Abstract

Diode-pumping of Ti:sapphire provides a low-cost route to high-quality frequency-comb sources, exploiting the potential of direct diode modulation for wideband control of the carrier-envelope-offset frequency. We present here an fREP- and fCEO-locked, directly diode-pumped Ti:sapphire frequency comb, producing 66-fs pulses at 800 nm and employing f-to-2f interferometry and current modulation of a 462-nm blue laser diode to achieve a stabilization bandwidth extending to 70kHz. Characterizations of the fREP and fCEO phase noise are compared to relative intensity noise spectra of the pump diodes to provide insights into how the diode design and performance transfer into the comb stability, suggesting a lower contribution to fREP and fCEO noise from the blue laser diode than from the green diode.

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References

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Burns, D.

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Choi, H.-G.

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Di Domenico, G.

Dolgovskiy, V.

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Durfee, C. G.

Esaulkov, M. N.

D. A. Kopylov, M. N. Esaulkov, I. I. Kuritsyn, A. O. Mavritskiy, B. E. Perminov, A. V. Konyashchenko, T. V. Murzina, and A. I. Maydykovskiy, Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 45001 (2018).
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Hakobyan, S.

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F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 74, s35 (2002).
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S. Sawai, A. Hosaka, H. Kawauchi, K. Hirosawa, and F. Kannari, Appl. Phys. Express 7, 22702 (2014).
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Hoffmann, M.

Hong, K.-H.

Hopkins, J.-M.

Hosaka, A.

S. Sawai, A. Hosaka, H. Kawauchi, K. Hirosawa, and F. Kannari, Appl. Phys. Express 7, 22702 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hoshina, Y.

M. Murayama, Y. Nakayama, K. Yamazaki, Y. Hoshina, H. Watanabe, N. Fuutagawa, H. Kawanishi, T. Uemura, and H. Narui, Phys. Status Solidi A 215, 1700513 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kang, R.

H. Liu, G. Wang, K. Yang, R. Kang, W. Tian, D. Zhang, L. Guo, J. Zhu, and Z. Wei, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper SF3E.7.

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[Crossref]

S. Sawai, A. Hosaka, H. Kawauchi, K. Hirosawa, and F. Kannari, Appl. Phys. Express 7, 22702 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H.

Kawanishi, H.

M. Murayama, Y. Nakayama, K. Yamazaki, Y. Hoshina, H. Watanabe, N. Fuutagawa, H. Kawanishi, T. Uemura, and H. Narui, Phys. Status Solidi A 215, 1700513 (2018).
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Kawauchi, H.

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Keller, U.

Kemp, A.

Kemp, A. J.

Kim, D. E.

Kim, J.

Kirchner, M.

Ko, D.-K.

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A. Muti, A. Kocabas, and A. Sennaroglu, Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 55302 (2018).
[Crossref]

Konyashchenko, A. V.

D. A. Kopylov, M. N. Esaulkov, I. I. Kuritsyn, A. O. Mavritskiy, B. E. Perminov, A. V. Konyashchenko, T. V. Murzina, and A. I. Maydykovskiy, Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 45001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kopylov, D. A.

D. A. Kopylov, M. N. Esaulkov, I. I. Kuritsyn, A. O. Mavritskiy, B. E. Perminov, A. V. Konyashchenko, T. V. Murzina, and A. I. Maydykovskiy, Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 45001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Koselja, M.

Kuritsyn, I. I.

D. A. Kopylov, M. N. Esaulkov, I. I. Kuritsyn, A. O. Mavritskiy, B. E. Perminov, A. V. Konyashchenko, T. V. Murzina, and A. I. Maydykovskiy, Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 45001 (2018).
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Lagatsky, A. A.

Lee, J.

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Loza-Alvarez, P.

Maclean, A.

Margolis, H. S.

Marra, G.

Mavritskiy, A. O.

D. A. Kopylov, M. N. Esaulkov, I. I. Kuritsyn, A. O. Mavritskiy, B. E. Perminov, A. V. Konyashchenko, T. V. Murzina, and A. I. Maydykovskiy, Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 45001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Maydykovskiy, A. I.

D. A. Kopylov, M. N. Esaulkov, I. I. Kuritsyn, A. O. Mavritskiy, B. E. Perminov, A. V. Konyashchenko, T. V. Murzina, and A. I. Maydykovskiy, Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 45001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mayer, A. S.

Moulton, P. F.

Murayama, M.

M. Murayama, Y. Nakayama, K. Yamazaki, Y. Hoshina, H. Watanabe, N. Fuutagawa, H. Kawanishi, T. Uemura, and H. Narui, Phys. Status Solidi A 215, 1700513 (2018).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M.

Murzina, T. V.

D. A. Kopylov, M. N. Esaulkov, I. I. Kuritsyn, A. O. Mavritskiy, B. E. Perminov, A. V. Konyashchenko, T. V. Murzina, and A. I. Maydykovskiy, Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 45001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Muti, A.

A. Muti, A. Kocabas, and A. Sennaroglu, Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 55302 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nakayama, Y.

M. Murayama, Y. Nakayama, K. Yamazaki, Y. Hoshina, H. Watanabe, N. Fuutagawa, H. Kawanishi, T. Uemura, and H. Narui, Phys. Status Solidi A 215, 1700513 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nam, C. H.

Narui, H.

M. Murayama, Y. Nakayama, K. Yamazaki, Y. Hoshina, H. Watanabe, N. Fuutagawa, H. Kawanishi, T. Uemura, and H. Narui, Phys. Status Solidi A 215, 1700513 (2018).
[Crossref]

Oehler, A. E. H.

Olarte, O. E.

Pekarek, S.

Perminov, B. E.

D. A. Kopylov, M. N. Esaulkov, I. I. Kuritsyn, A. O. Mavritskiy, B. E. Perminov, A. V. Konyashchenko, T. V. Murzina, and A. I. Maydykovskiy, Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 45001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Preclikova, J.

Prevedelli, M.

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 60, 241 (1995).

Reid, D. T.

Resan, B.

Rohrbacher, A.

Roth, P.

Roth, P. W.

Saraceno, C. J.

Sawai, S.

S. Sawai, A. Hosaka, H. Kawauchi, K. Hirosawa, and F. Kannari, Appl. Phys. Express 7, 22702 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schilt, S.

Schori, C.

Sennaroglu, A.

A. Muti, A. Kocabas, and A. Sennaroglu, Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 55302 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shea, K.

Squier, J. A.

Steinmeyer, G.

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 74, s35 (2002).
[Crossref]

Stenger, J.

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 74, s35 (2002).
[Crossref]

Stevens, K. T.

Storz, T.

Stumpf, M. C.

Südmeyer, T.

Sugiyama, N.

N. Sugiyama, H. Tanaka, and F. Kannari, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57, 52701 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sung, J. H.

Taft, G.

Tanaka, H.

N. Sugiyama, H. Tanaka, and F. Kannari, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57, 52701 (2018).
[Crossref]

Telle, H. R.

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 74, s35 (2002).
[Crossref]

Thomann, P.

Tian, W.

H. Liu, G. Wang, K. Yang, R. Kang, W. Tian, D. Zhang, L. Guo, J. Zhu, and Z. Wei, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper SF3E.7.

Tsatourian, V.

Uemura, T.

M. Murayama, Y. Nakayama, K. Yamazaki, Y. Hoshina, H. Watanabe, N. Fuutagawa, H. Kawanishi, T. Uemura, and H. Narui, Phys. Status Solidi A 215, 1700513 (2018).
[Crossref]

Villamaina, V.

Wang, G.

H. Liu, G. Wang, K. Yang, R. Kang, W. Tian, D. Zhang, L. Guo, J. Zhu, and Z. Wei, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper SF3E.7.

Watanabe, H.

M. Murayama, Y. Nakayama, K. Yamazaki, Y. Hoshina, H. Watanabe, N. Fuutagawa, H. Kawanishi, T. Uemura, and H. Narui, Phys. Status Solidi A 215, 1700513 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wei, Z.

H. Liu, G. Wang, K. Yang, R. Kang, W. Tian, D. Zhang, L. Guo, J. Zhu, and Z. Wei, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper SF3E.7.

Weingarten, K.

Wittwer, V. J.

Yamazaki, K.

M. Murayama, Y. Nakayama, K. Yamazaki, Y. Hoshina, H. Watanabe, N. Fuutagawa, H. Kawanishi, T. Uemura, and H. Narui, Phys. Status Solidi A 215, 1700513 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.

H. Liu, G. Wang, K. Yang, R. Kang, W. Tian, D. Zhang, L. Guo, J. Zhu, and Z. Wei, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper SF3E.7.

Yu, T. J.

Zhang, D.

H. Liu, G. Wang, K. Yang, R. Kang, W. Tian, D. Zhang, L. Guo, J. Zhu, and Z. Wei, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper SF3E.7.

Zhu, J.

H. Liu, G. Wang, K. Yang, R. Kang, W. Tian, D. Zhang, L. Guo, J. Zhu, and Z. Wei, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper SF3E.7.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 74, s35 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 60, 241 (1995).

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

S. Sawai, A. Hosaka, H. Kawauchi, K. Hirosawa, and F. Kannari, Appl. Phys. Express 7, 22702 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Sugiyama, H. Tanaka, and F. Kannari, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57, 52701 (2018).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (2)

D. A. Kopylov, M. N. Esaulkov, I. I. Kuritsyn, A. O. Mavritskiy, B. E. Perminov, A. V. Konyashchenko, T. V. Murzina, and A. I. Maydykovskiy, Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 45001 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Muti, A. Kocabas, and A. Sennaroglu, Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 55302 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

M. Murayama, Y. Nakayama, K. Yamazaki, Y. Hoshina, H. Watanabe, N. Fuutagawa, H. Kawanishi, T. Uemura, and H. Narui, Phys. Status Solidi A 215, 1700513 (2018).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

H. Liu, G. Wang, K. Yang, R. Kang, W. Tian, D. Zhang, L. Guo, J. Zhu, and Z. Wei, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper SF3E.7.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Layout of the blue- and green-diode-pumped Ti:sapphire frequency comb. Cylindrical lenses L1 ( f = 150 mm ) and L2 ( f = 50 mm ) were used to reduce the diameter of the fast-axis beam from the blue laser, and lenses L3 ( f = 40 mm ) and L4 ( f = 9.7 mm ) performed the same function for the green laser. The beams were multiplexed on a dichroic beamsplitter (DB) before being focused into the Ti:sapphire crystal (Ti:S) using a doublet lens of focal length 35 mm (L5). Dispersion compensation was provided by a GTI mirror (M2), and an intracavity fused-silica 4° wedge (W) was used for coarse adjustment of f CEO . Mirrors M1 and M3 were high reflectors centered at 800 nm. Other details appear in the main text.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Autocorrelation and (b) corresponding spectrum. The best-fit autocorrelation envelope [red, (a)] was calculated by adding a quadratic spectral phase to the measured spectrum [green, (b)] to find the best agreement with the experimental measurement.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Blue laser diode open-loop frequency response (symbols) and fitted Bode plot (red) with three poles and three zeros. The dashed line is a fit to the low-frequency rolloff with a gradient of 7.6 dB/decade. (b) and (c) show the RIN power spectral densities and cumulative RINs integrated from 1 μs to 1 s for the green and blue laser diodes.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Supercontinuum produced by the laser and used for f -to- 2 f interferometry. (b) RF spectrum of the output containing the frequencies f CEO (10 MHz), f REP - f CEO (69.2 MHz), and f REP (79.2 MHz).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. In-loop measurement of the phase noise PSD and cumulative phase noise of the stabilized CEO frequency. The cumulative phase noise from 1 Hz to 1 MHz was 860 mrad.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. In-loop measurement of the phase noise PSD and the cumulative phase noise of 13 f REP . The cumulative phase noise of f REP from 1 Hz to 1 MHz is 54 mrad.

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