitation in laser pulses: bandwidth and orbital symmetry

Opt. Express 28(8), 11165-11174 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Effects of wave-front tilt and air density fluctuations in a sensitive atom interferometry gyroscope

Opt. Express 28(8), 12189-12200 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Coherence, Statistical Optics, and Scattering

Beyond diffuse correlations: deciphering random flow in time-of-flight resolved light dynamics

Opt. Express 28(8), 11191-11214 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Partially coherent radially polarized fractional vortex beam

Opt. Express 28(8), 11493-11513 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Fourier Optics, Image and Signal Processing

Imaging around corners in the mid-infrared using speckle correlations

Opt. Express 28(8), 11051-11064 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Diffraction-unlimited imaging based on conventional optical devices

Opt. Express 28(8), 11243-11258 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Frequency analysis of light field sampling for texture information

Opt. Express 28(8), 11548-11572 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Spotlight on Optics

Optical Eratosthenes’ sieve for large prime numbers

Opt. Express 28(8), 11965-11973 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Fundamental Electromagnetics and Mathematical Optics

k-domain method for the fast calculation of electromagnetic fields propagating in graded-index media

Opt. Express 28(8), 11074-11084 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Double-deflection vortex beam generation using a single elliptical patch with the theory of characteristic modes

Opt. Express 28(8), 12322-12330 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Holography, Gratings, and Diffraction

Design and fabrication of blazed gratings for a waveguide-type head mounted display

Opt. Express 28(8), 11175-11190 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Fast method for calculating a curved hologram in a holographic display

Opt. Express 28(8), 11290-11300 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Non-iterative phase hologram generation with optimized phase modulation

Opt. Express 28(8), 11380-11392 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Object-based digital hologram segmentation and motion compensation

Opt. Express 28(8), 11861-11882 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF  [Suppl. Mat. (1)]

2π-space uniform-backscattering metasurfaces enabled with geometric phase and magnetic resonance in visible light

Opt. Express 28(8), 12331-12341 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Imaging Systems, Microscopy, and Displays

Optimized approach for optical sectioning enhancement in multifocal structured illumination microscopy

Opt. Express 28(8), 10919-10927 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF  [Suppl. Mat. (1)]

Crossed-beam pump-probe microscopy

Opt. Express 28(8), 11259-11266 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Image quality of compressive single-pixel imaging using different Hadamard orderings

Opt. Express 28(8), 11666-11681 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Oblique angle transient-reflectivity laser-scanning microscopy for mineral imaging in natural ores

Opt. Express 28(8), 11946-11955 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Snapshot multifocal light field microscopy

Opt. Express 28(8), 12108-12120 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Finite-depth and vari-focal head-mounted displays based on geometrical lightguides

Opt. Express 28(8), 12121-12137 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Instrumentation, Measurement, and Optical Sensors

Editors' Pick

Suppressing non-local effects due to Doppler frequency shifts in dynamic Brillouin fiber sensors

Opt. Express 28(8), 10760-10771 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Target orientation detection based on a neural network with a bionic bee-like compound eye

Opt. Express 28(8), 10794-10805 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF  [Suppl. Mat. (1)]

High-speed Mueller matrix ellipsometer with microsecond temporal resolution

Opt. Express 28(8), 10873-10887 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Real-time measurement of CO2 isotopologue ratios in exhaled breath by a hollow waveguide based mid-infrared gas sensor

Opt. Express 28(8), 10970-10980 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Influence of temporal averaging in the performance of a rotating retarder imaging Stokes polarimeter

Opt. Express 28(8), 10981-11000 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Radiometer-to-imager in-flight cross calibration and verification

Opt. Express 28(8), 11001-11015 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

On-orbit radiometric calibration of the optical sensors on-board SuperView-1 satellite using three independent methods

Opt. Express 28(8), 11085-11105 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Wide-field direct ocular straylight meter

Opt. Express 28(8), 11237-11242 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Editors' Pick

Time-resolved laser scanning photothermal microscopy for characterization of thermal properties of semi-insulating GaAs

Opt. Express 28(8), 11393-11405 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Acetylene sensing system based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a triple-row circular multi-pass cell

Opt. Express 28(8), 11573-11582 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

40 GHz continuous, precise, and low power-loss laser frequency sweep using an electro-optic modulator

Opt. Express 28(8), 11956-11964 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Differential confocal self-collimation method for high-accuracy measurements of lens decentration

Opt. Express 28(8), 12058-12070 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Geometry constrained correlation adjustment for stereo reconstruction in 3D optical deformation measurements

Opt. Express 28(8), 12219-12232 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Investigation of evanescent scattering for low-distortion submicron vibration sensing using ferromagnetic cantilevers

Opt. Express 28(8), 12243-12251 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Suspended slotted photonic crystal cavities for high-sensitivity refractive index sensing

Opt. Express 28(8), 12272-12278 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Integrated Optics

Hybrid ultrathin-silicon/graphene waveguide photodetector with a loop mirror reflector

Opt. Express 28(8), 10725-10736 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Frequency-tuning dual-comb spectroscopy using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators

Opt. Express 28(8), 10888-10898 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Trimming of silicon-on-insulator ring-resonators via localized laser annealing

Opt. Express 28(8), 11156-11164 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Lateral bipolar junction transistor on a silicon photonics platform

Opt. Express 28(8), 11692-11704 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Tantalum pentoxide nanophotonic circuits for integrated quantum technology

Opt. Express 28(8), 11921-11932 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Experimental realization of arbitrary activation functions for optical neural networks

Opt. Express 28(8), 12138-12148 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Suspended gallium arsenide platform for building large scale photonic integrated circuits: passive devices

Opt. Express 28(8), 12262-12271 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Efficient light coupling between an ultra-low loss lithium niobate waveguide and an adiabatically tapered single mode optical fiber

Opt. Express 28(8), 12416-12423 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Laser Machining and Material Processing

Electrodynamic simulation of laser beam propagation in waterjet-guided laser processing

Opt. Express 28(8), 11128-11143 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Lasers, Optical Amplifiers, and Laser Optics

Efficient visible laser operation of Tb:LiYF4 and LiTbF4

Opt. Express 28(8), 10951-10959 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Ultra-low intensity noise, all fiber 365 W linearly polarized single frequency laser at 1064 nm

Opt. Express 28(8), 10960-10969 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Ultrafast thin-disk multi-pass amplifier system providing 1.9 kW of average output power and pulse energies in the 10 mJ range at 1 ps of pulse duration for glass-cleaving applications

Opt. Express 28(8), 11415-11423 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Graphene/WS2 heterostructure saturable absorbers for ultrashort pulse generation in L-band passively mode-locked fiber lasers

Opt. Express 28(8), 11514-11523 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Integrated multiple wavelength stabilization on a multi-channel cavity for a transportable optical clock

Opt. Express 28(8), 11852-11860 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Alignment-free difference frequency light source tunable from 5 to 20 µm by mixing two independently tunable OPOs

Opt. Express 28(8), 11883-11891 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Editors' Pick

Cladding-pumped, Yb:YAG-core, fiber-like waveguide laser: modeling and experiment

Opt. Express 28(8), 11899-11910 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Intelligent gain flattening in wavelength and space domain for FMF Raman amplification by machine learning based inverse design

Opt. Express 28(8), 11911-11920 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Low-cost biosensors based on a plasmonic random laser on fiber facet

Opt. Express 28(8), 12233-12242 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Noise-like pulse generation around 1.3-µm based on cascaded Raman scattering

Opt. Express 28(8), 12252-12261 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF  [Suppl. Mat. (2)]

Power scaling of Raman fiber amplifier based on the optimization of temporal and spectral characteristics

Opt. Express 28(8), 12395-12404 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Light-emitting Diodes

Medical Optics and Biotechnology

Enhancement of photoacoustic tomography of acoustically inhomogeneous tissue by utilizing a memory effect

Opt. Express 28(8), 10806-10817 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Accurate measurements of phase refractive index of soft contact lenses

Opt. Express 28(8), 10818-10835 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Nanophotonics, Metamaterials, and Photonic Crystals

Coupling between plasmonic and photonic crystal modes in suspended three-dimensional meta-films

Opt. Express 28(8), 10836-10846 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Convenient method for improving the light output of scintillators by using buffer layers coated with photonic crystals

Opt. Express 28(8), 11301-11308 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Physics-informed neural networks for inverse problems in nano-optics and metamaterials

Opt. Express 28(8), 11618-11633 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Tunable phase change polaritonic perfect absorber in the mid-infrared region

Opt. Express 28(8), 11721-11729 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Double-arrow metasurface for dual-band and dual-mode polarization conversion

Opt. Express 28(8), 11797-11805 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Position-guided Fano resonance and amended GaussAmp model for the control of slow light in hybrid graphene–silicon metamaterials

Opt. Express 28(8), 11933-11945 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Polarization-independent toroidal dipole resonances driven by symmetry-protected BIC in ultraviolet region

Opt. Express 28(8), 11983-11989 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Achromatic metasurface doublet with a wide incident angle for light focusing

Opt. Express 28(8), 12209-12218 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Dual-frequency dual orthogonal polarization wave multiplexing using decoupled pixels based on Holographic technique

Opt. Express 28(8), 12424-12438 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Nonlinear Optics

All-optical thermal control for second-harmonic generation in an integrated microcavity

Opt. Express 28(8), 11144-11155 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Enhanced nonlinear spectral broadening and sub-picosecond pulse generation by adaptive spectral phase optimization of electro-optic frequency combs

Opt. Express 28(8), 11215-11226 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Multiphoton laser-induced confined chemical changes in polymer films

Opt. Express 28(8), 11267-11279 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Ultra-broadband high conversion efficiency optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification based on YCOB crystals

Opt. Express 28(8), 11645-11651 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Editors' Pick

Switching the second harmonic generation by a dielectric metasurface via tunable liquid crystal

Opt. Express 28(8), 12037-12046 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Design of photonic crystal nonlinear laser power limiter based on topological edge states and optical Kerr effect

Opt. Express 28(8), 12080-12092 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Optical Communications and Interconnects

Robust chaotic-shift-keying scheme based on electro-optical hybrid feedback system

Opt. Express 28(8), 10847-10858 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Underwater visible light communication at 3.24 Gb/s using novel two-dimensional bit allocation

Opt. Express 28(8), 11319-11338 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Blind back-propagation method for fiber nonlinearity compensation with low computational complexity and high performance

Opt. Express 28(8), 11424-11438 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Non-reciprocal polarization rotation using dynamic refractive index modulation

Opt. Express 28(8), 11974-11982 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Gigabit per second visible light communication based on AlGaInP red micro-LED micro-transfer printed onto diamond and glass

Opt. Express 28(8), 12149-12156 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Orientation-induced link-blocked receiver for MIMO visible light communication

Opt. Express 28(8), 12157-12173 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Optical Design and Fabrication

Polarization-maintaining design for satellite-based quantum communication terminals

Opt. Express 28(8), 10746-10759 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Off-axis conics as base surfaces for freeform optics enable null testability

Opt. Express 28(8), 10859-10872 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Dynamic effect in the moiré magnifier by using the weak domain transformation

Opt. Express 28(8), 11065-11073 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF  [Suppl. Mat. (4)]

Mimicking an expanding universe by optical interference in a helicoid waveguide

Opt. Express 28(8), 11406-11414 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Design of a six-gas NDIR gas sensor using an integrated optical gas chamber

Opt. Express 28(8), 11451-11462 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Design of diffractive lenses operating at several wavelengths

Opt. Express 28(8), 11705-11720 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Editors' Pick

“Optical tentacle” of suspended polymer micro-rings on a multicore fiber facet for vapor sensing

Opt. Express 28(8), 11730-11741 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

All-fiber bandwidth tunable ultra-broadband mode converters based on long-period fiber gratings and helical long-period gratings

Opt. Express 28(8), 11990-12000 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Simple autofocusing method by image processing using transmission images for large-scale two-photon lithography

Opt. Express 28(8), 12342-12351 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Optical Devices and Detectors

High-power spectral beamsplitter for closely spaced frequencies

Opt. Express 28(8), 11372-11379 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Defect characterization of AlInAsSb digital alloy avalanche photodetectors with low frequency noise spectroscopy

Opt. Express 28(8), 11682-11691 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Scalable implementation of a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array with a superconducting digital signal processor

Opt. Express 28(8), 12047-12057 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Continuous-wave electrically injected GaN-on-Si microdisk laser diodes

Opt. Express 28(8), 12201-12208 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Spectrally broadband electro-optic modulation with nanoelectromechanical string resonators

Opt. Express 28(8), 12294-12301 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Optical Fibers

Understanding the material loss of anti-resonant hollow-core fibers

Opt. Express 28(8), 11840-11851 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Optical Materials

Optical constants at complex energies: local deconvolution

Opt. Express 28(8), 11767-11779 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Magneto-optical properties of highly Dy3+ doped multicomponent glasses

Opt. Express 28(8), 11789-11796 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Low-loss GaOx-core/SiO2-cladding planar waveguides on Si substrate

Opt. Express 28(8), 12475-12486 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Optoelectronics

Polarization aberrations of electrically tunable liquid crystal mirrors

Opt. Express 28(8), 11356-11371 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

InGaAs/InAlAs multiple-quantum-well optical modulator integrated with a planar antenna for a millimeter-wave radio-over-fiber system

Opt. Express 28(8), 11583-11596 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Physical Optics

Lattice-dependent spin Hall effect of light in a Weyl semimetal

Opt. Express 28(8), 10783-10793 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Optical needles with arbitrary homogeneous three-dimensional polarization

Opt. Express 28(8), 12028-12036 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Hybrid refractive-diffractive axicons for Bessel-beam multiplexing and resolution improvement

Opt. Express 28(8), 12174-12188 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Temperature-dependent Förster resonance energy transfer from upconversion nanoparticles to quantum dots

Opt. Express 28(8), 12450-12459 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Plasmonics

Subwavelength high-performance polarizers in the deep ultraviolet region

Opt. Express 28(8), 11652-11665 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Lab on D-shaped fiber excited via azimuthally polarized vector beam for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

Opt. Express 28(8), 12071-12079 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Quantum Optics

Phase compensation for free-space continuous-variable quantum key distribution

Opt. Express 28(8), 10737-10745 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Proof-of-principle demonstration of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution based on intrinsically stable polarization-modulated units

Opt. Express 28(8), 10772-10782 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Phenomenology of complex structured light in turbulent air

Opt. Express 28(8), 11033-11050 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

One-sided device-independent quantum key distribution for two independent parties

Opt. Express 28(8), 11439-11450 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Entangled qutrits generated in four-wave mixing without post-selection

Opt. Express 28(8), 11538-11547 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Feedforward-enhanced Fock state conversion with linear optics

Opt. Express 28(8), 11634-11644 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Efficient ion-photon qubit SWAP gate in realistic ion cavity-QED systems without strong coupling

Opt. Express 28(8), 11822-11839 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Multimode single-pass spatio-temporal squeezing

Opt. Express 28(8), 12385-12394 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Force measurement in squeezed dissipative optomechanics in the presence of laser phase noise

Opt. Express 28(8), 12460-12474 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Spectroscopy and Spectrometers

Non-resonant Raman scattering of wurtzite GaAs and InP nanowires

Opt. Express 28(8), 11016-11022 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Simplified single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry

Opt. Express 28(8), 11023-11032 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Simultaneous multipolarization and high-resolution oxygen A-band spectrometer optical design with the astigmatism-corrected method

Opt. Express 28(8), 11227-11236 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Broadband single-shot transient absorption spectroscopy

Opt. Express 28(8), 11339-11355 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Terahertz and X-ray Optics

Coherence time characterization method for hard X-ray free-electron lasers

Opt. Express 28(8), 10928-10938 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Wavefront preserving and high efficiency diamond grating beam splitter for x-ray free electron laser

Opt. Express 28(8), 10939-10950 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Optical second harmonic generation in LiB3O5 modulated by intense femtosecond X-ray pulses

Opt. Express 28(8), 11117-11127 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Tunable multi-band terahertz absorber using a single-layer square graphene ring structure with T-shaped graphene strips

Opt. Express 28(8), 11482-11492 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Simplified retrieval method for Edge Illumination X-ray phase contrast imaging allowing multi-modal imaging with fewer input frames

Opt. Express 28(8), 11597-11608 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Terahertz bifunctional absorber based on a graphene-spacer-vanadium dioxide-spacer-metal configuration

Opt. Express 28(8), 11780-11788 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Rapid analysis of a doxycycline hydrochloride solution by metallic mesh device-based reflection terahertz spectroscopy

Opt. Express 28(8), 12001-12010 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Improvement of the depth resolution of swept-source THz-OCT for non-destructive inspection

Opt. Express 28(8), 12279-12293 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Confocal terahertz SAR imaging of hidden objects through rough-surface scattering

Opt. Express 28(8), 12405-12415 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Ultrafast Optics and Attosecond/High-field Physics

Spotlight on Optics

Molecular quantum wakes for clearing fog

Opt. Express 28(8), 11463-11471 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF  [Suppl. Mat. (2)]

Optical steering of electron beam in laser plasma accelerators

Opt. Express 28(8), 11609-11617 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe measurements on percolating gold in the ablation regime

Opt. Express 28(8), 12093-12107 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Revealing the effect of atomic orbitals on the phase distribution of an ionizing electron wave packet with circularly polarized two-color laser fields

Opt. Express 28(8), 12439-12449 (2020)  View: HTML | PDF

Select as filters


    Select Topics Cancel
    © Copyright 2020 | The Optical Society. All Rights Reserved