Abstract

Nanocrystalline ZnO doped with Ag-nanoclusters has been synthesized by a salt solid state reaction. Three overlapping broad emission bands due to the Ag nanoclusters have been detected at about 570, 750 and 900 nm. These emission bands are excited by an energy transfer from the exciton state of the ZnO host when pumped in the wavelength range from 250 to 400 nm. The 900 nm emission band shows characteristic orbital splitting into three components pointing out that the anisotropic crystalline wurtzite host of ZnO is responsible for this feature. Heat-treatment and temperature dependence studies confirm the origin of these emission bands. An energy level diagram for the emission process and a model for Ag nanoclusters sites are suggested. The emission of nanocrystalline ZnO doped with Ag nanoclusters may be applied for white light generation, displays driven by UV light, down-convertors for solar cells and luminescent lamps.

©2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012 (4)

A. S. Kuznetsov, N. T. Cuong, V. K. Tikhomirov, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, L. F. Chibotaru, J. J. Velázquez, V. D. Rodríguez, D. Kirilenko, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Effect of heat-treatment on luminescence and structure of Ag nanoclusters doped oxyfluoride glasses and implication for fiber drawing,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 616–621 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. T. Sapkal, S. S. Shinde, A. R. Babar, A. V. Moholkar, K. Y. Rajpure, and C. H. Bhosale, “Structural, morphological, optical and photoluminescence properties of Ag-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Mater. Express 2(1), 64–70 (2012).
[Crossref]

L.-N. Wang, L.-Z. Hu, H.-Q. Zhang, Y. Qiu, Y. Lang, G.-Q. Liu, G.-W. Qu, J.-Y. Ji, and J.-X. Ma, “Effect of substrate temperature on the structural and Raman properties of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29(1), 017302 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (9)

G. Chai, C. Lin, J. Wang, M. Zhang, J. Wei, and W. Cheng, “Density functional theory simulations of structures and properties for Ag-doped ZnO nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(7), 2907–2913 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Díez and R. H. A. Ras, “Fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Nanoscale 3(5), 1963–1970 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. V. Shestakov, V. K. Tikhomirov, D. Kirilenko, A. S. Kuznetsov, L. F. Chibotaru, A. N. Baranov, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Quantum cutting in Li (770 nm) and Yb (1000 nm) co-dopant emission bands by energy transfer from the ZnO nano-crystalline host,” Opt. Express 19(17), 15955–15964 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chen, S. C. Hung, C. H. Lee, C. J. Tun, C. H. Kuo, M. D. Yang, C. W. Yeh, C. H. Wu, and G. C. Chi, “Nonpolar light emitting diode made by m-plane n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(8), 1555–1560 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y.-S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[Crossref]

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Suwanboon, P. Amornpitoksuk, and A. Sukolrat, “Dependence of optical properties on doping metal, crystallite size and defect concentration of M-doped ZnO nanopowders (M = Al, Mg, Ti),” Ceram. Int. 37(4), 1359–1365 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Baltakesmez, S. Tekmen, and S. Tüzemen, “ZnO homojunction white light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 054502 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Hussain, N. Bano, S. Hussain, O. Nur, and M. Willander, “Study of intrinsic white light emission and its components from ZnO-nanorods/p-polymer hybrid junctions grown on glass substrates,” J. Mater. Sci. 46(23), 7437–7442 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

2009 (3)

Y. Chen, X. L. Xu, G. H. Zhang, H. Xue, and S. Y. Ma, “A comparative study of the microstructures and optical properties of Cu- and Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Physica B 404(20), 3645–3649 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Lee, S.-Y. Hu, W. Water, K.-K. Tiong, Z.-C. Feng, Y.-T. Chen, J.-C. Huang, J.-W. Lee, C.-C. Huang, J.-L. Shen, and M.-H. Cheng, “Rapid thermal annealing effects on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films deposited on Si substrates,” J. Lumin. 129(2), 148–152 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Janotti and C. G. Van de Walle, “Fundamentals of zinc oxide as a semiconductor,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(12), 126501 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 235–239 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

K. S. Leschkies, R. Divakar, J. Basu, E. Enache-Pommer, J. E. Boercker, C. B. Carter, U. R. Kortshagen, D. J. Norris, and E. S. Aydil, “Photosensitization of ZnO nanowires with CdSe quantum dots for photovoltaic devices,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1793–1798 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Klingshirn, “ZnO: From basics towards applications,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244(9), 3027–3073 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. T. Kuo, W. H. Tuan, J. Shieh, and S. F. Wang, “Effect of Ag on the microstructure and electrical properties of ZnO,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 27(16), 4521–4527 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Zheng, P. R. Nicovich, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent noble-metal quantum dots,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 409–431 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

T. Hirai, Y. Harada, S. Hashimoto, T. Itoh, and N. Ohno, “Luminescence of excitons in mesoscopic ZnO particles,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 196–199 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. N. Baranov, G. N. Panin, T. W. Kang, and Y.-J. Oh, “Growth of ZnO nanorods from a salt mixture,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1918–1923 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. Fujihara, Y. Ogawa, and A. Kasai, “Tunable visible photoluminescence from ZnO thin films through Mg-doping and annealing,” Chem. Mater. 16(15), 2965–2968 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. N. Baranov, C. H. Chang, O. A. Shlyakhtin, G. N. Panin, T. W. Kang, and Y.-J. Oh, “In situ study of the ZnO–NaCl system during the growth of ZnO nanorods,” Nanotechnology 15(11), 1613–1619 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. C. Pickering and V. Zilio, “New accurate data for the spectrum of neutral silver,” Eur. Phys. J. D 13(2), 181–185 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

E. M. Wong and P. C. Searson, “ZnO quantum particle thin films fabricated by electrophoretic deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(20), 2939–2941 (1999).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

Y. M. Gerbshtein and Y. M. Zelikin, “On the red luminescence band of zinc oxide,” Opt. Spectrosc. 28, 521–522 (1970).

1959 (1)

V. V. Osiko, “Low-temperature luminescence of zinc oxide in the infrared region of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc. 7, 770–775 (1959).

Alivov, Y. I.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Amornpitoksuk, P.

S. Suwanboon, P. Amornpitoksuk, and A. Sukolrat, “Dependence of optical properties on doping metal, crystallite size and defect concentration of M-doped ZnO nanopowders (M = Al, Mg, Ti),” Ceram. Int. 37(4), 1359–1365 (2011).
[Crossref]

Avrutin, V.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Aydil, E. S.

K. S. Leschkies, R. Divakar, J. Basu, E. Enache-Pommer, J. E. Boercker, C. B. Carter, U. R. Kortshagen, D. J. Norris, and E. S. Aydil, “Photosensitization of ZnO nanowires with CdSe quantum dots for photovoltaic devices,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1793–1798 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babar, A. R.

R. T. Sapkal, S. S. Shinde, A. R. Babar, A. V. Moholkar, K. Y. Rajpure, and C. H. Bhosale, “Structural, morphological, optical and photoluminescence properties of Ag-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Mater. Express 2(1), 64–70 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baltakesmez, A.

A. Baltakesmez, S. Tekmen, and S. Tüzemen, “ZnO homojunction white light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 054502 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bano, N.

I. Hussain, N. Bano, S. Hussain, O. Nur, and M. Willander, “Study of intrinsic white light emission and its components from ZnO-nanorods/p-polymer hybrid junctions grown on glass substrates,” J. Mater. Sci. 46(23), 7437–7442 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baranov, A. N.

M. V. Shestakov, V. K. Tikhomirov, D. Kirilenko, A. S. Kuznetsov, L. F. Chibotaru, A. N. Baranov, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Quantum cutting in Li (770 nm) and Yb (1000 nm) co-dopant emission bands by energy transfer from the ZnO nano-crystalline host,” Opt. Express 19(17), 15955–15964 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Baranov, G. N. Panin, T. W. Kang, and Y.-J. Oh, “Growth of ZnO nanorods from a salt mixture,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1918–1923 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. N. Baranov, C. H. Chang, O. A. Shlyakhtin, G. N. Panin, T. W. Kang, and Y.-J. Oh, “In situ study of the ZnO–NaCl system during the growth of ZnO nanorods,” Nanotechnology 15(11), 1613–1619 (2004).
[Crossref]

Basu, J.

K. S. Leschkies, R. Divakar, J. Basu, E. Enache-Pommer, J. E. Boercker, C. B. Carter, U. R. Kortshagen, D. J. Norris, and E. S. Aydil, “Photosensitization of ZnO nanowires with CdSe quantum dots for photovoltaic devices,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1793–1798 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhosale, C. H.

R. T. Sapkal, S. S. Shinde, A. R. Babar, A. V. Moholkar, K. Y. Rajpure, and C. H. Bhosale, “Structural, morphological, optical and photoluminescence properties of Ag-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Mater. Express 2(1), 64–70 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boercker, J. E.

K. S. Leschkies, R. Divakar, J. Basu, E. Enache-Pommer, J. E. Boercker, C. B. Carter, U. R. Kortshagen, D. J. Norris, and E. S. Aydil, “Photosensitization of ZnO nanowires with CdSe quantum dots for photovoltaic devices,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1793–1798 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carter, C. B.

K. S. Leschkies, R. Divakar, J. Basu, E. Enache-Pommer, J. E. Boercker, C. B. Carter, U. R. Kortshagen, D. J. Norris, and E. S. Aydil, “Photosensitization of ZnO nanowires with CdSe quantum dots for photovoltaic devices,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1793–1798 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chai, G.

G. Chai, C. Lin, J. Wang, M. Zhang, J. Wei, and W. Cheng, “Density functional theory simulations of structures and properties for Ag-doped ZnO nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(7), 2907–2913 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. H.

A. N. Baranov, C. H. Chang, O. A. Shlyakhtin, G. N. Panin, T. W. Kang, and Y.-J. Oh, “In situ study of the ZnO–NaCl system during the growth of ZnO nanorods,” Nanotechnology 15(11), 1613–1619 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. W.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, X. L. Xu, G. H. Zhang, H. Xue, and S. Y. Ma, “A comparative study of the microstructures and optical properties of Cu- and Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Physica B 404(20), 3645–3649 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-T.

Y.-C. Lee, S.-Y. Hu, W. Water, K.-K. Tiong, Z.-C. Feng, Y.-T. Chen, J.-C. Huang, J.-W. Lee, C.-C. Huang, J.-L. Shen, and M.-H. Cheng, “Rapid thermal annealing effects on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films deposited on Si substrates,” J. Lumin. 129(2), 148–152 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cheng, M.-H.

Y.-C. Lee, S.-Y. Hu, W. Water, K.-K. Tiong, Z.-C. Feng, Y.-T. Chen, J.-C. Huang, J.-W. Lee, C.-C. Huang, J.-L. Shen, and M.-H. Cheng, “Rapid thermal annealing effects on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films deposited on Si substrates,” J. Lumin. 129(2), 148–152 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cheng, W.

G. Chai, C. Lin, J. Wang, M. Zhang, J. Wei, and W. Cheng, “Density functional theory simulations of structures and properties for Ag-doped ZnO nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(7), 2907–2913 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chi, G. C.

Chibotaru, L. F.

A. S. Kuznetsov, N. T. Cuong, V. K. Tikhomirov, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, L. F. Chibotaru, J. J. Velázquez, V. D. Rodríguez, D. Kirilenko, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Effect of heat-treatment on luminescence and structure of Ag nanoclusters doped oxyfluoride glasses and implication for fiber drawing,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 616–621 (2012).
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Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
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Choi, Y.-S.

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y.-S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
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Contreras, M. A.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 235–239 (2008).
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Cuong, N. T.

A. S. Kuznetsov, N. T. Cuong, V. K. Tikhomirov, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, L. F. Chibotaru, J. J. Velázquez, V. D. Rodríguez, D. Kirilenko, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Effect of heat-treatment on luminescence and structure of Ag nanoclusters doped oxyfluoride glasses and implication for fiber drawing,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 616–621 (2012).
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DeHart, C.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 235–239 (2008).
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DenBaars, S. P.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
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J. Zheng, P. R. Nicovich, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent noble-metal quantum dots,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 409–431 (2007).
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I. Díez and R. H. A. Ras, “Fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Nanoscale 3(5), 1963–1970 (2011).
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K. S. Leschkies, R. Divakar, J. Basu, E. Enache-Pommer, J. E. Boercker, C. B. Carter, U. R. Kortshagen, D. J. Norris, and E. S. Aydil, “Photosensitization of ZnO nanowires with CdSe quantum dots for photovoltaic devices,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1793–1798 (2007).
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Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
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Ee, Y.-K.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
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Egaas, B.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 235–239 (2008).
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K. S. Leschkies, R. Divakar, J. Basu, E. Enache-Pommer, J. E. Boercker, C. B. Carter, U. R. Kortshagen, D. J. Norris, and E. S. Aydil, “Photosensitization of ZnO nanowires with CdSe quantum dots for photovoltaic devices,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1793–1798 (2007).
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Fan, K.

L. Lu, R. Li, K. Fan, and T. Peng, “Effects of annealing conditions on the photoelectrochemical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells made with ZnO nanoparticles,” Sol. Energy 84(5), 844–853 (2010).
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R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
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Y.-C. Lee, S.-Y. Hu, W. Water, K.-K. Tiong, Z.-C. Feng, Y.-T. Chen, J.-C. Huang, J.-W. Lee, C.-C. Huang, J.-L. Shen, and M.-H. Cheng, “Rapid thermal annealing effects on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films deposited on Si substrates,” J. Lumin. 129(2), 148–152 (2009).
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S. Fujihara, Y. Ogawa, and A. Kasai, “Tunable visible photoluminescence from ZnO thin films through Mg-doping and annealing,” Chem. Mater. 16(15), 2965–2968 (2004).
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Y. M. Gerbshtein and Y. M. Zelikin, “On the red luminescence band of zinc oxide,” Opt. Spectrosc. 28, 521–522 (1970).

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X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

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T. Hirai, Y. Harada, S. Hashimoto, T. Itoh, and N. Ohno, “Luminescence of excitons in mesoscopic ZnO particles,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 196–199 (2005).
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T. Hirai, Y. Harada, S. Hashimoto, T. Itoh, and N. Ohno, “Luminescence of excitons in mesoscopic ZnO particles,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 196–199 (2005).
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He, F.

Hirai, T.

T. Hirai, Y. Harada, S. Hashimoto, T. Itoh, and N. Ohno, “Luminescence of excitons in mesoscopic ZnO particles,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 196–199 (2005).
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Ü. Özgür, D. Hofstetter, and H. Morkoç, “ZnO devices and applications: a review of current status and future prospects,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1255–1268 (2010).
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Hu, E. L.

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y.-S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hu, L.-Z.

L.-N. Wang, L.-Z. Hu, H.-Q. Zhang, Y. Qiu, Y. Lang, G.-Q. Liu, G.-W. Qu, J.-Y. Ji, and J.-X. Ma, “Effect of substrate temperature on the structural and Raman properties of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29(1), 017302 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, S.-Y.

Y.-C. Lee, S.-Y. Hu, W. Water, K.-K. Tiong, Z.-C. Feng, Y.-T. Chen, J.-C. Huang, J.-W. Lee, C.-C. Huang, J.-L. Shen, and M.-H. Cheng, “Rapid thermal annealing effects on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films deposited on Si substrates,” J. Lumin. 129(2), 148–152 (2009).
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Huang, C.-C.

Y.-C. Lee, S.-Y. Hu, W. Water, K.-K. Tiong, Z.-C. Feng, Y.-T. Chen, J.-C. Huang, J.-W. Lee, C.-C. Huang, J.-L. Shen, and M.-H. Cheng, “Rapid thermal annealing effects on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films deposited on Si substrates,” J. Lumin. 129(2), 148–152 (2009).
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Huang, J.-C.

Y.-C. Lee, S.-Y. Hu, W. Water, K.-K. Tiong, Z.-C. Feng, Y.-T. Chen, J.-C. Huang, J.-W. Lee, C.-C. Huang, J.-L. Shen, and M.-H. Cheng, “Rapid thermal annealing effects on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films deposited on Si substrates,” J. Lumin. 129(2), 148–152 (2009).
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Hussain, I.

I. Hussain, N. Bano, S. Hussain, O. Nur, and M. Willander, “Study of intrinsic white light emission and its components from ZnO-nanorods/p-polymer hybrid junctions grown on glass substrates,” J. Mater. Sci. 46(23), 7437–7442 (2011).
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I. Hussain, N. Bano, S. Hussain, O. Nur, and M. Willander, “Study of intrinsic white light emission and its components from ZnO-nanorods/p-polymer hybrid junctions grown on glass substrates,” J. Mater. Sci. 46(23), 7437–7442 (2011).
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T. Hirai, Y. Harada, S. Hashimoto, T. Itoh, and N. Ohno, “Luminescence of excitons in mesoscopic ZnO particles,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 196–199 (2005).
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L.-N. Wang, L.-Z. Hu, H.-Q. Zhang, Y. Qiu, Y. Lang, G.-Q. Liu, G.-W. Qu, J.-Y. Ji, and J.-X. Ma, “Effect of substrate temperature on the structural and Raman properties of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29(1), 017302 (2012).
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Jiang, N.

Jivanescu, M.

A. S. Kuznetsov, N. T. Cuong, V. K. Tikhomirov, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, L. F. Chibotaru, J. J. Velázquez, V. D. Rodríguez, D. Kirilenko, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Effect of heat-treatment on luminescence and structure of Ag nanoclusters doped oxyfluoride glasses and implication for fiber drawing,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 616–621 (2012).
[Crossref]

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A. N. Baranov, G. N. Panin, T. W. Kang, and Y.-J. Oh, “Growth of ZnO nanorods from a salt mixture,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1918–1923 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. N. Baranov, C. H. Chang, O. A. Shlyakhtin, G. N. Panin, T. W. Kang, and Y.-J. Oh, “In situ study of the ZnO–NaCl system during the growth of ZnO nanorods,” Nanotechnology 15(11), 1613–1619 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kasai, A.

S. Fujihara, Y. Ogawa, and A. Kasai, “Tunable visible photoluminescence from ZnO thin films through Mg-doping and annealing,” Chem. Mater. 16(15), 2965–2968 (2004).
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K. S. Leschkies, R. Divakar, J. Basu, E. Enache-Pommer, J. E. Boercker, C. B. Carter, U. R. Kortshagen, D. J. Norris, and E. S. Aydil, “Photosensitization of ZnO nanowires with CdSe quantum dots for photovoltaic devices,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1793–1798 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumnorkaew, P.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
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Kuo, S. T.

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Lang, Y.

L.-N. Wang, L.-Z. Hu, H.-Q. Zhang, Y. Qiu, Y. Lang, G.-Q. Liu, G.-W. Qu, J.-Y. Ji, and J.-X. Ma, “Effect of substrate temperature on the structural and Raman properties of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29(1), 017302 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. H.

Lee, J.-W.

Y.-C. Lee, S.-Y. Hu, W. Water, K.-K. Tiong, Z.-C. Feng, Y.-T. Chen, J.-C. Huang, J.-W. Lee, C.-C. Huang, J.-L. Shen, and M.-H. Cheng, “Rapid thermal annealing effects on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films deposited on Si substrates,” J. Lumin. 129(2), 148–152 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Y.-C. Lee, S.-Y. Hu, W. Water, K.-K. Tiong, Z.-C. Feng, Y.-T. Chen, J.-C. Huang, J.-W. Lee, C.-C. Huang, J.-L. Shen, and M.-H. Cheng, “Rapid thermal annealing effects on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films deposited on Si substrates,” J. Lumin. 129(2), 148–152 (2009).
[Crossref]

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K. S. Leschkies, R. Divakar, J. Basu, E. Enache-Pommer, J. E. Boercker, C. B. Carter, U. R. Kortshagen, D. J. Norris, and E. S. Aydil, “Photosensitization of ZnO nanowires with CdSe quantum dots for photovoltaic devices,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1793–1798 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, R.

L. Lu, R. Li, K. Fan, and T. Peng, “Effects of annealing conditions on the photoelectrochemical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells made with ZnO nanoparticles,” Sol. Energy 84(5), 844–853 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, X.-H.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
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G. Chai, C. Lin, J. Wang, M. Zhang, J. Wei, and W. Cheng, “Density functional theory simulations of structures and properties for Ag-doped ZnO nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(7), 2907–2913 (2011).
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Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
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Liu, G.-Q.

L.-N. Wang, L.-Z. Hu, H.-Q. Zhang, Y. Qiu, Y. Lang, G.-Q. Liu, G.-W. Qu, J.-Y. Ji, and J.-X. Ma, “Effect of substrate temperature on the structural and Raman properties of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29(1), 017302 (2012).
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Liu, X.

Lu, L.

L. Lu, R. Li, K. Fan, and T. Peng, “Effects of annealing conditions on the photoelectrochemical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells made with ZnO nanoparticles,” Sol. Energy 84(5), 844–853 (2010).
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Ma, J.-X.

L.-N. Wang, L.-Z. Hu, H.-Q. Zhang, Y. Qiu, Y. Lang, G.-Q. Liu, G.-W. Qu, J.-Y. Ji, and J.-X. Ma, “Effect of substrate temperature on the structural and Raman properties of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29(1), 017302 (2012).
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Ma, S. Y.

Y. Chen, X. L. Xu, G. H. Zhang, H. Xue, and S. Y. Ma, “A comparative study of the microstructures and optical properties of Cu- and Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Physica B 404(20), 3645–3649 (2009).
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E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y.-S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Moholkar, A. V.

R. T. Sapkal, S. S. Shinde, A. R. Babar, A. V. Moholkar, K. Y. Rajpure, and C. H. Bhosale, “Structural, morphological, optical and photoluminescence properties of Ag-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Mater. Express 2(1), 64–70 (2012).
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Ü. Özgür, D. Hofstetter, and H. Morkoç, “ZnO devices and applications: a review of current status and future prospects,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1255–1268 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Moshchalkov, V. V.

Nicovich, P. R.

J. Zheng, P. R. Nicovich, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent noble-metal quantum dots,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 409–431 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. S. Leschkies, R. Divakar, J. Basu, E. Enache-Pommer, J. E. Boercker, C. B. Carter, U. R. Kortshagen, D. J. Norris, and E. S. Aydil, “Photosensitization of ZnO nanowires with CdSe quantum dots for photovoltaic devices,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1793–1798 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noufi, R.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 235–239 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nur, O.

I. Hussain, N. Bano, S. Hussain, O. Nur, and M. Willander, “Study of intrinsic white light emission and its components from ZnO-nanorods/p-polymer hybrid junctions grown on glass substrates,” J. Mater. Sci. 46(23), 7437–7442 (2011).
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S. Fujihara, Y. Ogawa, and A. Kasai, “Tunable visible photoluminescence from ZnO thin films through Mg-doping and annealing,” Chem. Mater. 16(15), 2965–2968 (2004).
[Crossref]

Oh, Y.-J.

A. N. Baranov, G. N. Panin, T. W. Kang, and Y.-J. Oh, “Growth of ZnO nanorods from a salt mixture,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1918–1923 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. N. Baranov, C. H. Chang, O. A. Shlyakhtin, G. N. Panin, T. W. Kang, and Y.-J. Oh, “In situ study of the ZnO–NaCl system during the growth of ZnO nanorods,” Nanotechnology 15(11), 1613–1619 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ohno, N.

T. Hirai, Y. Harada, S. Hashimoto, T. Itoh, and N. Ohno, “Luminescence of excitons in mesoscopic ZnO particles,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 196–199 (2005).
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Ü. Özgür, D. Hofstetter, and H. Morkoç, “ZnO devices and applications: a review of current status and future prospects,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1255–1268 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Panin, G. N.

A. N. Baranov, G. N. Panin, T. W. Kang, and Y.-J. Oh, “Growth of ZnO nanorods from a salt mixture,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1918–1923 (2005).
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A. N. Baranov, C. H. Chang, O. A. Shlyakhtin, G. N. Panin, T. W. Kang, and Y.-J. Oh, “In situ study of the ZnO–NaCl system during the growth of ZnO nanorods,” Nanotechnology 15(11), 1613–1619 (2004).
[Crossref]

Peng, T.

L. Lu, R. Li, K. Fan, and T. Peng, “Effects of annealing conditions on the photoelectrochemical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells made with ZnO nanoparticles,” Sol. Energy 84(5), 844–853 (2010).
[Crossref]

Perkins, C. L.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 235–239 (2008).
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Qiu, J. R.

Qiu, Y.

L.-N. Wang, L.-Z. Hu, H.-Q. Zhang, Y. Qiu, Y. Lang, G.-Q. Liu, G.-W. Qu, J.-Y. Ji, and J.-X. Ma, “Effect of substrate temperature on the structural and Raman properties of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29(1), 017302 (2012).
[Crossref]

Qu, G.-W.

L.-N. Wang, L.-Z. Hu, H.-Q. Zhang, Y. Qiu, Y. Lang, G.-Q. Liu, G.-W. Qu, J.-Y. Ji, and J.-X. Ma, “Effect of substrate temperature on the structural and Raman properties of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29(1), 017302 (2012).
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Rajpure, K. Y.

R. T. Sapkal, S. S. Shinde, A. R. Babar, A. V. Moholkar, K. Y. Rajpure, and C. H. Bhosale, “Structural, morphological, optical and photoluminescence properties of Ag-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Mater. Express 2(1), 64–70 (2012).
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Rangel, E.

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y.-S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
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Ras, R. H. A.

I. Díez and R. H. A. Ras, “Fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Nanoscale 3(5), 1963–1970 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 235–239 (2008).
[Crossref]

Reshchikov, M. A.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rodríguez, V. D.

A. S. Kuznetsov, N. T. Cuong, V. K. Tikhomirov, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, L. F. Chibotaru, J. J. Velázquez, V. D. Rodríguez, D. Kirilenko, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Effect of heat-treatment on luminescence and structure of Ag nanoclusters doped oxyfluoride glasses and implication for fiber drawing,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 616–621 (2012).
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V. K. Tikhomirov, V. D. Rodríguez, A. S. Kuznetsov, D. Kirilenko, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Preparation and luminescence of bulk oxyfluoride glasses doped with Ag nanoclusters,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22032–22040 (2010).
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[Crossref]

Scharf, J.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 235–239 (2008).
[Crossref]

Searson, P. C.

E. M. Wong and P. C. Searson, “ZnO quantum particle thin films fabricated by electrophoretic deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(20), 2939–2941 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shen, J.-L.

Y.-C. Lee, S.-Y. Hu, W. Water, K.-K. Tiong, Z.-C. Feng, Y.-T. Chen, J.-C. Huang, J.-W. Lee, C.-C. Huang, J.-L. Shen, and M.-H. Cheng, “Rapid thermal annealing effects on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films deposited on Si substrates,” J. Lumin. 129(2), 148–152 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shestakov, M. V.

Shieh, J.

S. T. Kuo, W. H. Tuan, J. Shieh, and S. F. Wang, “Effect of Ag on the microstructure and electrical properties of ZnO,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 27(16), 4521–4527 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shinde, S. S.

R. T. Sapkal, S. S. Shinde, A. R. Babar, A. V. Moholkar, K. Y. Rajpure, and C. H. Bhosale, “Structural, morphological, optical and photoluminescence properties of Ag-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Mater. Express 2(1), 64–70 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shlyakhtin, O. A.

A. N. Baranov, C. H. Chang, O. A. Shlyakhtin, G. N. Panin, T. W. Kang, and Y.-J. Oh, “In situ study of the ZnO–NaCl system during the growth of ZnO nanorods,” Nanotechnology 15(11), 1613–1619 (2004).
[Crossref]

Song, R.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y.-S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stesmans, A.

A. S. Kuznetsov, N. T. Cuong, V. K. Tikhomirov, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, L. F. Chibotaru, J. J. Velázquez, V. D. Rodríguez, D. Kirilenko, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Effect of heat-treatment on luminescence and structure of Ag nanoclusters doped oxyfluoride glasses and implication for fiber drawing,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 616–621 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sukolrat, A.

S. Suwanboon, P. Amornpitoksuk, and A. Sukolrat, “Dependence of optical properties on doping metal, crystallite size and defect concentration of M-doped ZnO nanopowders (M = Al, Mg, Ti),” Ceram. Int. 37(4), 1359–1365 (2011).
[Crossref]

Suwanboon, S.

S. Suwanboon, P. Amornpitoksuk, and A. Sukolrat, “Dependence of optical properties on doping metal, crystallite size and defect concentration of M-doped ZnO nanopowders (M = Al, Mg, Ti),” Ceram. Int. 37(4), 1359–1365 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tansu, N.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

Teke, A.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tekmen, S.

A. Baltakesmez, S. Tekmen, and S. Tüzemen, “ZnO homojunction white light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 054502 (2011).
[Crossref]

Teng, Y.

Tikhomirov, V. K.

Tiong, K.-K.

Y.-C. Lee, S.-Y. Hu, W. Water, K.-K. Tiong, Z.-C. Feng, Y.-T. Chen, J.-C. Huang, J.-W. Lee, C.-C. Huang, J.-L. Shen, and M.-H. Cheng, “Rapid thermal annealing effects on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films deposited on Si substrates,” J. Lumin. 129(2), 148–152 (2009).
[Crossref]

To, B.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 235–239 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tuan, W. H.

S. T. Kuo, W. H. Tuan, J. Shieh, and S. F. Wang, “Effect of Ag on the microstructure and electrical properties of ZnO,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 27(16), 4521–4527 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tun, C. J.

Tüzemen, S.

A. Baltakesmez, S. Tekmen, and S. Tüzemen, “ZnO homojunction white light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 054502 (2011).
[Crossref]

Van de Walle, C. G.

A. Janotti and C. G. Van de Walle, “Fundamentals of zinc oxide as a semiconductor,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(12), 126501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Van Tendeloo, G.

Velázquez, J. J.

A. S. Kuznetsov, N. T. Cuong, V. K. Tikhomirov, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, L. F. Chibotaru, J. J. Velázquez, V. D. Rodríguez, D. Kirilenko, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Effect of heat-treatment on luminescence and structure of Ag nanoclusters doped oxyfluoride glasses and implication for fiber drawing,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 616–621 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

G. Chai, C. Lin, J. Wang, M. Zhang, J. Wei, and W. Cheng, “Density functional theory simulations of structures and properties for Ag-doped ZnO nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(7), 2907–2913 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.-N.

L.-N. Wang, L.-Z. Hu, H.-Q. Zhang, Y. Qiu, Y. Lang, G.-Q. Liu, G.-W. Qu, J.-Y. Ji, and J.-X. Ma, “Effect of substrate temperature on the structural and Raman properties of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29(1), 017302 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. F.

S. T. Kuo, W. H. Tuan, J. Shieh, and S. F. Wang, “Effect of Ag on the microstructure and electrical properties of ZnO,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 27(16), 4521–4527 (2007).
[Crossref]

Water, W.

Y.-C. Lee, S.-Y. Hu, W. Water, K.-K. Tiong, Z.-C. Feng, Y.-T. Chen, J.-C. Huang, J.-W. Lee, C.-C. Huang, J.-L. Shen, and M.-H. Cheng, “Rapid thermal annealing effects on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films deposited on Si substrates,” J. Lumin. 129(2), 148–152 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wei, J.

G. Chai, C. Lin, J. Wang, M. Zhang, J. Wei, and W. Cheng, “Density functional theory simulations of structures and properties for Ag-doped ZnO nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(7), 2907–2913 (2011).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y.-S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Willander, M.

I. Hussain, N. Bano, S. Hussain, O. Nur, and M. Willander, “Study of intrinsic white light emission and its components from ZnO-nanorods/p-polymer hybrid junctions grown on glass substrates,” J. Mater. Sci. 46(23), 7437–7442 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wong, E. M.

E. M. Wong and P. C. Searson, “ZnO quantum particle thin films fabricated by electrophoretic deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(20), 2939–2941 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. H.

Wu, F.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, X. L.

Y. Chen, X. L. Xu, G. H. Zhang, H. Xue, and S. Y. Ma, “A comparative study of the microstructures and optical properties of Cu- and Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Physica B 404(20), 3645–3649 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xue, H.

Y. Chen, X. L. Xu, G. H. Zhang, H. Xue, and S. Y. Ma, “A comparative study of the microstructures and optical properties of Cu- and Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Physica B 404(20), 3645–3649 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, M. D.

Ye, S.

Yeh, C. W.

Young, E. C.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zelikin, Y. M.

Y. M. Gerbshtein and Y. M. Zelikin, “On the red luminescence band of zinc oxide,” Opt. Spectrosc. 28, 521–522 (1970).

Zhang, G. H.

Y. Chen, X. L. Xu, G. H. Zhang, H. Xue, and S. Y. Ma, “A comparative study of the microstructures and optical properties of Cu- and Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Physica B 404(20), 3645–3649 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.-Q.

L.-N. Wang, L.-Z. Hu, H.-Q. Zhang, Y. Qiu, Y. Lang, G.-Q. Liu, G.-W. Qu, J.-Y. Ji, and J.-X. Ma, “Effect of substrate temperature on the structural and Raman properties of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29(1), 017302 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

G. Chai, C. Lin, J. Wang, M. Zhang, J. Wei, and W. Cheng, “Density functional theory simulations of structures and properties for Ag-doped ZnO nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(7), 2907–2913 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng, P. R. Nicovich, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent noble-metal quantum dots,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 409–431 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

Zhu, B.

Zilio, V.

J. C. Pickering and V. Zilio, “New accurate data for the spectrum of neutral silver,” Eur. Phys. J. D 13(2), 181–185 (2001).
[Crossref]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. Zheng, P. R. Nicovich, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent noble-metal quantum dots,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 409–431 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y.-S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. M. Wong and P. C. Searson, “ZnO quantum particle thin films fabricated by electrophoretic deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(20), 2939–2941 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ceram. Int. (1)

S. Suwanboon, P. Amornpitoksuk, and A. Sukolrat, “Dependence of optical properties on doping metal, crystallite size and defect concentration of M-doped ZnO nanopowders (M = Al, Mg, Ti),” Ceram. Int. 37(4), 1359–1365 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

S. Fujihara, Y. Ogawa, and A. Kasai, “Tunable visible photoluminescence from ZnO thin films through Mg-doping and annealing,” Chem. Mater. 16(15), 2965–2968 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

L.-N. Wang, L.-Z. Hu, H.-Q. Zhang, Y. Qiu, Y. Lang, G.-Q. Liu, G.-W. Qu, J.-Y. Ji, and J.-X. Ma, “Effect of substrate temperature on the structural and Raman properties of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29(1), 017302 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

J. C. Pickering and V. Zilio, “New accurate data for the spectrum of neutral silver,” Eur. Phys. J. D 13(2), 181–185 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Baltakesmez, S. Tekmen, and S. Tüzemen, “ZnO homojunction white light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 054502 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. (1)

S. T. Kuo, W. H. Tuan, J. Shieh, and S. F. Wang, “Effect of Ag on the microstructure and electrical properties of ZnO,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 27(16), 4521–4527 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (2)

T. Hirai, Y. Harada, S. Hashimoto, T. Itoh, and N. Ohno, “Luminescence of excitons in mesoscopic ZnO particles,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 196–199 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Lee, S.-Y. Hu, W. Water, K.-K. Tiong, Z.-C. Feng, Y.-T. Chen, J.-C. Huang, J.-W. Lee, C.-C. Huang, J.-L. Shen, and M.-H. Cheng, “Rapid thermal annealing effects on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films deposited on Si substrates,” J. Lumin. 129(2), 148–152 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

I. Hussain, N. Bano, S. Hussain, O. Nur, and M. Willander, “Study of intrinsic white light emission and its components from ZnO-nanorods/p-polymer hybrid junctions grown on glass substrates,” J. Mater. Sci. 46(23), 7437–7442 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

G. Chai, C. Lin, J. Wang, M. Zhang, J. Wei, and W. Cheng, “Density functional theory simulations of structures and properties for Ag-doped ZnO nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(7), 2907–2913 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mater. Express (1)

R. T. Sapkal, S. S. Shinde, A. R. Babar, A. V. Moholkar, K. Y. Rajpure, and C. H. Bhosale, “Structural, morphological, optical and photoluminescence properties of Ag-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Mater. Express 2(1), 64–70 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

K. S. Leschkies, R. Divakar, J. Basu, E. Enache-Pommer, J. E. Boercker, C. B. Carter, U. R. Kortshagen, D. J. Norris, and E. S. Aydil, “Photosensitization of ZnO nanowires with CdSe quantum dots for photovoltaic devices,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1793–1798 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (1)

I. Díez and R. H. A. Ras, “Fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Nanoscale 3(5), 1963–1970 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (2)

A. N. Baranov, G. N. Panin, T. W. Kang, and Y.-J. Oh, “Growth of ZnO nanorods from a salt mixture,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1918–1923 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. N. Baranov, C. H. Chang, O. A. Shlyakhtin, G. N. Panin, T. W. Kang, and Y.-J. Oh, “In situ study of the ZnO–NaCl system during the growth of ZnO nanorods,” Nanotechnology 15(11), 1613–1619 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Mater. (1)

A. S. Kuznetsov, N. T. Cuong, V. K. Tikhomirov, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, L. F. Chibotaru, J. J. Velázquez, V. D. Rodríguez, D. Kirilenko, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Effect of heat-treatment on luminescence and structure of Ag nanoclusters doped oxyfluoride glasses and implication for fiber drawing,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 616–621 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Opt. Spectrosc. (2)

V. V. Osiko, “Low-temperature luminescence of zinc oxide in the infrared region of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc. 7, 770–775 (1959).

Y. M. Gerbshtein and Y. M. Zelikin, “On the red luminescence band of zinc oxide,” Opt. Spectrosc. 28, 521–522 (1970).

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

C. Klingshirn, “ZnO: From basics towards applications,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244(9), 3027–3073 (2007).
[Crossref]

Physica B (1)

Y. Chen, X. L. Xu, G. H. Zhang, H. Xue, and S. Y. Ma, “A comparative study of the microstructures and optical properties of Cu- and Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Physica B 404(20), 3645–3649 (2009).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

Ü. Özgür, D. Hofstetter, and H. Morkoç, “ZnO devices and applications: a review of current status and future prospects,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1255–1268 (2010).
[Crossref]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 235–239 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

A. Janotti and C. G. Van de Walle, “Fundamentals of zinc oxide as a semiconductor,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(12), 126501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy (1)

L. Lu, R. Li, K. Fan, and T. Peng, “Effects of annealing conditions on the photoelectrochemical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells made with ZnO nanoparticles,” Sol. Energy 84(5), 844–853 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

M. V. Shestakov, A. N. Baranov, Y. V. Zubavichus, V. K. Tikhomirov, A. S. Kuznetsov, A. A. Veligzhanin, A. Y. Kharin, V. Y. Timoshenko, and V. V. Moshchalkov (Catholic University, Leuven) are preparing a manuscript to be called “Preparation and energy transfer luminescence of nanocrystalline ZnO:Yb3+.”

A. S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, and H. Kamimura, Multiplets of Transition-Metal Ion in Crystal (Academic Press, New York, London, 1970).

C. J. Ballhausen, Introduction to Ligand Field Theory (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 XRD patterns of as prepared undoped ZnO (red line) and Ag-doped ZnO (blue line, doping level 1.0 mol%) nanopowders. XRD were recorded using a CuKα line. Bravais-Miller indices of wurtzite ZnO structure are labeled, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Low magnification bright field TEM image of Ag-doped ZnO nanoparticles; (b) the electron diffraction pattern of particles from (a) evidences the ZnO hexagonal wurtzite structure; (c) high resolution HAADF-STEM image of the edge of a ZnO nanoparticle taken along the [ 2 1 ¯ 1 ¯ 0 ] zone axis; no Ag inclusions were detected.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 TEM EDX spectrum of ZnO:Ag nanopowder, doping level 1.0 mol%, confirming doping of these sample nanopowders with silver.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Emission spectra of undoped ZnO and ZnO:Ag (1.0% doping) samples. Excitation was at 355 nm line of Ar laser in a low power regime. The estimated bands peak wavelengths are labeled, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Excitation spectra for three emission bands related to Ag and detected at the post-signed wavelenghts 570, 750 and 905 nm. The excitation spectrum for the intrinsic luminescence band detected at 550 nm is also shown, for comparison.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Effect of excitation power on emission spectrum of (a) undoped ZnO and (b) Ag-doped ZnO nanopowders. The 355 nm line of Ar-ion laser was used for excitation; the respective pump powers are indicated. The samples were heat-treated in oxygen.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Effect of heat-treatment in oxygen on emission of: (a) undoped ZnO and (b) Ag-doped ZnO:Ag (1.0% doping level) nanopowder samples. Excitation was at 355 nm in low power regime at 40 μW. Long wavelength Ag nanoclusters emission bands about 780 and 900 nm are more prominent in oxygen heat treated Ag-doped samples (b), in agreement with Fig. 6(b).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Temperature dependence of the green emission band detected at 560 nm in undoped (black squares) and ZnO:Ag, 1.0% doping level, (red circles) nanopowders.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Schematic diagram for excitation and emission transitions for udoped and Ag-doped ZnO (see text for details); (b) two possible configurations resulting from substitution of Ag dimer onto place of one Zn2+ vacancy.

Equations (1)

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V 2 + Z n = 2 A g +

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