Abstract

The structural stability of nonlinear optical material KTiOPO4 (KTP) under laser propagation remains a challenge for its device application for a long time. Here a nano-precipitation recrystallization phenomenon under 632.8 nm laser irradiation was found from KTP crystals via combined techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphologies of precipitates include spheres, triangles and tetragons, which were formed on the (100), (010) and (001) surfaces of KTP crystals, respectively. It was revealed that different facets of the KTP crystal exhibited significant discrepancy in the stability under laser irradiation due to different atomic stacking structures. Hence, it is believed that our research findings might have new implications and inspirations in constructing KTP devices with better performance.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. Q. Cui, X. Shu, X. Le, and X. Zhang, “70-W average-power doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator at 2 μm with single KTP,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 639–643 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. Chu, S. Zhao, K. Yang, J. Zhao, Y. Li, D. Li, G. Li, T. Li, and W. Qiao, “Intracavity KTP-based OPO pumped by a dual-loss modulated, simultaneously Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:GGG laser,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26925–26932 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion‐implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(6), 2695–2699 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  4. P. N. Kean and G. J. Dixon, “Efficient sum-frequency upconversion in a resonantly pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 17(2), 127–129 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. D. Bierlein and C. B. Arweiler, “Electro‐optic and dielectric properties of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(15), 917–919 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  6. X.-P. Zhang, J. H. B. C. Li, J. Ying Ying, Y. Hong, and G. Qi Huang, “Filamentation-assisted fourth-order nonlinear process in KTP crystal,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 342091 (2010).
  7. B. Boulanger, M. M. Fejer, R. Blachman, and P. F. Bordui, “Study of KTiOPO4 gray‐tracking at 1064, 532, and 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(19), 2401–2403 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. Blachman, P. F. Bordui, and M. M. Fejer, “Laser‐induced photochromic damage in potassium titanyl phosphate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(11), 1318–1320 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. K. Tyminski, “Photorefractive damage in KTP used as second‐harmonic generator,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(10), 5570–5576 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. C. Guan, W. Zhou, Z. L. Li, H. Y. Zheng, G. C. Lim, and M. H. Hong, “Femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures on magnesium,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 115(1), 13–18 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. Z. Liu, J. Luo, Y. Zheng, P. Ma, Z. Zhang, Y. Wei, F. Pan, and S. Chen, “Damage morphology change condition and thermal accumulation effect on high-reflection coatings at 1064nm,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10151–10164 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. P. Wang, M. Lu, F. Gao, H. Guo, Y. Xu, C. Hou, Z. Zhou, and B. Peng, “Luminescence in the fluoride-containing phosphate-based glasses: A possible origin of their high resistance to nanosecond pulse laser-induced damage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8593–8602 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Q. Zhang, G. Feng, J. Han, B. Li, Q. Zhu, and X. Xie, “High repetition rate laser pulse induced damage in KTP crystal: Gray-tracking and catastrophic damage,” Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics. 122(15), 1313–1318 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. Li, P. Lu, N. Dai, H. Long, Y. Wang, and B. Yu, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in KTP crystal,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(3), 1443–1446 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Rajeev Gandhi, M. Rathnakumari, P. Muralimanohar, P. Sureshkumar, and G. Bhagavannarayana, “Analysis of crystalline perfection of pure and Mo-doped KTP crystals on different growth planes by high-resolution X-ray diffraction,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47(3), 931–935 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. Z. De-Gao, T. Bing, D. Sheng-Ming, W. Qing-Guo, Z. Yan-Shuai, H. Wan-Xia, and Y. Tao, “Characterization of KDP crystal grown from solution with low pH value,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 44(5), 500–504 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

P. Wang, M. Lu, F. Gao, H. Guo, Y. Xu, C. Hou, Z. Zhou, and B. Peng, “Luminescence in the fluoride-containing phosphate-based glasses: A possible origin of their high resistance to nanosecond pulse laser-induced damage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8593–8602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

Y. C. Guan, W. Zhou, Z. L. Li, H. Y. Zheng, G. C. Lim, and M. H. Hong, “Femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures on magnesium,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 115(1), 13–18 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Chu, S. Zhao, K. Yang, J. Zhao, Y. Li, D. Li, G. Li, T. Li, and W. Qiao, “Intracavity KTP-based OPO pumped by a dual-loss modulated, simultaneously Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:GGG laser,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26925–26932 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Cui, X. Shu, X. Le, and X. Zhang, “70-W average-power doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator at 2 μm with single KTP,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 639–643 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Rajeev Gandhi, M. Rathnakumari, P. Muralimanohar, P. Sureshkumar, and G. Bhagavannarayana, “Analysis of crystalline perfection of pure and Mo-doped KTP crystals on different growth planes by high-resolution X-ray diffraction,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47(3), 931–935 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. Luo, Y. Zheng, P. Ma, Z. Zhang, Y. Wei, F. Pan, and S. Chen, “Damage morphology change condition and thermal accumulation effect on high-reflection coatings at 1064nm,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10151–10164 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

Q. Zhang, G. Feng, J. Han, B. Li, Q. Zhu, and X. Xie, “High repetition rate laser pulse induced damage in KTP crystal: Gray-tracking and catastrophic damage,” Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics. 122(15), 1313–1318 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

X.-P. Zhang, J. H. B. C. Li, J. Ying Ying, Y. Hong, and G. Qi Huang, “Filamentation-assisted fourth-order nonlinear process in KTP crystal,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 342091 (2010).

2009 (1)

Z. De-Gao, T. Bing, D. Sheng-Ming, W. Qing-Guo, Z. Yan-Shuai, H. Wan-Xia, and Y. Tao, “Characterization of KDP crystal grown from solution with low pH value,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 44(5), 500–504 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Y. Li, P. Lu, N. Dai, H. Long, Y. Wang, and B. Yu, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in KTP crystal,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(3), 1443–1446 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

B. Boulanger, M. M. Fejer, R. Blachman, and P. F. Bordui, “Study of KTiOPO4 gray‐tracking at 1064, 532, and 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(19), 2401–2403 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. Blachman, P. F. Bordui, and M. M. Fejer, “Laser‐induced photochromic damage in potassium titanyl phosphate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(11), 1318–1320 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion‐implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(6), 2695–2699 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

J. K. Tyminski, “Photorefractive damage in KTP used as second‐harmonic generator,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(10), 5570–5576 (1991).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

J. D. Bierlein and C. B. Arweiler, “Electro‐optic and dielectric properties of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(15), 917–919 (1986).
[Crossref]

Alwahabi, Z. T.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion‐implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(6), 2695–2699 (1993).
[Crossref]

Arweiler, C. B.

J. D. Bierlein and C. B. Arweiler, “Electro‐optic and dielectric properties of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(15), 917–919 (1986).
[Crossref]

Bhagavannarayana, G.

J. Rajeev Gandhi, M. Rathnakumari, P. Muralimanohar, P. Sureshkumar, and G. Bhagavannarayana, “Analysis of crystalline perfection of pure and Mo-doped KTP crystals on different growth planes by high-resolution X-ray diffraction,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47(3), 931–935 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bierlein, J. D.

J. D. Bierlein and C. B. Arweiler, “Electro‐optic and dielectric properties of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(15), 917–919 (1986).
[Crossref]

Bing, T.

Z. De-Gao, T. Bing, D. Sheng-Ming, W. Qing-Guo, Z. Yan-Shuai, H. Wan-Xia, and Y. Tao, “Characterization of KDP crystal grown from solution with low pH value,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 44(5), 500–504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blachman, R.

R. Blachman, P. F. Bordui, and M. M. Fejer, “Laser‐induced photochromic damage in potassium titanyl phosphate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(11), 1318–1320 (1994).
[Crossref]

B. Boulanger, M. M. Fejer, R. Blachman, and P. F. Bordui, “Study of KTiOPO4 gray‐tracking at 1064, 532, and 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(19), 2401–2403 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bordui, P. F.

B. Boulanger, M. M. Fejer, R. Blachman, and P. F. Bordui, “Study of KTiOPO4 gray‐tracking at 1064, 532, and 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(19), 2401–2403 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. Blachman, P. F. Bordui, and M. M. Fejer, “Laser‐induced photochromic damage in potassium titanyl phosphate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(11), 1318–1320 (1994).
[Crossref]

Boulanger, B.

B. Boulanger, M. M. Fejer, R. Blachman, and P. F. Bordui, “Study of KTiOPO4 gray‐tracking at 1064, 532, and 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(19), 2401–2403 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chandler, P. J.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion‐implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(6), 2695–2699 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chu, H.

Cui, Q.

Q. Cui, X. Shu, X. Le, and X. Zhang, “70-W average-power doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator at 2 μm with single KTP,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 639–643 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dai, N.

Y. Li, P. Lu, N. Dai, H. Long, Y. Wang, and B. Yu, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in KTP crystal,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(3), 1443–1446 (2006).
[Crossref]

De-Gao, Z.

Z. De-Gao, T. Bing, D. Sheng-Ming, W. Qing-Guo, Z. Yan-Shuai, H. Wan-Xia, and Y. Tao, “Characterization of KDP crystal grown from solution with low pH value,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 44(5), 500–504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dixon, G. J.

Fejer, M. M.

B. Boulanger, M. M. Fejer, R. Blachman, and P. F. Bordui, “Study of KTiOPO4 gray‐tracking at 1064, 532, and 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(19), 2401–2403 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. Blachman, P. F. Bordui, and M. M. Fejer, “Laser‐induced photochromic damage in potassium titanyl phosphate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(11), 1318–1320 (1994).
[Crossref]

Feng, G.

Q. Zhang, G. Feng, J. Han, B. Li, Q. Zhu, and X. Xie, “High repetition rate laser pulse induced damage in KTP crystal: Gray-tracking and catastrophic damage,” Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics. 122(15), 1313–1318 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gao, F.

P. Wang, M. Lu, F. Gao, H. Guo, Y. Xu, C. Hou, Z. Zhou, and B. Peng, “Luminescence in the fluoride-containing phosphate-based glasses: A possible origin of their high resistance to nanosecond pulse laser-induced damage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8593–8602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guan, Y. C.

Y. C. Guan, W. Zhou, Z. L. Li, H. Y. Zheng, G. C. Lim, and M. H. Hong, “Femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures on magnesium,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 115(1), 13–18 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, H.

P. Wang, M. Lu, F. Gao, H. Guo, Y. Xu, C. Hou, Z. Zhou, and B. Peng, “Luminescence in the fluoride-containing phosphate-based glasses: A possible origin of their high resistance to nanosecond pulse laser-induced damage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8593–8602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J.

Q. Zhang, G. Feng, J. Han, B. Li, Q. Zhu, and X. Xie, “High repetition rate laser pulse induced damage in KTP crystal: Gray-tracking and catastrophic damage,” Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics. 122(15), 1313–1318 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, M. H.

Y. C. Guan, W. Zhou, Z. L. Li, H. Y. Zheng, G. C. Lim, and M. H. Hong, “Femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures on magnesium,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 115(1), 13–18 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hong, Y.

X.-P. Zhang, J. H. B. C. Li, J. Ying Ying, Y. Hong, and G. Qi Huang, “Filamentation-assisted fourth-order nonlinear process in KTP crystal,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 342091 (2010).

Hou, C.

P. Wang, M. Lu, F. Gao, H. Guo, Y. Xu, C. Hou, Z. Zhou, and B. Peng, “Luminescence in the fluoride-containing phosphate-based glasses: A possible origin of their high resistance to nanosecond pulse laser-induced damage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8593–8602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kazansky, P. G.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kean, P. N.

Le, X.

Q. Cui, X. Shu, X. Le, and X. Zhang, “70-W average-power doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator at 2 μm with single KTP,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 639–643 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, B.

Q. Zhang, G. Feng, J. Han, B. Li, Q. Zhu, and X. Xie, “High repetition rate laser pulse induced damage in KTP crystal: Gray-tracking and catastrophic damage,” Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics. 122(15), 1313–1318 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

Li, G.

Li, J. H. B. C.

X.-P. Zhang, J. H. B. C. Li, J. Ying Ying, Y. Hong, and G. Qi Huang, “Filamentation-assisted fourth-order nonlinear process in KTP crystal,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 342091 (2010).

Li, T.

Li, Y.

Li, Z. L.

Y. C. Guan, W. Zhou, Z. L. Li, H. Y. Zheng, G. C. Lim, and M. H. Hong, “Femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures on magnesium,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 115(1), 13–18 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lim, G. C.

Y. C. Guan, W. Zhou, Z. L. Li, H. Y. Zheng, G. C. Lim, and M. H. Hong, “Femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures on magnesium,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 115(1), 13–18 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Long, H.

Y. Li, P. Lu, N. Dai, H. Long, Y. Wang, and B. Yu, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in KTP crystal,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(3), 1443–1446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.

P. Wang, M. Lu, F. Gao, H. Guo, Y. Xu, C. Hou, Z. Zhou, and B. Peng, “Luminescence in the fluoride-containing phosphate-based glasses: A possible origin of their high resistance to nanosecond pulse laser-induced damage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8593–8602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, P.

Y. Li, P. Lu, N. Dai, H. Long, Y. Wang, and B. Yu, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in KTP crystal,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(3), 1443–1446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Luo, J.

Ma, P.

McCaffery, A. J.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion‐implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(6), 2695–2699 (1993).
[Crossref]

Muralimanohar, P.

J. Rajeev Gandhi, M. Rathnakumari, P. Muralimanohar, P. Sureshkumar, and G. Bhagavannarayana, “Analysis of crystalline perfection of pure and Mo-doped KTP crystals on different growth planes by high-resolution X-ray diffraction,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47(3), 931–935 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pan, F.

Peng, B.

P. Wang, M. Lu, F. Gao, H. Guo, Y. Xu, C. Hou, Z. Zhou, and B. Peng, “Luminescence in the fluoride-containing phosphate-based glasses: A possible origin of their high resistance to nanosecond pulse laser-induced damage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8593–8602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pityana, S. L.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion‐implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(6), 2695–2699 (1993).
[Crossref]

Qi Huang, G.

X.-P. Zhang, J. H. B. C. Li, J. Ying Ying, Y. Hong, and G. Qi Huang, “Filamentation-assisted fourth-order nonlinear process in KTP crystal,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 342091 (2010).

Qiao, W.

Qing-Guo, W.

Z. De-Gao, T. Bing, D. Sheng-Ming, W. Qing-Guo, Z. Yan-Shuai, H. Wan-Xia, and Y. Tao, “Characterization of KDP crystal grown from solution with low pH value,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 44(5), 500–504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajeev Gandhi, J.

J. Rajeev Gandhi, M. Rathnakumari, P. Muralimanohar, P. Sureshkumar, and G. Bhagavannarayana, “Analysis of crystalline perfection of pure and Mo-doped KTP crystals on different growth planes by high-resolution X-ray diffraction,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47(3), 931–935 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rathnakumari, M.

J. Rajeev Gandhi, M. Rathnakumari, P. Muralimanohar, P. Sureshkumar, and G. Bhagavannarayana, “Analysis of crystalline perfection of pure and Mo-doped KTP crystals on different growth planes by high-resolution X-ray diffraction,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47(3), 931–935 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sheng-Ming, D.

Z. De-Gao, T. Bing, D. Sheng-Ming, W. Qing-Guo, Z. Yan-Shuai, H. Wan-Xia, and Y. Tao, “Characterization of KDP crystal grown from solution with low pH value,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 44(5), 500–504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shu, X.

Q. Cui, X. Shu, X. Le, and X. Zhang, “70-W average-power doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator at 2 μm with single KTP,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 639–643 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sureshkumar, P.

J. Rajeev Gandhi, M. Rathnakumari, P. Muralimanohar, P. Sureshkumar, and G. Bhagavannarayana, “Analysis of crystalline perfection of pure and Mo-doped KTP crystals on different growth planes by high-resolution X-ray diffraction,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47(3), 931–935 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tao, Y.

Z. De-Gao, T. Bing, D. Sheng-Ming, W. Qing-Guo, Z. Yan-Shuai, H. Wan-Xia, and Y. Tao, “Characterization of KDP crystal grown from solution with low pH value,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 44(5), 500–504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Townsend, P. D.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion‐implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(6), 2695–2699 (1993).
[Crossref]

Tyminski, J. K.

J. K. Tyminski, “Photorefractive damage in KTP used as second‐harmonic generator,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(10), 5570–5576 (1991).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

P. Wang, M. Lu, F. Gao, H. Guo, Y. Xu, C. Hou, Z. Zhou, and B. Peng, “Luminescence in the fluoride-containing phosphate-based glasses: A possible origin of their high resistance to nanosecond pulse laser-induced damage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8593–8602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Li, P. Lu, N. Dai, H. Long, Y. Wang, and B. Yu, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in KTP crystal,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(3), 1443–1446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wan-Xia, H.

Z. De-Gao, T. Bing, D. Sheng-Ming, W. Qing-Guo, Z. Yan-Shuai, H. Wan-Xia, and Y. Tao, “Characterization of KDP crystal grown from solution with low pH value,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 44(5), 500–504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wei, Y.

Xie, X.

Q. Zhang, G. Feng, J. Han, B. Li, Q. Zhu, and X. Xie, “High repetition rate laser pulse induced damage in KTP crystal: Gray-tracking and catastrophic damage,” Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics. 122(15), 1313–1318 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

P. Wang, M. Lu, F. Gao, H. Guo, Y. Xu, C. Hou, Z. Zhou, and B. Peng, “Luminescence in the fluoride-containing phosphate-based glasses: A possible origin of their high resistance to nanosecond pulse laser-induced damage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8593–8602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, K.

Yan-Shuai, Z.

Z. De-Gao, T. Bing, D. Sheng-Ming, W. Qing-Guo, Z. Yan-Shuai, H. Wan-Xia, and Y. Tao, “Characterization of KDP crystal grown from solution with low pH value,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 44(5), 500–504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ying Ying, J.

X.-P. Zhang, J. H. B. C. Li, J. Ying Ying, Y. Hong, and G. Qi Huang, “Filamentation-assisted fourth-order nonlinear process in KTP crystal,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 342091 (2010).

Yu, B.

Y. Li, P. Lu, N. Dai, H. Long, Y. Wang, and B. Yu, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in KTP crystal,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(3), 1443–1446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion‐implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(6), 2695–2699 (1993).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, G. Feng, J. Han, B. Li, Q. Zhu, and X. Xie, “High repetition rate laser pulse induced damage in KTP crystal: Gray-tracking and catastrophic damage,” Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics. 122(15), 1313–1318 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Q. Cui, X. Shu, X. Le, and X. Zhang, “70-W average-power doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator at 2 μm with single KTP,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 639–643 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-P.

X.-P. Zhang, J. H. B. C. Li, J. Ying Ying, Y. Hong, and G. Qi Huang, “Filamentation-assisted fourth-order nonlinear process in KTP crystal,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 342091 (2010).

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, J.

Zhao, S.

Zheng, H. Y.

Y. C. Guan, W. Zhou, Z. L. Li, H. Y. Zheng, G. C. Lim, and M. H. Hong, “Femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures on magnesium,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 115(1), 13–18 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

Zhou, W.

Y. C. Guan, W. Zhou, Z. L. Li, H. Y. Zheng, G. C. Lim, and M. H. Hong, “Femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures on magnesium,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 115(1), 13–18 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

P. Wang, M. Lu, F. Gao, H. Guo, Y. Xu, C. Hou, Z. Zhou, and B. Peng, “Luminescence in the fluoride-containing phosphate-based glasses: A possible origin of their high resistance to nanosecond pulse laser-induced damage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8593–8602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Q.

Q. Zhang, G. Feng, J. Han, B. Li, Q. Zhu, and X. Xie, “High repetition rate laser pulse induced damage in KTP crystal: Gray-tracking and catastrophic damage,” Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics. 122(15), 1313–1318 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Q. Cui, X. Shu, X. Le, and X. Zhang, “70-W average-power doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator at 2 μm with single KTP,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 639–643 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

B. Boulanger, M. M. Fejer, R. Blachman, and P. F. Bordui, “Study of KTiOPO4 gray‐tracking at 1064, 532, and 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(19), 2401–2403 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. Blachman, P. F. Bordui, and M. M. Fejer, “Laser‐induced photochromic damage in potassium titanyl phosphate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(11), 1318–1320 (1994).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

Y. C. Guan, W. Zhou, Z. L. Li, H. Y. Zheng, G. C. Lim, and M. H. Hong, “Femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures on magnesium,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 115(1), 13–18 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

Y. Li, P. Lu, N. Dai, H. Long, Y. Wang, and B. Yu, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in KTP crystal,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(3), 1443–1446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. B (1)

X.-P. Zhang, J. H. B. C. Li, J. Ying Ying, Y. Hong, and G. Qi Huang, “Filamentation-assisted fourth-order nonlinear process in KTP crystal,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 342091 (2010).

Cryst. Res. Technol. (1)

Z. De-Gao, T. Bing, D. Sheng-Ming, W. Qing-Guo, Z. Yan-Shuai, H. Wan-Xia, and Y. Tao, “Characterization of KDP crystal grown from solution with low pH value,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 44(5), 500–504 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Cryst. (1)

J. Rajeev Gandhi, M. Rathnakumari, P. Muralimanohar, P. Sureshkumar, and G. Bhagavannarayana, “Analysis of crystalline perfection of pure and Mo-doped KTP crystals on different growth planes by high-resolution X-ray diffraction,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47(3), 931–935 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. K. Tyminski, “Photorefractive damage in KTP used as second‐harmonic generator,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(10), 5570–5576 (1991).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion‐implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(6), 2695–2699 (1993).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics. (1)

Q. Zhang, G. Feng, J. Han, B. Li, Q. Zhu, and X. Xie, “High repetition rate laser pulse induced damage in KTP crystal: Gray-tracking and catastrophic damage,” Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics. 122(15), 1313–1318 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

P. Wang, M. Lu, F. Gao, H. Guo, Y. Xu, C. Hou, Z. Zhou, and B. Peng, “Luminescence in the fluoride-containing phosphate-based glasses: A possible origin of their high resistance to nanosecond pulse laser-induced damage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8593–8602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) A schematic illustration of the experiment and the photographs of (b) the laser irradiation process as well as (c) the investigated KTP crystals.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM images of the surfaces of KTP crystals with different crystal facets exposed after continuously irradiated by a 632.8 nm laser from 1 h to 3 h. The simulated atomic arrangement of different crystal facets is displayed in the middle.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The surface-morphology evolution of the KTP (100) plane after (a) 1 h, (b) 2 h and (c) 3 h of laser irradiation. The corresponding XRD pattern was displayed in (a), where the indexed plane (400) and (600) help to confirm {100} series. The detailed SEM images recorded under higher magnifications were indicated by green, blue and orange squares on the right side.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The surface-morphology evolution of the KTP (010) plane after (a) 1 h, (b) 2 h and (c) 3 h of laser irradiation. The corresponding XRD pattern was displayed in (a), where the indexed plane (020), (060) and (080) help to confirm {010} series. The detailed SEM images recorded under higher magnifications were indicated by green, blue and orange squares on the right side.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The surface-morphology evolution of the KTP (001) plane after (a) 1 h, (b) 2 h and (c) 3 h of laser irradiation. The corresponding XRD pattern was displayed in (a), and the detailed SEM images recorded under higher magnifications were indicated by green, blue and orange squares on the right side.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 HRTEM and SAED petterns obtained close to the (a-c) (100), (d-f) (010) and (g-h) (001) facets of the KTP crystal.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Different structures of the KTP (010) and (001) respectively.

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