Abstract

The dielectric/Ag structures were fabricated on glass substrates using various metal oxides as dielectrics and their optical properties were studied through transmittance and ellipsometry measurements. The structures with 10 nm Ag film deposited on various metal oxides (Al2O3, ZrO2, SrTiO3, TiO2, CaCu3Ti4O12, WO3 and HfO2) of 30 nm showed enhancement in transmittance compared to bare Ag film in the visible region. This enhancement in transmittance was explained through suppression of surface plasmon coupling at the dielectric/Ag interface. The surface plasmon wave-vector (kSP) was calculated using the measured dielectric constants for the dielectric and Ag through ellipsometry and employed to analyze the transmittance data. The kSP/k0 and δSP values were estimated and used to interpret the enhanced visible transmittance for different dielectric/Ag structures.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

S. H. Choi, R. Pandey, C. H. Wie, Y. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, D. H. Park, S. J. Seok, Y. H. Jang, K. K. Kim, D. K. Hwang, D. J. Byun, and W. K. Choi, “Highly transparent ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer electrode deposited by inline sputtering process for organic photovoltaic cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 1–8, 1860–1867 (2014).

2013 (2)

D. D. Li, D. H. Zhang, C. C. Yan, T. Li, Y. Wang, Z. G. Xu, J. Wang, and F. Qin, “Unidirectional surface Plasmon-polariton excitation by a compact slot partially filled with dielectric,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5949–5956 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cattin, J. C. Bernede, and M. Morsli, “Toward indium-free optoelectronic devices: Dielectric/metal/dielectric alternative transparent conductive electrode in organic photovoltaic cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(6), 1047–1061 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

K. Ellmer, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 809–817 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. J. Kim and J. L. Lee, “Design of dielectric/metal/dielectric transparent electrodes for flexible electronics,” J. Photon. Energy 2(1), 021215 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

K. Y. Hong and J. L. Lee, “Review Paper: recent Developments in Light Extraction Technologies of Organic Light Emitting Diodes,” Electronics Materials Letters 7(2), 77–91 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Guillén and J. Herrero, “TCO/metal/TCO structures for energy and flexible electronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(1), 1–17 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

J. A. Jeong, Y. S. Park, and H. K. Kim, “Comparison of electrical, optical, structural, and interface properties of IZO-Ag-IZO and IZO-Au-IZO multilayer electrodes for organic photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023111 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Wu, L. B. Hu, M. W. Rowell, D. H. Kong, J. J. Cha, J. R. McDonough, J. Zhu, Y. Yang, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Electrospun Metal nanofiber Webs as High-Performance Transparent Electrode,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4242–4248 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. B. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable Coating and Properties of Transparent, Flexible, Silver Nanowire Electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kumar and C. G. Zhou, “The Race to Replace Tin-Doped Indium Oxide: Which Material Will Win?” ACS Nano 4(1), 11–14 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

G. B. Murdoch, S. Hinds, E. H. Sargent, S. W. Tsang, L. Mordoukhovski, and Z. H. Lu, “Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213301 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Chakaroun, B. Lucas, B. Ratier, C. Defranoux, J. P. Piel, and M. Aldissi, “High quality transparent conductive electrodes in organic photovoltaics devices,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1250–1253 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Guillén and J. Herrero, “Transparent conductive ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer electrodes deposited by sputtering at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 282(4), 574–578 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. De, T. M. Higgins, P. E. Lyons, E. M. Doherty, P. N. Nirmalraj, W. J. Blau, J. J. Boland, and J. N. Coleman, “Silver Nanowire Networks as Flexible, Transparent, Conducting Films: Extremely High DC to Optical Conductivity Ratios,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1767–1774 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Indluru and T. L. Alford, “Effect of Ag thickness on electrical transport and optical properties of indium tin oxide-Ag-indium tin oxide multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123528 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

H. Han, N. D. Theodore, and T. L. Alford, “Improved conductivity and mechanism of carrier transport in zinc oxide with embedded silver layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 013708 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. F. Liu, Y. S. Chen, and P. Penumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263302 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. L. Blackburn, T. M. Barnes, M. C. Beard, Y. H. Kim, R. C. Tenent, T. J. McDonald, B. To, T. J. Coutts, and M. J. Heben, “Transparent Conductive Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks with Precisely Tunable Ratios of Semiconducting and Metallic Nanotubes,” ACS Nano 2(6), 1266–1274 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. M. Chang, L. Y. Wang, and W. F. Su, “Polymer solar cells with poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as transparent anode,” Org. Electron. 9(6), 968–973 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

C. G. Granqvist, “Transparent conductors as solar energy materials: A panoramic review,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(17), 1529–1598 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. M. Khoshman and M. E. Kordesch, “Optical Constants and band edge of amorphous zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 515(18), 7393–7399 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. R. Sahu, S. Y. Lin, and J. L. Huang, “ZnO/Ag/ZnO multilayer films for the application of a very low resistance transparent electrode,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(20), 7509–7514 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

Y. S. Jung, Y. W. Choi, H. C. Lee, and D. W. Lee, “Effects of thermal treatment on the electrical and optical properties of silver-based indium tin oxide/metal/indium tin oxide structures,” Thin Solid Films 440(1-2), 278–284 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface Plasmon sub wavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. G. Granqvist and A. Hultaker, “Transparent and conducting ITO films: new developments and applications,” Thin Solid Films 411(1), 1–5 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. S. Ginley and C. Bright, “Transparent Conducting Oxides,” MRS Bull. 25(08), 15–18 (2000).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradbery, and F. Z. Yang, “Optical excitation of surface plasmons: an introduction,” Contemp. Phys. 32(3), 173–183 (1991).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the Optical-Absorption Edge of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(20), 1480–1483 (1981).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Abeles, B.

G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the Optical-Absorption Edge of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(20), 1480–1483 (1981).
[Crossref]

Aldissi, M.

M. Chakaroun, B. Lucas, B. Ratier, C. Defranoux, J. P. Piel, and M. Aldissi, “High quality transparent conductive electrodes in organic photovoltaics devices,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1250–1253 (2009).
[Crossref]

Alford, T. L.

A. Indluru and T. L. Alford, “Effect of Ag thickness on electrical transport and optical properties of indium tin oxide-Ag-indium tin oxide multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123528 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Han, N. D. Theodore, and T. L. Alford, “Improved conductivity and mechanism of carrier transport in zinc oxide with embedded silver layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 013708 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bao, Z.

J. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. F. Liu, Y. S. Chen, and P. Penumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barnes, T. M.

J. L. Blackburn, T. M. Barnes, M. C. Beard, Y. H. Kim, R. C. Tenent, T. J. McDonald, B. To, T. J. Coutts, and M. J. Heben, “Transparent Conductive Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks with Precisely Tunable Ratios of Semiconducting and Metallic Nanotubes,” ACS Nano 2(6), 1266–1274 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface Plasmon sub wavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beard, M. C.

J. L. Blackburn, T. M. Barnes, M. C. Beard, Y. H. Kim, R. C. Tenent, T. J. McDonald, B. To, T. J. Coutts, and M. J. Heben, “Transparent Conductive Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks with Precisely Tunable Ratios of Semiconducting and Metallic Nanotubes,” ACS Nano 2(6), 1266–1274 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becerril, H. A.

J. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. F. Liu, Y. S. Chen, and P. Penumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bernede, J. C.

L. Cattin, J. C. Bernede, and M. Morsli, “Toward indium-free optoelectronic devices: Dielectric/metal/dielectric alternative transparent conductive electrode in organic photovoltaic cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(6), 1047–1061 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blackburn, J. L.

J. L. Blackburn, T. M. Barnes, M. C. Beard, Y. H. Kim, R. C. Tenent, T. J. McDonald, B. To, T. J. Coutts, and M. J. Heben, “Transparent Conductive Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks with Precisely Tunable Ratios of Semiconducting and Metallic Nanotubes,” ACS Nano 2(6), 1266–1274 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blau, W. J.

S. De, T. M. Higgins, P. E. Lyons, E. M. Doherty, P. N. Nirmalraj, W. J. Blau, J. J. Boland, and J. N. Coleman, “Silver Nanowire Networks as Flexible, Transparent, Conducting Films: Extremely High DC to Optical Conductivity Ratios,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1767–1774 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boland, J. J.

S. De, T. M. Higgins, P. E. Lyons, E. M. Doherty, P. N. Nirmalraj, W. J. Blau, J. J. Boland, and J. N. Coleman, “Silver Nanowire Networks as Flexible, Transparent, Conducting Films: Extremely High DC to Optical Conductivity Ratios,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1767–1774 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bradbery, G. W.

J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradbery, and F. Z. Yang, “Optical excitation of surface plasmons: an introduction,” Contemp. Phys. 32(3), 173–183 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bright, C.

D. S. Ginley and C. Bright, “Transparent Conducting Oxides,” MRS Bull. 25(08), 15–18 (2000).
[Crossref]

Brooks, B.

G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the Optical-Absorption Edge of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(20), 1480–1483 (1981).
[Crossref]

Byun, D. J.

S. H. Choi, R. Pandey, C. H. Wie, Y. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, D. H. Park, S. J. Seok, Y. H. Jang, K. K. Kim, D. K. Hwang, D. J. Byun, and W. K. Choi, “Highly transparent ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer electrode deposited by inline sputtering process for organic photovoltaic cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 1–8, 1860–1867 (2014).

Cattin, L.

L. Cattin, J. C. Bernede, and M. Morsli, “Toward indium-free optoelectronic devices: Dielectric/metal/dielectric alternative transparent conductive electrode in organic photovoltaic cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(6), 1047–1061 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cha, J. J.

H. Wu, L. B. Hu, M. W. Rowell, D. H. Kong, J. J. Cha, J. R. McDonough, J. Zhu, Y. Yang, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Electrospun Metal nanofiber Webs as High-Performance Transparent Electrode,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4242–4248 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chakaroun, M.

M. Chakaroun, B. Lucas, B. Ratier, C. Defranoux, J. P. Piel, and M. Aldissi, “High quality transparent conductive electrodes in organic photovoltaics devices,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1250–1253 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. M.

Y. M. Chang, L. Y. Wang, and W. F. Su, “Polymer solar cells with poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as transparent anode,” Org. Electron. 9(6), 968–973 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. S.

J. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. F. Liu, Y. S. Chen, and P. Penumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. H.

S. H. Choi, R. Pandey, C. H. Wie, Y. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, D. H. Park, S. J. Seok, Y. H. Jang, K. K. Kim, D. K. Hwang, D. J. Byun, and W. K. Choi, “Highly transparent ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer electrode deposited by inline sputtering process for organic photovoltaic cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 1–8, 1860–1867 (2014).

Choi, W. K.

S. H. Choi, R. Pandey, C. H. Wie, Y. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, D. H. Park, S. J. Seok, Y. H. Jang, K. K. Kim, D. K. Hwang, D. J. Byun, and W. K. Choi, “Highly transparent ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer electrode deposited by inline sputtering process for organic photovoltaic cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 1–8, 1860–1867 (2014).

Choi, Y. W.

Y. S. Jung, Y. W. Choi, H. C. Lee, and D. W. Lee, “Effects of thermal treatment on the electrical and optical properties of silver-based indium tin oxide/metal/indium tin oxide structures,” Thin Solid Films 440(1-2), 278–284 (2003).
[Crossref]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Cody, G. D.

G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the Optical-Absorption Edge of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(20), 1480–1483 (1981).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. N.

S. De, T. M. Higgins, P. E. Lyons, E. M. Doherty, P. N. Nirmalraj, W. J. Blau, J. J. Boland, and J. N. Coleman, “Silver Nanowire Networks as Flexible, Transparent, Conducting Films: Extremely High DC to Optical Conductivity Ratios,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1767–1774 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coutts, T. J.

J. L. Blackburn, T. M. Barnes, M. C. Beard, Y. H. Kim, R. C. Tenent, T. J. McDonald, B. To, T. J. Coutts, and M. J. Heben, “Transparent Conductive Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks with Precisely Tunable Ratios of Semiconducting and Metallic Nanotubes,” ACS Nano 2(6), 1266–1274 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

H. Wu, L. B. Hu, M. W. Rowell, D. H. Kong, J. J. Cha, J. R. McDonough, J. Zhu, Y. Yang, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Electrospun Metal nanofiber Webs as High-Performance Transparent Electrode,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4242–4248 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. B. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable Coating and Properties of Transparent, Flexible, Silver Nanowire Electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De, S.

S. De, T. M. Higgins, P. E. Lyons, E. M. Doherty, P. N. Nirmalraj, W. J. Blau, J. J. Boland, and J. N. Coleman, “Silver Nanowire Networks as Flexible, Transparent, Conducting Films: Extremely High DC to Optical Conductivity Ratios,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1767–1774 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Defranoux, C.

M. Chakaroun, B. Lucas, B. Ratier, C. Defranoux, J. P. Piel, and M. Aldissi, “High quality transparent conductive electrodes in organic photovoltaics devices,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1250–1253 (2009).
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Doherty, E. M.

S. De, T. M. Higgins, P. E. Lyons, E. M. Doherty, P. N. Nirmalraj, W. J. Blau, J. J. Boland, and J. N. Coleman, “Silver Nanowire Networks as Flexible, Transparent, Conducting Films: Extremely High DC to Optical Conductivity Ratios,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1767–1774 (2009).
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Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface Plasmon sub wavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
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Ellmer, K.

K. Ellmer, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 809–817 (2012).
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Goldstein, Y.

G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the Optical-Absorption Edge of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(20), 1480–1483 (1981).
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C. G. Granqvist and A. Hultaker, “Transparent and conducting ITO films: new developments and applications,” Thin Solid Films 411(1), 1–5 (2002).
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Guillén, C.

C. Guillén and J. Herrero, “TCO/metal/TCO structures for energy and flexible electronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(1), 1–17 (2011).
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C. Guillén and J. Herrero, “Transparent conductive ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer electrodes deposited by sputtering at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 282(4), 574–578 (2009).
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Han, H.

H. Han, N. D. Theodore, and T. L. Alford, “Improved conductivity and mechanism of carrier transport in zinc oxide with embedded silver layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 013708 (2008).
[Crossref]

Heben, M. J.

J. L. Blackburn, T. M. Barnes, M. C. Beard, Y. H. Kim, R. C. Tenent, T. J. McDonald, B. To, T. J. Coutts, and M. J. Heben, “Transparent Conductive Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks with Precisely Tunable Ratios of Semiconducting and Metallic Nanotubes,” ACS Nano 2(6), 1266–1274 (2008).
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Herrero, J.

C. Guillén and J. Herrero, “TCO/metal/TCO structures for energy and flexible electronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(1), 1–17 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Guillén and J. Herrero, “Transparent conductive ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer electrodes deposited by sputtering at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 282(4), 574–578 (2009).
[Crossref]

Higgins, T. M.

S. De, T. M. Higgins, P. E. Lyons, E. M. Doherty, P. N. Nirmalraj, W. J. Blau, J. J. Boland, and J. N. Coleman, “Silver Nanowire Networks as Flexible, Transparent, Conducting Films: Extremely High DC to Optical Conductivity Ratios,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1767–1774 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hinds, S.

G. B. Murdoch, S. Hinds, E. H. Sargent, S. W. Tsang, L. Mordoukhovski, and Z. H. Lu, “Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213301 (2009).
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Hong, K. Y.

K. Y. Hong and J. L. Lee, “Review Paper: recent Developments in Light Extraction Technologies of Organic Light Emitting Diodes,” Electronics Materials Letters 7(2), 77–91 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hu, L. B.

H. Wu, L. B. Hu, M. W. Rowell, D. H. Kong, J. J. Cha, J. R. McDonough, J. Zhu, Y. Yang, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Electrospun Metal nanofiber Webs as High-Performance Transparent Electrode,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4242–4248 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. B. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable Coating and Properties of Transparent, Flexible, Silver Nanowire Electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, J. L.

D. R. Sahu, S. Y. Lin, and J. L. Huang, “ZnO/Ag/ZnO multilayer films for the application of a very low resistance transparent electrode,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(20), 7509–7514 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hultaker, A.

C. G. Granqvist and A. Hultaker, “Transparent and conducting ITO films: new developments and applications,” Thin Solid Films 411(1), 1–5 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hwang, D. K.

S. H. Choi, R. Pandey, C. H. Wie, Y. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, D. H. Park, S. J. Seok, Y. H. Jang, K. K. Kim, D. K. Hwang, D. J. Byun, and W. K. Choi, “Highly transparent ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer electrode deposited by inline sputtering process for organic photovoltaic cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 1–8, 1860–1867 (2014).

Indluru, A.

A. Indluru and T. L. Alford, “Effect of Ag thickness on electrical transport and optical properties of indium tin oxide-Ag-indium tin oxide multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123528 (2009).
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Jang, Y. H.

S. H. Choi, R. Pandey, C. H. Wie, Y. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, D. H. Park, S. J. Seok, Y. H. Jang, K. K. Kim, D. K. Hwang, D. J. Byun, and W. K. Choi, “Highly transparent ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer electrode deposited by inline sputtering process for organic photovoltaic cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 1–8, 1860–1867 (2014).

Jeong, J. A.

J. A. Jeong, Y. S. Park, and H. K. Kim, “Comparison of electrical, optical, structural, and interface properties of IZO-Ag-IZO and IZO-Au-IZO multilayer electrodes for organic photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023111 (2010).
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Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
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Jung, Y. S.

Y. S. Jung, Y. W. Choi, H. C. Lee, and D. W. Lee, “Effects of thermal treatment on the electrical and optical properties of silver-based indium tin oxide/metal/indium tin oxide structures,” Thin Solid Films 440(1-2), 278–284 (2003).
[Crossref]

Khoshman, J. M.

J. M. Khoshman and M. E. Kordesch, “Optical Constants and band edge of amorphous zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 515(18), 7393–7399 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. K.

J. A. Jeong, Y. S. Park, and H. K. Kim, “Comparison of electrical, optical, structural, and interface properties of IZO-Ag-IZO and IZO-Au-IZO multilayer electrodes for organic photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. S.

L. B. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable Coating and Properties of Transparent, Flexible, Silver Nanowire Electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. K.

S. H. Choi, R. Pandey, C. H. Wie, Y. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, D. H. Park, S. J. Seok, Y. H. Jang, K. K. Kim, D. K. Hwang, D. J. Byun, and W. K. Choi, “Highly transparent ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer electrode deposited by inline sputtering process for organic photovoltaic cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 1–8, 1860–1867 (2014).

Kim, S. J.

S. J. Kim and J. L. Lee, “Design of dielectric/metal/dielectric transparent electrodes for flexible electronics,” J. Photon. Energy 2(1), 021215 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. H.

J. L. Blackburn, T. M. Barnes, M. C. Beard, Y. H. Kim, R. C. Tenent, T. J. McDonald, B. To, T. J. Coutts, and M. J. Heben, “Transparent Conductive Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks with Precisely Tunable Ratios of Semiconducting and Metallic Nanotubes,” ACS Nano 2(6), 1266–1274 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, D. H.

H. Wu, L. B. Hu, M. W. Rowell, D. H. Kong, J. J. Cha, J. R. McDonough, J. Zhu, Y. Yang, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Electrospun Metal nanofiber Webs as High-Performance Transparent Electrode,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4242–4248 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kordesch, M. E.

J. M. Khoshman and M. E. Kordesch, “Optical Constants and band edge of amorphous zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 515(18), 7393–7399 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar and C. G. Zhou, “The Race to Replace Tin-Doped Indium Oxide: Which Material Will Win?” ACS Nano 4(1), 11–14 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D. W.

Y. S. Jung, Y. W. Choi, H. C. Lee, and D. W. Lee, “Effects of thermal treatment on the electrical and optical properties of silver-based indium tin oxide/metal/indium tin oxide structures,” Thin Solid Films 440(1-2), 278–284 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. C.

Y. S. Jung, Y. W. Choi, H. C. Lee, and D. W. Lee, “Effects of thermal treatment on the electrical and optical properties of silver-based indium tin oxide/metal/indium tin oxide structures,” Thin Solid Films 440(1-2), 278–284 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. L.

S. J. Kim and J. L. Lee, “Design of dielectric/metal/dielectric transparent electrodes for flexible electronics,” J. Photon. Energy 2(1), 021215 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Hong and J. L. Lee, “Review Paper: recent Developments in Light Extraction Technologies of Organic Light Emitting Diodes,” Electronics Materials Letters 7(2), 77–91 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. Y.

L. B. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable Coating and Properties of Transparent, Flexible, Silver Nanowire Electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. J.

S. H. Choi, R. Pandey, C. H. Wie, Y. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, D. H. Park, S. J. Seok, Y. H. Jang, K. K. Kim, D. K. Hwang, D. J. Byun, and W. K. Choi, “Highly transparent ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer electrode deposited by inline sputtering process for organic photovoltaic cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 1–8, 1860–1867 (2014).

Li, D. D.

Li, T.

Lim, J. W.

S. H. Choi, R. Pandey, C. H. Wie, Y. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, D. H. Park, S. J. Seok, Y. H. Jang, K. K. Kim, D. K. Hwang, D. J. Byun, and W. K. Choi, “Highly transparent ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer electrode deposited by inline sputtering process for organic photovoltaic cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 1–8, 1860–1867 (2014).

Lin, S. Y.

D. R. Sahu, S. Y. Lin, and J. L. Huang, “ZnO/Ag/ZnO multilayer films for the application of a very low resistance transparent electrode,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(20), 7509–7514 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. F.

J. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. F. Liu, Y. S. Chen, and P. Penumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z. H.

G. B. Murdoch, S. Hinds, E. H. Sargent, S. W. Tsang, L. Mordoukhovski, and Z. H. Lu, “Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lucas, B.

M. Chakaroun, B. Lucas, B. Ratier, C. Defranoux, J. P. Piel, and M. Aldissi, “High quality transparent conductive electrodes in organic photovoltaics devices,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1250–1253 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lyons, P. E.

S. De, T. M. Higgins, P. E. Lyons, E. M. Doherty, P. N. Nirmalraj, W. J. Blau, J. J. Boland, and J. N. Coleman, “Silver Nanowire Networks as Flexible, Transparent, Conducting Films: Extremely High DC to Optical Conductivity Ratios,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1767–1774 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McDonald, T. J.

J. L. Blackburn, T. M. Barnes, M. C. Beard, Y. H. Kim, R. C. Tenent, T. J. McDonald, B. To, T. J. Coutts, and M. J. Heben, “Transparent Conductive Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks with Precisely Tunable Ratios of Semiconducting and Metallic Nanotubes,” ACS Nano 2(6), 1266–1274 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McDonough, J. R.

H. Wu, L. B. Hu, M. W. Rowell, D. H. Kong, J. J. Cha, J. R. McDonough, J. Zhu, Y. Yang, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Electrospun Metal nanofiber Webs as High-Performance Transparent Electrode,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4242–4248 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGehee, M. D.

H. Wu, L. B. Hu, M. W. Rowell, D. H. Kong, J. J. Cha, J. R. McDonough, J. Zhu, Y. Yang, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Electrospun Metal nanofiber Webs as High-Performance Transparent Electrode,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4242–4248 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mordoukhovski, L.

G. B. Murdoch, S. Hinds, E. H. Sargent, S. W. Tsang, L. Mordoukhovski, and Z. H. Lu, “Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Morsli, M.

L. Cattin, J. C. Bernede, and M. Morsli, “Toward indium-free optoelectronic devices: Dielectric/metal/dielectric alternative transparent conductive electrode in organic photovoltaic cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(6), 1047–1061 (2013).
[Crossref]

Murdoch, G. B.

G. B. Murdoch, S. Hinds, E. H. Sargent, S. W. Tsang, L. Mordoukhovski, and Z. H. Lu, “Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nirmalraj, P. N.

S. De, T. M. Higgins, P. E. Lyons, E. M. Doherty, P. N. Nirmalraj, W. J. Blau, J. J. Boland, and J. N. Coleman, “Silver Nanowire Networks as Flexible, Transparent, Conducting Films: Extremely High DC to Optical Conductivity Ratios,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1767–1774 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pandey, R.

S. H. Choi, R. Pandey, C. H. Wie, Y. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, D. H. Park, S. J. Seok, Y. H. Jang, K. K. Kim, D. K. Hwang, D. J. Byun, and W. K. Choi, “Highly transparent ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer electrode deposited by inline sputtering process for organic photovoltaic cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 1–8, 1860–1867 (2014).

Park, D. H.

S. H. Choi, R. Pandey, C. H. Wie, Y. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, D. H. Park, S. J. Seok, Y. H. Jang, K. K. Kim, D. K. Hwang, D. J. Byun, and W. K. Choi, “Highly transparent ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer electrode deposited by inline sputtering process for organic photovoltaic cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 1–8, 1860–1867 (2014).

Park, Y. S.

J. A. Jeong, Y. S. Park, and H. K. Kim, “Comparison of electrical, optical, structural, and interface properties of IZO-Ag-IZO and IZO-Au-IZO multilayer electrodes for organic photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Penumans, P.

J. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. F. Liu, Y. S. Chen, and P. Penumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Peumans, P.

L. B. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable Coating and Properties of Transparent, Flexible, Silver Nanowire Electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piel, J. P.

M. Chakaroun, B. Lucas, B. Ratier, C. Defranoux, J. P. Piel, and M. Aldissi, “High quality transparent conductive electrodes in organic photovoltaics devices,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1250–1253 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qin, F.

Ratier, B.

M. Chakaroun, B. Lucas, B. Ratier, C. Defranoux, J. P. Piel, and M. Aldissi, “High quality transparent conductive electrodes in organic photovoltaics devices,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1250–1253 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rowell, M. W.

H. Wu, L. B. Hu, M. W. Rowell, D. H. Kong, J. J. Cha, J. R. McDonough, J. Zhu, Y. Yang, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Electrospun Metal nanofiber Webs as High-Performance Transparent Electrode,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4242–4248 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahu, D. R.

D. R. Sahu, S. Y. Lin, and J. L. Huang, “ZnO/Ag/ZnO multilayer films for the application of a very low resistance transparent electrode,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(20), 7509–7514 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sambles, J. R.

J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradbery, and F. Z. Yang, “Optical excitation of surface plasmons: an introduction,” Contemp. Phys. 32(3), 173–183 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sargent, E. H.

G. B. Murdoch, S. Hinds, E. H. Sargent, S. W. Tsang, L. Mordoukhovski, and Z. H. Lu, “Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Seok, S. J.

S. H. Choi, R. Pandey, C. H. Wie, Y. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, D. H. Park, S. J. Seok, Y. H. Jang, K. K. Kim, D. K. Hwang, D. J. Byun, and W. K. Choi, “Highly transparent ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer electrode deposited by inline sputtering process for organic photovoltaic cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 1–8, 1860–1867 (2014).

Su, W. F.

Y. M. Chang, L. Y. Wang, and W. F. Su, “Polymer solar cells with poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as transparent anode,” Org. Electron. 9(6), 968–973 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tenent, R. C.

J. L. Blackburn, T. M. Barnes, M. C. Beard, Y. H. Kim, R. C. Tenent, T. J. McDonald, B. To, T. J. Coutts, and M. J. Heben, “Transparent Conductive Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks with Precisely Tunable Ratios of Semiconducting and Metallic Nanotubes,” ACS Nano 2(6), 1266–1274 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Theodore, N. D.

H. Han, N. D. Theodore, and T. L. Alford, “Improved conductivity and mechanism of carrier transport in zinc oxide with embedded silver layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 013708 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tiedje, T.

G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the Optical-Absorption Edge of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(20), 1480–1483 (1981).
[Crossref]

To, B.

J. L. Blackburn, T. M. Barnes, M. C. Beard, Y. H. Kim, R. C. Tenent, T. J. McDonald, B. To, T. J. Coutts, and M. J. Heben, “Transparent Conductive Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks with Precisely Tunable Ratios of Semiconducting and Metallic Nanotubes,” ACS Nano 2(6), 1266–1274 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsang, S. W.

G. B. Murdoch, S. Hinds, E. H. Sargent, S. W. Tsang, L. Mordoukhovski, and Z. H. Lu, “Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, L. Y.

Y. M. Chang, L. Y. Wang, and W. F. Su, “Polymer solar cells with poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as transparent anode,” Org. Electron. 9(6), 968–973 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Wie, C. H.

S. H. Choi, R. Pandey, C. H. Wie, Y. J. Lee, J. W. Lim, D. H. Park, S. J. Seok, Y. H. Jang, K. K. Kim, D. K. Hwang, D. J. Byun, and W. K. Choi, “Highly transparent ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer electrode deposited by inline sputtering process for organic photovoltaic cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 1–8, 1860–1867 (2014).

Wu, H.

H. Wu, L. B. Hu, M. W. Rowell, D. H. Kong, J. J. Cha, J. R. McDonough, J. Zhu, Y. Yang, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Electrospun Metal nanofiber Webs as High-Performance Transparent Electrode,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4242–4248 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. F. Liu, Y. S. Chen, and P. Penumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z. G.

Yan, C. C.

Yang, F. Z.

J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradbery, and F. Z. Yang, “Optical excitation of surface plasmons: an introduction,” Contemp. Phys. 32(3), 173–183 (1991).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

H. Wu, L. B. Hu, M. W. Rowell, D. H. Kong, J. J. Cha, J. R. McDonough, J. Zhu, Y. Yang, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Electrospun Metal nanofiber Webs as High-Performance Transparent Electrode,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4242–4248 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, D. H.

Zhou, C. G.

A. Kumar and C. G. Zhou, “The Race to Replace Tin-Doped Indium Oxide: Which Material Will Win?” ACS Nano 4(1), 11–14 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

H. Wu, L. B. Hu, M. W. Rowell, D. H. Kong, J. J. Cha, J. R. McDonough, J. Zhu, Y. Yang, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Electrospun Metal nanofiber Webs as High-Performance Transparent Electrode,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4242–4248 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (4)

A. Kumar and C. G. Zhou, “The Race to Replace Tin-Doped Indium Oxide: Which Material Will Win?” ACS Nano 4(1), 11–14 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Blackburn, T. M. Barnes, M. C. Beard, Y. H. Kim, R. C. Tenent, T. J. McDonald, B. To, T. J. Coutts, and M. J. Heben, “Transparent Conductive Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks with Precisely Tunable Ratios of Semiconducting and Metallic Nanotubes,” ACS Nano 2(6), 1266–1274 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. De, T. M. Higgins, P. E. Lyons, E. M. Doherty, P. N. Nirmalraj, W. J. Blau, J. J. Boland, and J. N. Coleman, “Silver Nanowire Networks as Flexible, Transparent, Conducting Films: Extremely High DC to Optical Conductivity Ratios,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1767–1774 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. B. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable Coating and Properties of Transparent, Flexible, Silver Nanowire Electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. F. Liu, Y. S. Chen, and P. Penumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263302 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. B. Murdoch, S. Hinds, E. H. Sargent, S. W. Tsang, L. Mordoukhovski, and Z. H. Lu, “Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

D. R. Sahu, S. Y. Lin, and J. L. Huang, “ZnO/Ag/ZnO multilayer films for the application of a very low resistance transparent electrode,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(20), 7509–7514 (2006).
[Crossref]

Contemp. Phys. (1)

J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradbery, and F. Z. Yang, “Optical excitation of surface plasmons: an introduction,” Contemp. Phys. 32(3), 173–183 (1991).
[Crossref]

Electronics Materials Letters (1)

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) XRD plots of various dielectric/Ag structures grown on glass substrates and SEM images of Ag films deposited on glass with thickness (b) 7 nm, (c) 8 nm, (d) 9 nm and (e) 10 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Refractive index (n) and (b) extinction coefficient (k) as a function of wavelength for various glass/dielectric substrates.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical transmittance spectra for (a) glass/dielectric and (b) glass/dielectric/Ag structures.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Tauc’s plots for various glass/dielectric/Ag structures.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Real (ε′) and (b) imaginary (ε′′) part of permittivity as a function of wavelength for various glass/dielectric structures.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Variations of KSP/Ko as a function of wavelength for various dielectric/Ag structures.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Calculated ttransmittance spectra for various dielectric/Ag structures.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Variations of δSP as a function of wavelength for various dielectric/Ag structures.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Electrical, optical and surface properties of dielectric/Ag structures

Equations (5)

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αh v=A (h v E g ) n
k S P = k 0   ε d   ε m ε d + ε m
ε =   n 2 k 2
ε = 2 n k
δ S P = 1 2 k S P " = c ω ( ε m + ϵ d ε m ϵ d ) 3 2   ( ε m ) 2 ϵ m

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