Abstract

We report on the illustration of the first electron blocking layer (EBL) free AlInN nanowire light-emitting diodes (LEDs) operating in the deep ultraviolet (DUV) wavelength region (sub-250 nm). We have systematically analyzed the results using APSYS software and compared with simulated AlGaN nanowire DUV LEDs. From the simulation results, significant efficiency droop was observed in AlGaN based devices, attributed to the significant electron leakage. However, compared to AlGaN nanowire DUV LEDs at similar emission wavelength, the proposed single quantum well (SQW) AlInN based light-emitters offer higher internal quantum efficiency without droop up to current density of 1500 A/cm2 and high output optical power. Moreover, we find that transverse magnetic polarized emission is ∼ 5 orders stronger than transverse electric polarized emission at 238 nm wavelength. Further research shows that the performance of the AlInN DUV nanowire LEDs decreases with multiple QWs in the active region due to the presence of the non-uniform carrier distribution in the active region. This study provides important insights on the design of new type of high performance AlInN nanowire DUV LEDs, by replacing currently used AlGaN semiconductors.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (2)

X. Hai, R. T. Rashid, S. M. Sadaf, Z. Mi, and S. Zhao, “Effect of low hole mobility on the efficiency droop of AlGaN nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(10), 101104 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Pampili, V. Z. Zubialevich, P. Maaskant, M. Akhter, B. Corbett, and P. J. Parbrook, “InAlN-based LEDs emitting in the near-UV region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 58(SC), SCCB33 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

D. Liu, S. J. Cho, J. Park, J. Gong, J.-H. Seo, R. Dalmau, D. Zhao, K. Kim, M. Kim, and A. R. Kalapala, “226 nm AlGaN/AlN UV LEDs using p-type Si for hole injection and UV reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(1), 011111 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Liu, S. J. Cho, J. Park, J.-H. Seo, R. Dalmau, D. Zhao, K. Kim, J. Gong, M. Kim, and I.-K. Lee, “229 nm UV LEDs on aluminum nitride single crystal substrates using p-type silicon for increased hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(8), 081101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and J. Hwang, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. R. Peart, N. Tansu, and J. J. Wierer, “AlInN for Vertical Power Electronic Devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 65(10), 4276–4281 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN Core–Shell Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Operating in the Ultraviolet-C Band,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1212–1218 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. Islam, J. Verma, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “Physics and polarization characteristics of 298 nm AlN-delta-GaN quantum well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(7), 071103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, J. M. Johnson, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Reflective metal/semiconductor tunnel junctions for hole injection in AlGaN UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(5), 051104 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, M. Guttmann, J. Enslin, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, J. Jordan, S. Kapanke, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, U. Zeimer, H. Krüger, M. Rabe, S. Einfeldt, T. Wernicke, H. Ewald, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Gas Sensing of Nitrogen Oxide Utilizing Spectrally Pure Deep UV LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(2), 29–36 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

S. Zhao, S. Sadaf, S. Vanka, Y. Wang, R. Rashid, and Z. Mi, “Sub-milliwatt AlGaN nanowire tunnel junction deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes on silicon operating at 242 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(20), 201106 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, S. Woo, S. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. Laleyan, R. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4(8), 086115 (2016).
[Crossref]

C.-K. Tan, W. Sun, D. Borovac, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlInN-delta-GaN quantum well for deep ultraviolet emitters,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22983 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. G. Sarwar, B. J. May, M. F. Chisholm, G. J. Duscher, and R. C. Myers, “Ultrathin GaN quantum disk nanowire LEDs with sub-250 nm electroluminescence,” Nanoscale 8(15), 8024–8032 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. G. Sarwar, B. J. May, and R. C. Myers, “Effect of quantum well shape and width on deep ultraviolet emission in AlGaN nanowire LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 213(4), 947–952 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Ji, Y. Xiang, X. Kang, B. Shen, and T. Yu, “Angular distribution of polarized light and its effect on light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 24(10), A935–A942 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. W. Lee, D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, E. F. Schubert, J. Kim, J. Lee, Y.-I. Kim, Y. Park, and J. K. Kim, “An elegant route to overcome fundamentally-limited light extraction in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: Preferential outcoupling of strong in-plane emission,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22537 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

S. Zhao, M. Djavid, and Z. Mi, “Surface emitting, high efficiency near-vacuum ultraviolet light source with aluminum nitride nanowires monolithically grown on silicon,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 7006–7009 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. P. T. Nguyen, M. Djavid, S. Y. Woo, X. Liu, A. T. Connie, S. Sadaf, Q. Wang, G. A. Botton, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Engineering the carrier dynamics of InGaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes by distributed p-AlGaN electron blocking layers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7744 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Wang, Y. A. Yin, B. Zhao, and T. Mei, “Performance Analysis of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes With Lattice-Matched InGaN/AlInN/InGaN Quantum-Well Barriers,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(12), 1056–1060 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo H, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8332 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

T. F. Kent, S. D. Carnevale, A. Sarwar, P. J. Phillips, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Deep ultraviolet emitting polarization induced nanowire light emitting diodes with AlxGa1− xN active regions,” Nanotechnology 25(45), 455201 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Durand, C. Bougerol, J.-F. Carlin, G. Rossbach, F. Godel, J. Eymery, P.-H. Jouneau, A. Mukhtarova, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “M-Plane GaN/InAlN multiple quantum wells in core–shell wire structure for UV emission,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 38–46 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, J. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, C. Geng, H. Zheng, X. Wei, Q. Yan, and J. Li, “Optical properties of nanopillar AlGaN/GaN MQWs for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 22(S2), A320–A327 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

Q. Wang, A. Connie, H. Nguyen, M. Kibria, S. Zhao, S. Sharif, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1− xN nanowire based light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345201 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

Q. Wang, H. Nguyen, K. Cui, and Z. Mi, “High efficiency ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1− xN core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown on Si (111) by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 043115 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Northrup, C. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Choi, M.-H. Ji, J. Kim, H. Jin Kim, M. M. Satter, P. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161110 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. M. Satter, H.-J. Kim, Z. Lochner, J.-H. Ryou, S.-C. Shen, R. D. Dupuis, and P. D. Yoder, “Design and analysis of 250-nm AlInN laser diodes on AlN substrates using tapered electron blocking layers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(5), 703–711 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 816 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

D. Fu, R. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. Xie, X. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Exploring optimal UV emission windows for AlGaN and AlInN alloys grown on different templates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248(12), 2816–2820 (2011).
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M. Würtele, T. Kolbe, M. Lipsz, A. Külberg, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and M. Jekel, “Application of GaN-based ultraviolet-C light emitting diodes–UV LEDs–for water disinfection,” Water Res. 45(3), 1481–1489 (2011).
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2010 (5)

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced hole doping in wide–band-gap uniaxial semiconductor heterostructures,” Science 327(5961), 60–64 (2010).
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H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Photoluminescence studies of impurity transitions in Mg-doped AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091903 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A.-T. Cheng, Y.-K. Su, and W.-C. Lai, “Improved light output of nitride-based light-emitting diodes by lattice-matched AlInN cladding structure,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(12), 970–972 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Atsushi Yamaguchi, “Valence band engineering for remarkable enhancement of surface emission in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5(6), 2364–2366 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

N. Khan, N. Nepal, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Mg acceptor level in InN epilayers probed by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 012101 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. Gonschrek, “High Electron Mobility Lattice-matched AlInN/GaN Field-Effect Transistor Heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 062102 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

P. K. C. Smith, “Laser (and LED) Therapy is Phototherapy,” Photomed. Laser Surg. 23(1), 78–80 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. Kim, J. Li, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. Hu, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y.-K. Kuo and Y.-A. Chang, “Effects of electronic current overflow and inhomogeneous carrier distribution on InGaN quantum-well laser performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 437–444 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Nam, J. Li, M. Nakarmi, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

K. B. Nam, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Mg acceptor level in AlN probed by deep ultraviolet photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(5), 878–880 (2003).
[Crossref]

J.-Y. Chang and Y.-K. Kuo, “Simulation of blue InGaN quantum-well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 4992–4998 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. Kuzmík, “Power electronics on InAlN/(In) GaN: Prospect for a record performance,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(11), 510–512 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. S. Im, H. Kollmer, J. Off, A. Sohmer, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Reduction of oscillator strength due to piezoelectric fields in G a N/A l x Ga 1− x N quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9435–R9438 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k⋅ p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

D. A. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[Crossref]

Akhter, M.

P. Pampili, V. Z. Zubialevich, P. Maaskant, M. Akhter, B. Corbett, and P. J. Parbrook, “InAlN-based LEDs emitting in the near-UV region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 58(SC), SCCB33 (2019).
[Crossref]

Akyol, F.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and J. Hwang, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, J. M. Johnson, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Reflective metal/semiconductor tunnel junctions for hole injection in AlGaN UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(5), 051104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Allerman, A. A.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and J. Hwang, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, J. M. Johnson, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Reflective metal/semiconductor tunnel junctions for hole injection in AlGaN UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(5), 051104 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. A. Banas, M. H. Crawford, D. S. Ruby, M. P. Ross, J. S. Nelson, A. A. Allerman, and R. Boucher, “Final LDRD report: ultraviolet water purification systems for rural environments and mobile applications,” Sandia National Laboratories, United States, (2005).

Armstrong, A. M.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and J. Hwang, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, J. M. Johnson, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Reflective metal/semiconductor tunnel junctions for hole injection in AlGaN UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(5), 051104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Atsushi Yamaguchi, A.

A. Atsushi Yamaguchi, “Valence band engineering for remarkable enhancement of surface emission in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5(6), 2364–2366 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bajaj, S.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and J. Hwang, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Banas, M. A.

M. A. Banas, M. H. Crawford, D. S. Ruby, M. P. Ross, J. S. Nelson, A. A. Allerman, and R. Boucher, “Final LDRD report: ultraviolet water purification systems for rural environments and mobile applications,” Sandia National Laboratories, United States, (2005).

Borovac, D.

C.-K. Tan, W. Sun, D. Borovac, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlInN-delta-GaN quantum well for deep ultraviolet emitters,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22983 (2016).
[Crossref]

Botton, G.

S. Zhao, S. Woo, S. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. Laleyan, R. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4(8), 086115 (2016).
[Crossref]

Botton, G. A.

H. P. T. Nguyen, M. Djavid, S. Y. Woo, X. Liu, A. T. Connie, S. Sadaf, Q. Wang, G. A. Botton, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Engineering the carrier dynamics of InGaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes by distributed p-AlGaN electron blocking layers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7744 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boucher, R.

M. A. Banas, M. H. Crawford, D. S. Ruby, M. P. Ross, J. S. Nelson, A. A. Allerman, and R. Boucher, “Final LDRD report: ultraviolet water purification systems for rural environments and mobile applications,” Sandia National Laboratories, United States, (2005).

Bougerol, C.

C. Durand, C. Bougerol, J.-F. Carlin, G. Rossbach, F. Godel, J. Eymery, P.-H. Jouneau, A. Mukhtarova, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “M-Plane GaN/InAlN multiple quantum wells in core–shell wire structure for UV emission,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 38–46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Burrus, C.

D. A. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[Crossref]

Butté, R.

C. Durand, C. Bougerol, J.-F. Carlin, G. Rossbach, F. Godel, J. Eymery, P.-H. Jouneau, A. Mukhtarova, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “M-Plane GaN/InAlN multiple quantum wells in core–shell wire structure for UV emission,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 38–46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Calderon, G.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and J. Hwang, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Carlin, J.-F.

C. Durand, C. Bougerol, J.-F. Carlin, G. Rossbach, F. Godel, J. Eymery, P.-H. Jouneau, A. Mukhtarova, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “M-Plane GaN/InAlN multiple quantum wells in core–shell wire structure for UV emission,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 38–46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carnevale, S. D.

T. F. Kent, S. D. Carnevale, A. Sarwar, P. J. Phillips, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Deep ultraviolet emitting polarization induced nanowire light emitting diodes with AlxGa1− xN active regions,” Nanotechnology 25(45), 455201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. S.

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k⋅ p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chang, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Chang and Y.-K. Kuo, “Simulation of blue InGaN quantum-well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 4992–4998 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. P.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, W. T.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.-A.

Y.-K. Kuo and Y.-A. Chang, “Effects of electronic current overflow and inhomogeneous carrier distribution on InGaN quantum-well laser performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 437–444 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chemla, D.

D. A. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Cheng, A.-T.

A.-T. Cheng, Y.-K. Su, and W.-C. Lai, “Improved light output of nitride-based light-emitting diodes by lattice-matched AlInN cladding structure,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(12), 970–972 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chisholm, M. F.

A. G. Sarwar, B. J. May, M. F. Chisholm, G. J. Duscher, and R. C. Myers, “Ultrathin GaN quantum disk nanowire LEDs with sub-250 nm electroluminescence,” Nanoscale 8(15), 8024–8032 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cho, C.-Y.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cho, S. J.

D. Liu, S. J. Cho, J. Park, J.-H. Seo, R. Dalmau, D. Zhao, K. Kim, J. Gong, M. Kim, and I.-K. Lee, “229 nm UV LEDs on aluminum nitride single crystal substrates using p-type silicon for increased hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(8), 081101 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Liu, S. J. Cho, J. Park, J. Gong, J.-H. Seo, R. Dalmau, D. Zhao, K. Kim, M. Kim, and A. R. Kalapala, “226 nm AlGaN/AlN UV LEDs using p-type Si for hole injection and UV reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(1), 011111 (2018).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.

S. Choi, M.-H. Ji, J. Kim, H. Jin Kim, M. M. Satter, P. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161110 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chua, C.

J. Northrup, C. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k⋅ p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref]

Connie, A.

Q. Wang, A. Connie, H. Nguyen, M. Kibria, S. Zhao, S. Sharif, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1− xN nanowire based light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345201 (2013).
[Crossref]

Connie, A. T.

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo H, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8332 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. P. T. Nguyen, M. Djavid, S. Y. Woo, X. Liu, A. T. Connie, S. Sadaf, Q. Wang, G. A. Botton, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Engineering the carrier dynamics of InGaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes by distributed p-AlGaN electron blocking layers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7744 (2015).
[Crossref]

Corbett, B.

P. Pampili, V. Z. Zubialevich, P. Maaskant, M. Akhter, B. Corbett, and P. J. Parbrook, “InAlN-based LEDs emitting in the near-UV region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 58(SC), SCCB33 (2019).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M. H.

M. A. Banas, M. H. Crawford, D. S. Ruby, M. P. Ross, J. S. Nelson, A. A. Allerman, and R. Boucher, “Final LDRD report: ultraviolet water purification systems for rural environments and mobile applications,” Sandia National Laboratories, United States, (2005).

Cui, K.

Q. Wang, H. Nguyen, K. Cui, and Z. Mi, “High efficiency ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1− xN core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown on Si (111) by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 043115 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dalmau, R.

D. Liu, S. J. Cho, J. Park, J.-H. Seo, R. Dalmau, D. Zhao, K. Kim, J. Gong, M. Kim, and I.-K. Lee, “229 nm UV LEDs on aluminum nitride single crystal substrates using p-type silicon for increased hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(8), 081101 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Liu, S. J. Cho, J. Park, J. Gong, J.-H. Seo, R. Dalmau, D. Zhao, K. Kim, M. Kim, and A. R. Kalapala, “226 nm AlGaN/AlN UV LEDs using p-type Si for hole injection and UV reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(1), 011111 (2018).
[Crossref]

Damen, T.

D. A. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[Crossref]

Dastjerdi, M. H.

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo H, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8332 (2015).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. Hu, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Djavid, M.

H. P. T. Nguyen, M. Djavid, S. Y. Woo, X. Liu, A. T. Connie, S. Sadaf, Q. Wang, G. A. Botton, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Engineering the carrier dynamics of InGaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes by distributed p-AlGaN electron blocking layers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7744 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo H, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8332 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, M. Djavid, and Z. Mi, “Surface emitting, high efficiency near-vacuum ultraviolet light source with aluminum nitride nanowires monolithically grown on silicon,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 7006–7009 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dong, P.

Dupuis, R. D.

S. Choi, M.-H. Ji, J. Kim, H. Jin Kim, M. M. Satter, P. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161110 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. M. Satter, H.-J. Kim, Z. Lochner, J.-H. Ryou, S.-C. Shen, R. D. Dupuis, and P. D. Yoder, “Design and analysis of 250-nm AlInN laser diodes on AlN substrates using tapered electron blocking layers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(5), 703–711 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Durand, C.

C. Durand, C. Bougerol, J.-F. Carlin, G. Rossbach, F. Godel, J. Eymery, P.-H. Jouneau, A. Mukhtarova, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “M-Plane GaN/InAlN multiple quantum wells in core–shell wire structure for UV emission,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 38–46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Duscher, G. J.

A. G. Sarwar, B. J. May, M. F. Chisholm, G. J. Duscher, and R. C. Myers, “Ultrathin GaN quantum disk nanowire LEDs with sub-250 nm electroluminescence,” Nanoscale 8(15), 8024–8032 (2016).
[Crossref]

Edwards, G.

D. Fu, R. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. Xie, X. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Exploring optimal UV emission windows for AlGaN and AlInN alloys grown on different templates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248(12), 2816–2820 (2011).
[Crossref]

Einfeldt, S.

F. Mehnke, M. Guttmann, J. Enslin, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, J. Jordan, S. Kapanke, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, U. Zeimer, H. Krüger, M. Rabe, S. Einfeldt, T. Wernicke, H. Ewald, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Gas Sensing of Nitrogen Oxide Utilizing Spectrally Pure Deep UV LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(2), 29–36 (2017).
[Crossref]

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F. Mehnke, M. Guttmann, J. Enslin, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, J. Jordan, S. Kapanke, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, U. Zeimer, H. Krüger, M. Rabe, S. Einfeldt, T. Wernicke, H. Ewald, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Gas Sensing of Nitrogen Oxide Utilizing Spectrally Pure Deep UV LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(2), 29–36 (2017).
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[Crossref]

S. Choi, M.-H. Ji, J. Kim, H. Jin Kim, M. M. Satter, P. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161110 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

J. W. Lee, D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, E. F. Schubert, J. Kim, J. Lee, Y.-I. Kim, Y. Park, and J. K. Kim, “An elegant route to overcome fundamentally-limited light extraction in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: Preferential outcoupling of strong in-plane emission,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22537 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.

D. Liu, S. J. Cho, J. Park, J.-H. Seo, R. Dalmau, D. Zhao, K. Kim, J. Gong, M. Kim, and I.-K. Lee, “229 nm UV LEDs on aluminum nitride single crystal substrates using p-type silicon for increased hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(8), 081101 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Liu, S. J. Cho, J. Park, J. Gong, J.-H. Seo, R. Dalmau, D. Zhao, K. Kim, M. Kim, and A. R. Kalapala, “226 nm AlGaN/AlN UV LEDs using p-type Si for hole injection and UV reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(1), 011111 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. Kim, J. Li, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

D. Liu, S. J. Cho, J. Park, J. Gong, J.-H. Seo, R. Dalmau, D. Zhao, K. Kim, M. Kim, and A. R. Kalapala, “226 nm AlGaN/AlN UV LEDs using p-type Si for hole injection and UV reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(1), 011111 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Liu, S. J. Cho, J. Park, J.-H. Seo, R. Dalmau, D. Zhao, K. Kim, J. Gong, M. Kim, and I.-K. Lee, “229 nm UV LEDs on aluminum nitride single crystal substrates using p-type silicon for increased hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(8), 081101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-S.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. C.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-I.

J. W. Lee, D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, E. F. Schubert, J. Kim, J. Lee, Y.-I. Kim, Y. Park, and J. K. Kim, “An elegant route to overcome fundamentally-limited light extraction in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: Preferential outcoupling of strong in-plane emission,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22537 (2016).
[Crossref]

Klie, R. F.

T. F. Kent, S. D. Carnevale, A. Sarwar, P. J. Phillips, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Deep ultraviolet emitting polarization induced nanowire light emitting diodes with AlxGa1− xN active regions,” Nanotechnology 25(45), 455201 (2014).
[Crossref]

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J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. Kim, J. Li, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[Crossref]

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F. Mehnke, M. Guttmann, J. Enslin, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, J. Jordan, S. Kapanke, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, U. Zeimer, H. Krüger, M. Rabe, S. Einfeldt, T. Wernicke, H. Ewald, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Gas Sensing of Nitrogen Oxide Utilizing Spectrally Pure Deep UV LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(2), 29–36 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

F. Mehnke, M. Guttmann, J. Enslin, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, J. Jordan, S. Kapanke, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, U. Zeimer, H. Krüger, M. Rabe, S. Einfeldt, T. Wernicke, H. Ewald, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Gas Sensing of Nitrogen Oxide Utilizing Spectrally Pure Deep UV LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(2), 29–36 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Northrup, C. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Würtele, T. Kolbe, M. Lipsz, A. Külberg, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and M. Jekel, “Application of GaN-based ultraviolet-C light emitting diodes–UV LEDs–for water disinfection,” Water Res. 45(3), 1481–1489 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kolbe, T.

J. Northrup, C. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Würtele, T. Kolbe, M. Lipsz, A. Külberg, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and M. Jekel, “Application of GaN-based ultraviolet-C light emitting diodes–UV LEDs–for water disinfection,” Water Res. 45(3), 1481–1489 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kollmer, H.

J. S. Im, H. Kollmer, J. Off, A. Sohmer, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Reduction of oscillator strength due to piezoelectric fields in G a N/A l x Ga 1− x N quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9435–R9438 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kong, X. H.

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo H, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8332 (2015).
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H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
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Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, J. M. Johnson, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Reflective metal/semiconductor tunnel junctions for hole injection in AlGaN UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(5), 051104 (2017).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic diagram of the AlInN UV LED. (b) Multiple peak emissions varied from 230 nm to 331 nm wavelengths. (c) Emission peak wavelength vs Al content in AlInN active region.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Simulated, normalized (a, d) Internal quantum efficiency (IQE), (b, e) Electron current density, (c, f) Hole current density of with/without EBL SQW AlGaN nanowire UV LEDs at 320 nm and 238 nm emission wavelength.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Simulated (a) Normalized IQE, (b) Electron leakage current density, (c) L-I characteristics, (d) I-V characteristics of AlGaN and AlInN LEDs at 238 nm emission wavelength.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Simulated (a) Normalized IQE, (b) L-I characteristics for AlInN LEDs with SQW, 3 QWs and 5 QWs. Carrier concentration of AlInN (c) SQW LED. (d) 5 QWs LED. Radiative recombination of AlInN (e) SQW LED. (f) 5 QWs LED at 238 nm emission wavelength.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Simulated (a) E-B diagram of active region of AlInN SQW LED. (b) E-B diagram of the last QW in active region of 5QWs AlGaN LED (5QWS are shown in inset figure.) (c) Recombination rate (d) Carrier current density. (e) Spontaneous emission rate (TE/TM). (f) TE spontaneous emission rate of AlInN SQW LED at 238 nm emission wavelength.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Parameters of 238 nm wavelength AlInN and AlGaN nanowire LEDs.

Equations (1)

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 component = TE spontaneous emission rate // component = [ TE spontaneous emission rate  ×   ( cos 2 θ ) ] + [ TM spontaneous emission rate  × ( sin 2 θ ) ]

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