Abstract

We report what we believe to be the first preparation and optical spectroscopy of Er3+ doped into bulk AlN ceramic. The material was prepared via hot press sintering of AlN with Er2O3 and [NH4][ErF4], which yielded fully dense, translucent, hexagonal AlN. The Er3+ concentration is a small fraction of a percent, and resides in multiple sites, with one type of center dominant. A number of the energy levels of Er3+ are identified for this center. The temperature dependent fluorescence lifetime is probably radiative, and on that basis the stimulated emission and absorption cross section spectra are inferred for the 4I13/24I15/2 transitions.

©2011 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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  6. E. D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061108 (2008).
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    [Crossref]
  17. R. Terao, J. Tatami, T. Meguro, and K. Komeya, “Fracture Behavior of AlN Ceramics with Rare Earth Oxides,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 22(7), 1051–1059 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  18. N. S. VanDamme, S. M. Richard, and S. R. Winzer, “Liquid-Phase Sintering of Aluminum Nitride by Europium Oxide Additives,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 72(8), 1409–1414 (1989).
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  21. T. Honma, Y. Kuroki, T. Okamoto, M. Takata, Y. Kanechika, M. Azuma, and H. Taniguchi, “Transmittance and Cathodoluminescence of AlN Ceramics Sintered with Ca3Al2O6 as Sintering Additive,” Ceram. Int. 34(4), 943–946 (2008).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  24. A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, and A. Ikesue, “Excited states dynamics of Er3+ in Sc2O3 ceramic,” J. Lumin. 128(5-6), 918–920 (2008).
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  26. D. M. Gill, J. C. Wright, and L. McCaughan, “Site characterization of rare-earth-doped LiNbO3 using total site selective spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(19), 2483–2485 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  27. V. Dierolf, C. Sandmann, J. Zavada, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Site-selective spectroscopy of Er in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5464–5470 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  28. V. Glukhanyuk, H. Przybylinska, A. Kozanecki, and W. Jantsch, “Site symmetry of erbium centers in GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201(2), 195–198 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  29. S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  30. B. Edlén, “The Refractive Index of Air,” Metrologia 2(2), 71–80 (1966).
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  31. V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  32. M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon Relaxation of Rare-Earth Ions in Yttrium Orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8(1), 54–64 (1973).
    [Crossref]
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  34. B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic Interactions in Nd:YAG Resulting in Nonreciprocity of Absorption and Stimulated Emission Cross Sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  35. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  36. M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of erbium implanted gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2641–2643 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  37. S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Excitation Mechanisms of Multiple Er3+ Sites in Er-Implanted GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 27(4), 246–254 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  38. U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+(4f4) and Sm3+(4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205201 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  39. S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  40. A. Kozanecki, V. Glukhanyuk, and H. Przybylinska, “Site-selective spectroscopy of erbium in wider band gap semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(1), 38–42 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  41. J. Akiyama, Y. Sato, and T. Taira, “Laser ceramics with rare-earth-doped anisotropic materials,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3598–3600 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. J. Akiyama, Y. Sato, and T. Taira, “Laser Demonstration of Diode-Pumped Nd3+-Doped Fluorapatite Anisotropic Ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(2), 022703 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  43. J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, D. K. Sardar, R. M. Yow, C. C. Russell, T. H. Allik, and B. Zandi, “Spectral analysis and energy-level structure of Er3+(4f11) in polycrystalline ceramic garnet Y3Al5O12,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063519 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Dierre, X. L. Yuan, K. Inoue, N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, and T. Sekiguchi, “Role of Si in the Luminescence of AlN:Eu,Si Phosphors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(6), 1272–1275 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

T. Honma, Y. Kuroki, T. Okamoto, M. Takata, Y. Kanechika, M. Azuma, and H. Taniguchi, “Transmittance and Cathodoluminescence of AlN Ceramics Sintered with Ca3Al2O6 as Sintering Additive,” Ceram. Int. 34(4), 943–946 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, and A. Ikesue, “Excited states dynamics of Er3+ in Sc2O3 ceramic,” J. Lumin. 128(5-6), 918–920 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Kozanecki, V. Glukhanyuk, and H. Przybylinska, “Site-selective spectroscopy of erbium in wider band gap semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(1), 38–42 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061108 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Inoue, T. Sekiguchi, B. Dierre, and K. Tamura, “Blue-emitting AlN:Eu2+ Nitride Phosphor for Field Emission Displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061101 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Han, K. C. Mishra, M. Raukas, K. Klinedinst, J. Tao, and J. B. Talbot, “Investigation of Luminescence from Dy3+ in AlN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(1), J44–J52 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Maqbool, H. R. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Luminescence from Praseodymium doped AlN thin films Deposited by RF Magnetron Sputtering and the effect of material Structure and Thermal Annealing on Luminescence,” J. Mater. Sci. 42(14), 5657–5660 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

R. Weingartner, O. Erlenbach, A. Winnacker, A. Welte, I. Brauer, H. Mendel, H. P. Strunk, C. T. M. Ribeiro, and A. R. Zanatta, “Thermal Activation, Cathodo- and Photoluminescence Measurements of Rare Earth doped (Tm, Tb, Dy, Eu, Sm, Yb,) amorphous/ nanocrystalline AlN Thin Films Prepared by Reactive RF-Sputtering,” Opt. Mater. 28(6-7), 790–793 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Lorenz, E. Alves, T. Monteiro, M. J. Soares, M. Peres, and P. J. M. Smulders, “Optical Doping of AlN by Rare Earth Implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 242(1-2), 307–310 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Xiong, Z. Fu, Y. Wang, and F. Quan, “Fabrication of Transparent AlN Ceramic,” J. Mater. Sci. 41(8), 2537–2539 (2006).
[Crossref]

U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+(4f4) and Sm3+(4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205201 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, D. K. Sardar, R. M. Yow, C. C. Russell, T. H. Allik, and B. Zandi, “Spectral analysis and energy-level structure of Er3+(4f11) in polycrystalline ceramic garnet Y3Al5O12,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063519 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, A. Bensaoula, and O. Monteiro, “Luminescence and Excitation Mechanisms of Pr, Eu, Tb, and Tm ions implanted into AlN,” Microelectron. J. 36(3-6), 453–455 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

V. Dierolf, C. Sandmann, J. Zavada, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Site-selective spectroscopy of Er in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5464–5470 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. Glukhanyuk, H. Przybylinska, A. Kozanecki, and W. Jantsch, “Site symmetry of erbium centers in GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201(2), 195–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

R. Terao, J. Tatami, T. Meguro, and K. Komeya, “Fracture Behavior of AlN Ceramics with Rare Earth Oxides,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 22(7), 1051–1059 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. A. Slack, L. J. Schowalter, D. Morelli, and J. A. Freitas., “Some Effects of Oxygen Impurities on AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 246(3-4), 287–298 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. J. Steckl and J. M. Zavada, “Photonic Applications of Rare-Earth-Doped Materials,” MRS Bull. 24, 33–38 (1999).

1998 (3)

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Excitation Mechanisms of Multiple Er3+ Sites in Er-Implanted GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 27(4), 246–254 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kaplyanskiĭ, A. B. Kulinkin, A. B. Kutsenko, S. P. Feofilov, R. I. Zakharchenya, and T. N. Vasilevskaya, “Optical spectra of triply-charged rare-earth ions in polycrystalline corundum,” Phys. Solid State 40(8), 1310–1316 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of erbium implanted gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2641–2643 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

A. M. Hundere and M.-A. Einarsrud, “Effects of Reduction of the Al-Y-O Containing Secondary Phases During Sintering of AlN with YF3 Additions,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 16(8), 899–906 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. A. Neumayer and J. G. Ekerdt, “Growth of Group III Nitrides. A Review of Precursors and Techniques,” Chem. Mater. 8(1), 9–25 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

D. M. Gill, J. C. Wright, and L. McCaughan, “Site characterization of rare-earth-doped LiNbO3 using total site selective spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(19), 2483–2485 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

M. Hirano, K. Kato, T. Isobe, and T. Hirano, “Sintering and Characterization of Fully Dense Aluminum Nitride Ceramics,” J. Mater. Sci. 28(17), 4725–4730 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Mah and T. A. Parthasarathy, “Fracture toughness of single crystal YAG,” Scr. Metall. Mater. 28(11), 1383–1385 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

L. M. Sheppard, “Aluminum Nitride: A Versatile but Challenging Material,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 69(11), 1801–1812 (1990).

1989 (1)

N. S. VanDamme, S. M. Richard, and S. R. Winzer, “Liquid-Phase Sintering of Aluminum Nitride by Europium Oxide Additives,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 72(8), 1409–1414 (1989).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

N. Kuramoto and H. Taniguchi, “Transparent AlN Ceramics,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 3(6), 471–474 (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic Interactions in Nd:YAG Resulting in Nonreciprocity of Absorption and Stimulated Emission Cross Sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon Relaxation of Rare-Earth Ions in Yttrium Orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8(1), 54–64 (1973).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

B. Edlén, “The Refractive Index of Air,” Metrologia 2(2), 71–80 (1966).
[Crossref]

Akiyama, J.

J. Akiyama, Y. Sato, and T. Taira, “Laser Demonstration of Diode-Pumped Nd3+-Doped Fluorapatite Anisotropic Ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(2), 022703 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Akiyama, Y. Sato, and T. Taira, “Laser ceramics with rare-earth-doped anisotropic materials,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3598–3600 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allik, T. H.

J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, D. K. Sardar, R. M. Yow, C. C. Russell, T. H. Allik, and B. Zandi, “Spectral analysis and energy-level structure of Er3+(4f11) in polycrystalline ceramic garnet Y3Al5O12,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Alves, E.

K. Lorenz, E. Alves, T. Monteiro, M. J. Soares, M. Peres, and P. J. M. Smulders, “Optical Doping of AlN by Rare Earth Implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 242(1-2), 307–310 (2006).
[Crossref]

Aull, B. F.

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic Interactions in Nd:YAG Resulting in Nonreciprocity of Absorption and Stimulated Emission Cross Sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).
[Crossref]

Azuma, M.

T. Honma, Y. Kuroki, T. Okamoto, M. Takata, Y. Kanechika, M. Azuma, and H. Taniguchi, “Transmittance and Cathodoluminescence of AlN Ceramics Sintered with Ca3Al2O6 as Sintering Additive,” Ceram. Int. 34(4), 943–946 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bensaoula, A.

H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, A. Bensaoula, and O. Monteiro, “Luminescence and Excitation Mechanisms of Pr, Eu, Tb, and Tm ions implanted into AlN,” Microelectron. J. 36(3-6), 453–455 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bishop, S. G.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Excitation Mechanisms of Multiple Er3+ Sites in Er-Implanted GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 27(4), 246–254 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bondokov, R. T.

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brauer, I.

R. Weingartner, O. Erlenbach, A. Winnacker, A. Welte, I. Brauer, H. Mendel, H. P. Strunk, C. T. M. Ribeiro, and A. R. Zanatta, “Thermal Activation, Cathodo- and Photoluminescence Measurements of Rare Earth doped (Tm, Tb, Dy, Eu, Sm, Yb,) amorphous/ nanocrystalline AlN Thin Films Prepared by Reactive RF-Sputtering,” Opt. Mater. 28(6-7), 790–793 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chow, P.

V. Dierolf, C. Sandmann, J. Zavada, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Site-selective spectroscopy of Er in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5464–5470 (2004).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. J.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Excitation Mechanisms of Multiple Er3+ Sites in Er-Implanted GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 27(4), 246–254 (1998).
[Crossref]

Davydov, V. Yu.

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
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U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+(4f4) and Sm3+(4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205201 (2006).
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Dierolf, V.

Dierre, B.

B. Dierre, X. L. Yuan, K. Inoue, N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, and T. Sekiguchi, “Role of Si in the Luminescence of AlN:Eu,Si Phosphors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(6), 1272–1275 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Inoue, T. Sekiguchi, B. Dierre, and K. Tamura, “Blue-emitting AlN:Eu2+ Nitride Phosphor for Field Emission Displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061101 (2007).
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Dietrich, M.

U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+(4f4) and Sm3+(4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205201 (2006).
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A. M. Hundere and M.-A. Einarsrud, “Effects of Reduction of the Al-Y-O Containing Secondary Phases During Sintering of AlN with YF3 Additions,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 16(8), 899–906 (1996).
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D. A. Neumayer and J. G. Ekerdt, “Growth of Group III Nitrides. A Review of Precursors and Techniques,” Chem. Mater. 8(1), 9–25 (1996).
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Enck, R.

Erlenbach, O.

R. Weingartner, O. Erlenbach, A. Winnacker, A. Welte, I. Brauer, H. Mendel, H. P. Strunk, C. T. M. Ribeiro, and A. R. Zanatta, “Thermal Activation, Cathodo- and Photoluminescence Measurements of Rare Earth doped (Tm, Tb, Dy, Eu, Sm, Yb,) amorphous/ nanocrystalline AlN Thin Films Prepared by Reactive RF-Sputtering,” Opt. Mater. 28(6-7), 790–793 (2006).
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Evans, S. M.

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
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S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
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Evarestov, R. A.

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
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A. A. Kaplyanskiĭ, A. B. Kulinkin, A. B. Kutsenko, S. P. Feofilov, R. I. Zakharchenya, and T. N. Vasilevskaya, “Optical spectra of triply-charged rare-earth ions in polycrystalline corundum,” Phys. Solid State 40(8), 1310–1316 (1998).
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Freitas, J. A.

G. A. Slack, L. J. Schowalter, D. Morelli, and J. A. Freitas., “Some Effects of Oxygen Impurities on AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 246(3-4), 287–298 (2002).
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Y. Xiong, Z. Fu, Y. Wang, and F. Quan, “Fabrication of Transparent AlN Ceramic,” J. Mater. Sci. 41(8), 2537–2539 (2006).
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Gheorghe, C.

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, and A. Ikesue, “Excited states dynamics of Er3+ in Sc2O3 ceramic,” J. Lumin. 128(5-6), 918–920 (2008).
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Gill, D. M.

D. M. Gill, J. C. Wright, and L. McCaughan, “Site characterization of rare-earth-doped LiNbO3 using total site selective spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(19), 2483–2485 (1994).
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Glukhanyuk, V.

A. Kozanecki, V. Glukhanyuk, and H. Przybylinska, “Site-selective spectroscopy of erbium in wider band gap semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(1), 38–42 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Glukhanyuk, H. Przybylinska, A. Kozanecki, and W. Jantsch, “Site symmetry of erbium centers in GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201(2), 195–198 (2004).
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Goncharuk, I. N.

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
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Graul, J.

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
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Gruber, J.

U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+(4f4) and Sm3+(4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205201 (2006).
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Gruber, J. B.

J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, D. K. Sardar, R. M. Yow, C. C. Russell, T. H. Allik, and B. Zandi, “Spectral analysis and energy-level structure of Er3+(4f11) in polycrystalline ceramic garnet Y3Al5O12,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063519 (2005).
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Halliburton, L. E.

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
[Crossref]

Han, B.

B. Han, K. C. Mishra, M. Raukas, K. Klinedinst, J. Tao, and J. B. Talbot, “Investigation of Luminescence from Dy3+ in AlN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(1), J44–J52 (2007).
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V. Dierolf, C. Sandmann, J. Zavada, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Site-selective spectroscopy of Er in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5464–5470 (2004).
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Hirano, T.

M. Hirano, K. Kato, T. Isobe, and T. Hirano, “Sintering and Characterization of Fully Dense Aluminum Nitride Ceramics,” J. Mater. Sci. 28(17), 4725–4730 (1993).
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Hirosaki, N.

B. Dierre, X. L. Yuan, K. Inoue, N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, and T. Sekiguchi, “Role of Si in the Luminescence of AlN:Eu,Si Phosphors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(6), 1272–1275 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Inoue, T. Sekiguchi, B. Dierre, and K. Tamura, “Blue-emitting AlN:Eu2+ Nitride Phosphor for Field Emission Displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hofsäss, H.

U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+(4f4) and Sm3+(4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205201 (2006).
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Hommerich, U.

M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of erbium implanted gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2641–2643 (1997).
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T. Honma, Y. Kuroki, T. Okamoto, M. Takata, Y. Kanechika, M. Azuma, and H. Taniguchi, “Transmittance and Cathodoluminescence of AlN Ceramics Sintered with Ca3Al2O6 as Sintering Additive,” Ceram. Int. 34(4), 943–946 (2008).
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Hundere, A. M.

A. M. Hundere and M.-A. Einarsrud, “Effects of Reduction of the Al-Y-O Containing Secondary Phases During Sintering of AlN with YF3 Additions,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 16(8), 899–906 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ikesue, A.

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, and A. Ikesue, “Excited states dynamics of Er3+ in Sc2O3 ceramic,” J. Lumin. 128(5-6), 918–920 (2008).
[Crossref]

Inoue, K.

B. Dierre, X. L. Yuan, K. Inoue, N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, and T. Sekiguchi, “Role of Si in the Luminescence of AlN:Eu,Si Phosphors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(6), 1272–1275 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Inoue, T. Sekiguchi, B. Dierre, and K. Tamura, “Blue-emitting AlN:Eu2+ Nitride Phosphor for Field Emission Displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Isobe, T.

M. Hirano, K. Kato, T. Isobe, and T. Hirano, “Sintering and Characterization of Fully Dense Aluminum Nitride Ceramics,” J. Mater. Sci. 28(17), 4725–4730 (1993).
[Crossref]

Jadwisienczak, W. M.

H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, A. Bensaoula, and O. Monteiro, “Luminescence and Excitation Mechanisms of Pr, Eu, Tb, and Tm ions implanted into AlN,” Microelectron. J. 36(3-6), 453–455 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jantsch, W.

V. Glukhanyuk, H. Przybylinska, A. Kozanecki, and W. Jantsch, “Site symmetry of erbium centers in GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201(2), 195–198 (2004).
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Jenssen, H. P.

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic Interactions in Nd:YAG Resulting in Nonreciprocity of Absorption and Stimulated Emission Cross Sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).
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Kanechika, Y.

T. Honma, Y. Kuroki, T. Okamoto, M. Takata, Y. Kanechika, M. Azuma, and H. Taniguchi, “Transmittance and Cathodoluminescence of AlN Ceramics Sintered with Ca3Al2O6 as Sintering Additive,” Ceram. Int. 34(4), 943–946 (2008).
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Kaplyanskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaplyanskiĭ, A. B. Kulinkin, A. B. Kutsenko, S. P. Feofilov, R. I. Zakharchenya, and T. N. Vasilevskaya, “Optical spectra of triply-charged rare-earth ions in polycrystalline corundum,” Phys. Solid State 40(8), 1310–1316 (1998).
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Kato, K.

M. Hirano, K. Kato, T. Isobe, and T. Hirano, “Sintering and Characterization of Fully Dense Aluminum Nitride Ceramics,” J. Mater. Sci. 28(17), 4725–4730 (1993).
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Kim, S.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Excitation Mechanisms of Multiple Er3+ Sites in Er-Implanted GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 27(4), 246–254 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kitaev, Yu. E.

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[Crossref]

Klein, P. B.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Excitation Mechanisms of Multiple Er3+ Sites in Er-Implanted GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 27(4), 246–254 (1998).
[Crossref]

Klinedinst, K.

B. Han, K. C. Mishra, M. Raukas, K. Klinedinst, J. Tao, and J. B. Talbot, “Investigation of Luminescence from Dy3+ in AlN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(1), J44–J52 (2007).
[Crossref]

Komeya, K.

R. Terao, J. Tatami, T. Meguro, and K. Komeya, “Fracture Behavior of AlN Ceramics with Rare Earth Oxides,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 22(7), 1051–1059 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kordesch, M. E.

M. Maqbool, H. R. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Luminescence from Praseodymium doped AlN thin films Deposited by RF Magnetron Sputtering and the effect of material Structure and Thermal Annealing on Luminescence,” J. Mater. Sci. 42(14), 5657–5660 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kozanecki, A.

A. Kozanecki, V. Glukhanyuk, and H. Przybylinska, “Site-selective spectroscopy of erbium in wider band gap semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(1), 38–42 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Glukhanyuk, H. Przybylinska, A. Kozanecki, and W. Jantsch, “Site symmetry of erbium centers in GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201(2), 195–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kulinkin, A. B.

A. A. Kaplyanskiĭ, A. B. Kulinkin, A. B. Kutsenko, S. P. Feofilov, R. I. Zakharchenya, and T. N. Vasilevskaya, “Optical spectra of triply-charged rare-earth ions in polycrystalline corundum,” Phys. Solid State 40(8), 1310–1316 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kuramoto, N.

N. Kuramoto and H. Taniguchi, “Transparent AlN Ceramics,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 3(6), 471–474 (1984).
[Crossref]

Kuroki, Y.

T. Honma, Y. Kuroki, T. Okamoto, M. Takata, Y. Kanechika, M. Azuma, and H. Taniguchi, “Transmittance and Cathodoluminescence of AlN Ceramics Sintered with Ca3Al2O6 as Sintering Additive,” Ceram. Int. 34(4), 943–946 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kutsenko, A. B.

A. A. Kaplyanskiĭ, A. B. Kulinkin, A. B. Kutsenko, S. P. Feofilov, R. I. Zakharchenya, and T. N. Vasilevskaya, “Optical spectra of triply-charged rare-earth ions in polycrystalline corundum,” Phys. Solid State 40(8), 1310–1316 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Excitation Mechanisms of Multiple Er3+ Sites in Er-Implanted GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 27(4), 246–254 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lorenz, K.

K. Lorenz, E. Alves, T. Monteiro, M. J. Soares, M. Peres, and P. J. M. Smulders, “Optical Doping of AlN by Rare Earth Implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 242(1-2), 307–310 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lozykowski, H. J.

H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, A. Bensaoula, and O. Monteiro, “Luminescence and Excitation Mechanisms of Pr, Eu, Tb, and Tm ions implanted into AlN,” Microelectron. J. 36(3-6), 453–455 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lupei, A.

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, and A. Ikesue, “Excited states dynamics of Er3+ in Sc2O3 ceramic,” J. Lumin. 128(5-6), 918–920 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lupei, V.

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, and A. Ikesue, “Excited states dynamics of Er3+ in Sc2O3 ceramic,” J. Lumin. 128(5-6), 918–920 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mah, T.

T. Mah and T. A. Parthasarathy, “Fracture toughness of single crystal YAG,” Scr. Metall. Mater. 28(11), 1383–1385 (1993).
[Crossref]

Maqbool, M.

M. Maqbool, H. R. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Luminescence from Praseodymium doped AlN thin films Deposited by RF Magnetron Sputtering and the effect of material Structure and Thermal Annealing on Luminescence,” J. Mater. Sci. 42(14), 5657–5660 (2007).
[Crossref]

McCaughan, L.

D. M. Gill, J. C. Wright, and L. McCaughan, “Site characterization of rare-earth-doped LiNbO3 using total site selective spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(19), 2483–2485 (1994).
[Crossref]

Meguro, T.

R. Terao, J. Tatami, T. Meguro, and K. Komeya, “Fracture Behavior of AlN Ceramics with Rare Earth Oxides,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 22(7), 1051–1059 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mendel, H.

R. Weingartner, O. Erlenbach, A. Winnacker, A. Welte, I. Brauer, H. Mendel, H. P. Strunk, C. T. M. Ribeiro, and A. R. Zanatta, “Thermal Activation, Cathodo- and Photoluminescence Measurements of Rare Earth doped (Tm, Tb, Dy, Eu, Sm, Yb,) amorphous/ nanocrystalline AlN Thin Films Prepared by Reactive RF-Sputtering,” Opt. Mater. 28(6-7), 790–793 (2006).
[Crossref]

Metcalfe, G. D.

Mirgorodsky, A. P.

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mishra, K. C.

B. Han, K. C. Mishra, M. Raukas, K. Klinedinst, J. Tao, and J. B. Talbot, “Investigation of Luminescence from Dy3+ in AlN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(1), J44–J52 (2007).
[Crossref]

Monteiro, O.

H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, A. Bensaoula, and O. Monteiro, “Luminescence and Excitation Mechanisms of Pr, Eu, Tb, and Tm ions implanted into AlN,” Microelectron. J. 36(3-6), 453–455 (2005).
[Crossref]

Monteiro, T.

K. Lorenz, E. Alves, T. Monteiro, M. J. Soares, M. Peres, and P. J. M. Smulders, “Optical Doping of AlN by Rare Earth Implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 242(1-2), 307–310 (2006).
[Crossref]

Morelli, D.

G. A. Slack, L. J. Schowalter, D. Morelli, and J. A. Freitas., “Some Effects of Oxygen Impurities on AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 246(3-4), 287–298 (2002).
[Crossref]

Morgan, K. E.

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mueller, S. G.

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
[Crossref]

Neumayer, D. A.

D. A. Neumayer and J. G. Ekerdt, “Growth of Group III Nitrides. A Review of Precursors and Techniques,” Chem. Mater. 8(1), 9–25 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nijjar, A.

U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+(4f4) and Sm3+(4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205201 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nijjar, A. S.

J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, D. K. Sardar, R. M. Yow, C. C. Russell, T. H. Allik, and B. Zandi, “Spectral analysis and energy-level structure of Er3+(4f11) in polycrystalline ceramic garnet Y3Al5O12,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Öhl, G.

U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+(4f4) and Sm3+(4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205201 (2006).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, T.

T. Honma, Y. Kuroki, T. Okamoto, M. Takata, Y. Kanechika, M. Azuma, and H. Taniguchi, “Transmittance and Cathodoluminescence of AlN Ceramics Sintered with Ca3Al2O6 as Sintering Additive,” Ceram. Int. 34(4), 943–946 (2008).
[Crossref]

Parthasarathy, T. A.

T. Mah and T. A. Parthasarathy, “Fracture toughness of single crystal YAG,” Scr. Metall. Mater. 28(11), 1383–1385 (1993).
[Crossref]

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Peres, M.

K. Lorenz, E. Alves, T. Monteiro, M. J. Soares, M. Peres, and P. J. M. Smulders, “Optical Doping of AlN by Rare Earth Implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 242(1-2), 307–310 (2006).
[Crossref]

Poplawsky, J.

Przybylinska, H.

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Quan, F.

Y. Xiong, Z. Fu, Y. Wang, and F. Quan, “Fabrication of Transparent AlN Ceramic,” J. Mater. Sci. 41(8), 2537–2539 (2006).
[Crossref]

Raukas, M.

B. Han, K. C. Mishra, M. Raukas, K. Klinedinst, J. Tao, and J. B. Talbot, “Investigation of Luminescence from Dy3+ in AlN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(1), J44–J52 (2007).
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Readinger, E. D.

Rhee, S. J.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Excitation Mechanisms of Multiple Er3+ Sites in Er-Implanted GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 27(4), 246–254 (1998).
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R. Weingartner, O. Erlenbach, A. Winnacker, A. Welte, I. Brauer, H. Mendel, H. P. Strunk, C. T. M. Ribeiro, and A. R. Zanatta, “Thermal Activation, Cathodo- and Photoluminescence Measurements of Rare Earth doped (Tm, Tb, Dy, Eu, Sm, Yb,) amorphous/ nanocrystalline AlN Thin Films Prepared by Reactive RF-Sputtering,” Opt. Mater. 28(6-7), 790–793 (2006).
[Crossref]

Richard, S. M.

N. S. VanDamme, S. M. Richard, and S. R. Winzer, “Liquid-Phase Sintering of Aluminum Nitride by Europium Oxide Additives,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 72(8), 1409–1414 (1989).
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M. Maqbool, H. R. Richardson, and M. E. Kordesch, “Luminescence from Praseodymium doped AlN thin films Deposited by RF Magnetron Sputtering and the effect of material Structure and Thermal Annealing on Luminescence,” J. Mater. Sci. 42(14), 5657–5660 (2007).
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J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, D. K. Sardar, R. M. Yow, C. C. Russell, T. H. Allik, and B. Zandi, “Spectral analysis and energy-level structure of Er3+(4f11) in polycrystalline ceramic garnet Y3Al5O12,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063519 (2005).
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Sandmann, C.

V. Dierolf, C. Sandmann, J. Zavada, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Site-selective spectroscopy of Er in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5464–5470 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sardar, D. K.

J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, D. K. Sardar, R. M. Yow, C. C. Russell, T. H. Allik, and B. Zandi, “Spectral analysis and energy-level structure of Er3+(4f11) in polycrystalline ceramic garnet Y3Al5O12,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063519 (2005).
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Sato, Y.

J. Akiyama, Y. Sato, and T. Taira, “Laser Demonstration of Diode-Pumped Nd3+-Doped Fluorapatite Anisotropic Ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(2), 022703 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Akiyama, Y. Sato, and T. Taira, “Laser ceramics with rare-earth-doped anisotropic materials,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3598–3600 (2010).
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G. A. Slack, L. J. Schowalter, D. Morelli, and J. A. Freitas., “Some Effects of Oxygen Impurities on AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 246(3-4), 287–298 (2002).
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Schujman, S. B.

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
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S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
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Schwartz, R. N.

M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of erbium implanted gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2641–2643 (1997).
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Sekiguchi, T.

B. Dierre, X. L. Yuan, K. Inoue, N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, and T. Sekiguchi, “Role of Si in the Luminescence of AlN:Eu,Si Phosphors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(6), 1272–1275 (2009).
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N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Inoue, T. Sekiguchi, B. Dierre, and K. Tamura, “Blue-emitting AlN:Eu2+ Nitride Phosphor for Field Emission Displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061101 (2007).
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V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
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Sheppard, L. M.

L. M. Sheppard, “Aluminum Nitride: A Versatile but Challenging Material,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 69(11), 1801–1812 (1990).

Slack, G. A.

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. A. Slack, L. J. Schowalter, D. Morelli, and J. A. Freitas., “Some Effects of Oxygen Impurities on AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 246(3-4), 287–298 (2002).
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Smirnov, A. N.

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
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V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
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Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
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K. Lorenz, E. Alves, T. Monteiro, M. J. Soares, M. Peres, and P. J. M. Smulders, “Optical Doping of AlN by Rare Earth Implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 242(1-2), 307–310 (2006).
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K. Lorenz, E. Alves, T. Monteiro, M. J. Soares, M. Peres, and P. J. M. Smulders, “Optical Doping of AlN by Rare Earth Implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 242(1-2), 307–310 (2006).
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A. J. Steckl and J. M. Zavada, “Photonic Applications of Rare-Earth-Doped Materials,” MRS Bull. 24, 33–38 (1999).

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R. Weingartner, O. Erlenbach, A. Winnacker, A. Welte, I. Brauer, H. Mendel, H. P. Strunk, C. T. M. Ribeiro, and A. R. Zanatta, “Thermal Activation, Cathodo- and Photoluminescence Measurements of Rare Earth doped (Tm, Tb, Dy, Eu, Sm, Yb,) amorphous/ nanocrystalline AlN Thin Films Prepared by Reactive RF-Sputtering,” Opt. Mater. 28(6-7), 790–793 (2006).
[Crossref]

Taira, T.

J. Akiyama, Y. Sato, and T. Taira, “Laser Demonstration of Diode-Pumped Nd3+-Doped Fluorapatite Anisotropic Ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(2), 022703 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Akiyama, Y. Sato, and T. Taira, “Laser ceramics with rare-earth-doped anisotropic materials,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3598–3600 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. Honma, Y. Kuroki, T. Okamoto, M. Takata, Y. Kanechika, M. Azuma, and H. Taniguchi, “Transmittance and Cathodoluminescence of AlN Ceramics Sintered with Ca3Al2O6 as Sintering Additive,” Ceram. Int. 34(4), 943–946 (2008).
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Talbot, J. B.

B. Han, K. C. Mishra, M. Raukas, K. Klinedinst, J. Tao, and J. B. Talbot, “Investigation of Luminescence from Dy3+ in AlN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(1), J44–J52 (2007).
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Tamura, K.

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Inoue, T. Sekiguchi, B. Dierre, and K. Tamura, “Blue-emitting AlN:Eu2+ Nitride Phosphor for Field Emission Displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061101 (2007).
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Taniguchi, H.

T. Honma, Y. Kuroki, T. Okamoto, M. Takata, Y. Kanechika, M. Azuma, and H. Taniguchi, “Transmittance and Cathodoluminescence of AlN Ceramics Sintered with Ca3Al2O6 as Sintering Additive,” Ceram. Int. 34(4), 943–946 (2008).
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B. Han, K. C. Mishra, M. Raukas, K. Klinedinst, J. Tao, and J. B. Talbot, “Investigation of Luminescence from Dy3+ in AlN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(1), J44–J52 (2007).
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R. Terao, J. Tatami, T. Meguro, and K. Komeya, “Fracture Behavior of AlN Ceramics with Rare Earth Oxides,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 22(7), 1051–1059 (2002).
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Thaik, M.

M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of erbium implanted gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2641–2643 (1997).
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Uffmann, D.

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[Crossref]

VanDamme, N. S.

N. S. VanDamme, S. M. Richard, and S. R. Winzer, “Liquid-Phase Sintering of Aluminum Nitride by Europium Oxide Additives,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 72(8), 1409–1414 (1989).
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Vasilevskaya, T. N.

A. A. Kaplyanskiĭ, A. B. Kulinkin, A. B. Kutsenko, S. P. Feofilov, R. I. Zakharchenya, and T. N. Vasilevskaya, “Optical spectra of triply-charged rare-earth ions in polycrystalline corundum,” Phys. Solid State 40(8), 1310–1316 (1998).
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U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+(4f4) and Sm3+(4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205201 (2006).
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U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+(4f4) and Sm3+(4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205201 (2006).
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Wang, Y.

Y. Xiong, Z. Fu, Y. Wang, and F. Quan, “Fabrication of Transparent AlN Ceramic,” J. Mater. Sci. 41(8), 2537–2539 (2006).
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R. Weingartner, O. Erlenbach, A. Winnacker, A. Welte, I. Brauer, H. Mendel, H. P. Strunk, C. T. M. Ribeiro, and A. R. Zanatta, “Thermal Activation, Cathodo- and Photoluminescence Measurements of Rare Earth doped (Tm, Tb, Dy, Eu, Sm, Yb,) amorphous/ nanocrystalline AlN Thin Films Prepared by Reactive RF-Sputtering,” Opt. Mater. 28(6-7), 790–793 (2006).
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Welte, A.

R. Weingartner, O. Erlenbach, A. Winnacker, A. Welte, I. Brauer, H. Mendel, H. P. Strunk, C. T. M. Ribeiro, and A. R. Zanatta, “Thermal Activation, Cathodo- and Photoluminescence Measurements of Rare Earth doped (Tm, Tb, Dy, Eu, Sm, Yb,) amorphous/ nanocrystalline AlN Thin Films Prepared by Reactive RF-Sputtering,” Opt. Mater. 28(6-7), 790–793 (2006).
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Wilson, R. G.

M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of erbium implanted gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2641–2643 (1997).
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Winnacker, A.

R. Weingartner, O. Erlenbach, A. Winnacker, A. Welte, I. Brauer, H. Mendel, H. P. Strunk, C. T. M. Ribeiro, and A. R. Zanatta, “Thermal Activation, Cathodo- and Photoluminescence Measurements of Rare Earth doped (Tm, Tb, Dy, Eu, Sm, Yb,) amorphous/ nanocrystalline AlN Thin Films Prepared by Reactive RF-Sputtering,” Opt. Mater. 28(6-7), 790–793 (2006).
[Crossref]

Winzer, S. R.

N. S. VanDamme, S. M. Richard, and S. R. Winzer, “Liquid-Phase Sintering of Aluminum Nitride by Europium Oxide Additives,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 72(8), 1409–1414 (1989).
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Woodward, N. T.

Wraback, M.

Wright, J. C.

D. M. Gill, J. C. Wright, and L. McCaughan, “Site characterization of rare-earth-doped LiNbO3 using total site selective spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(19), 2483–2485 (1994).
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Xie, R.-J.

B. Dierre, X. L. Yuan, K. Inoue, N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, and T. Sekiguchi, “Role of Si in the Luminescence of AlN:Eu,Si Phosphors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(6), 1272–1275 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Inoue, T. Sekiguchi, B. Dierre, and K. Tamura, “Blue-emitting AlN:Eu2+ Nitride Phosphor for Field Emission Displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xiong, Y.

Y. Xiong, Z. Fu, Y. Wang, and F. Quan, “Fabrication of Transparent AlN Ceramic,” J. Mater. Sci. 41(8), 2537–2539 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yow, R. M.

J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, D. K. Sardar, R. M. Yow, C. C. Russell, T. H. Allik, and B. Zandi, “Spectral analysis and energy-level structure of Er3+(4f11) in polycrystalline ceramic garnet Y3Al5O12,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X. L.

B. Dierre, X. L. Yuan, K. Inoue, N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, and T. Sekiguchi, “Role of Si in the Luminescence of AlN:Eu,Si Phosphors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(6), 1272–1275 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zakharchenya, R. I.

A. A. Kaplyanskiĭ, A. B. Kulinkin, A. B. Kutsenko, S. P. Feofilov, R. I. Zakharchenya, and T. N. Vasilevskaya, “Optical spectra of triply-charged rare-earth ions in polycrystalline corundum,” Phys. Solid State 40(8), 1310–1316 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zanatta, A. R.

R. Weingartner, O. Erlenbach, A. Winnacker, A. Welte, I. Brauer, H. Mendel, H. P. Strunk, C. T. M. Ribeiro, and A. R. Zanatta, “Thermal Activation, Cathodo- and Photoluminescence Measurements of Rare Earth doped (Tm, Tb, Dy, Eu, Sm, Yb,) amorphous/ nanocrystalline AlN Thin Films Prepared by Reactive RF-Sputtering,” Opt. Mater. 28(6-7), 790–793 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zandi, B.

U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+(4f4) and Sm3+(4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205201 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, D. K. Sardar, R. M. Yow, C. C. Russell, T. H. Allik, and B. Zandi, “Spectral analysis and energy-level structure of Er3+(4f11) in polycrystalline ceramic garnet Y3Al5O12,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zavada, J.

V. Dierolf, C. Sandmann, J. Zavada, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Site-selective spectroscopy of Er in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5464–5470 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zavada, J. M.

A. J. Steckl and J. M. Zavada, “Photonic Applications of Rare-Earth-Doped Materials,” MRS Bull. 24, 33–38 (1999).

M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of erbium implanted gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2641–2643 (1997).
[Crossref]

Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. (1)

L. M. Sheppard, “Aluminum Nitride: A Versatile but Challenging Material,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 69(11), 1801–1812 (1990).

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

J. Akiyama, Y. Sato, and T. Taira, “Laser Demonstration of Diode-Pumped Nd3+-Doped Fluorapatite Anisotropic Ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(2), 022703 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

E. D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061108 (2008).
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D. M. Gill, J. C. Wright, and L. McCaughan, “Site characterization of rare-earth-doped LiNbO3 using total site selective spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(19), 2483–2485 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of erbium implanted gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2641–2643 (1997).
[Crossref]

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Inoue, T. Sekiguchi, B. Dierre, and K. Tamura, “Blue-emitting AlN:Eu2+ Nitride Phosphor for Field Emission Displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ceram. Int. (1)

T. Honma, Y. Kuroki, T. Okamoto, M. Takata, Y. Kanechika, M. Azuma, and H. Taniguchi, “Transmittance and Cathodoluminescence of AlN Ceramics Sintered with Ca3Al2O6 as Sintering Additive,” Ceram. Int. 34(4), 943–946 (2008).
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S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

N. S. VanDamme, S. M. Richard, and S. R. Winzer, “Liquid-Phase Sintering of Aluminum Nitride by Europium Oxide Additives,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 72(8), 1409–1414 (1989).
[Crossref]

B. Dierre, X. L. Yuan, K. Inoue, N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, and T. Sekiguchi, “Role of Si in the Luminescence of AlN:Eu,Si Phosphors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(6), 1272–1275 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

V. Dierolf, C. Sandmann, J. Zavada, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Site-selective spectroscopy of Er in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5464–5470 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023714 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, D. K. Sardar, R. M. Yow, C. C. Russell, T. H. Allik, and B. Zandi, “Spectral analysis and energy-level structure of Er3+(4f11) in polycrystalline ceramic garnet Y3Al5O12,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063519 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

G. A. Slack, L. J. Schowalter, D. Morelli, and J. A. Freitas., “Some Effects of Oxygen Impurities on AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 246(3-4), 287–298 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

B. Han, K. C. Mishra, M. Raukas, K. Klinedinst, J. Tao, and J. B. Talbot, “Investigation of Luminescence from Dy3+ in AlN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(1), J44–J52 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Transmittance (as a fraction, not percent) of 1.15 mm thick sample of Er:AlN ceramic. Upper left inset: 1 mm thick sample, backlit. Lower right inset: Absorption coefficient in the region of Er3+ 4I13/2 absorption.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 X-ray diffraction pattern of portion of crushed and ground Er:AlN ceramic.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Typical room temperature fluorescence of Er:AlN upon broadband excitation at 970 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Er:AlN fluorescence from a single sample at approximately 20 K, for narrow-line excitation into the 4I11/2 manifold at several wavelengths: 961.18 nm (green), 962.52 nm (blue), 979.08 nm (brown), 981.02 nm (red), and 986.00 nm (black).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Spectrofluorometric spectra of Er:AlN at approximately 20 K, for excitation wavelengths covering the 4I9/2 manifold. Increasing intensities are denoted by shading that cycles repeatedly through white, gray and black. Ellipses highlight the emission spectra most commonly observed, and thus from the Er site presumed to be dominant. The rectangle highlights the second-most common emission spectrum.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Spectrofluorometric spectra of Er:AlN at approximately 20 K, for excitation wavelengths covering the 4I11/2 manifold. Increasing intensities are denoted by shading that cycles repeatedly through white, gray and black. The ellipse highlights the emission spectra of Er in the presumed dominant site. The rectangles highlight the second-most common emission spectrum.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Fluorescence decay curve of the Er:AlN 4I13/2 manifold emission at ~20 K upon pulsed excitation at 805.8 nm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Fluorescence lifetime of Er:AlN vs temperature, following excitation at 806 ± 0.1 nm (an absorption line of the presumed dominant site). Circles and triangles indicate data for two different emission wavelengths.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Normalized room temperature (red trace) and ~20 K (blue trace) fluorescence of the presumed dominant site in Er:AlN. Hash marks denote the wavelengths predicted for transitions between the energy levels in Table 1, with the lowest row of marks (red) indicating transitions from the lowest 4I13/2 level to each level of 4I15/2, the second row (orange) transitions from the second-lowest 4I13/2 level, and so on.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Room temperature stimulated emission (red trace) and ground state absorption (blue trace) spectra of Er3+ in the presumed dominant site of Er:AlN.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Energy Levels of Er3+ in the Presumed Dominant Site in Er:AlN, Inferred from Spectra

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