Abstract

Nanophotonic devices offer an unprecedented ability to concentrate light into small volumes which can greatly increase nonlinear effects. However, traditional plasmonic materials suffer from low damage thresholds and are not compatible with standard semiconductor technology. Here we study the nonlinear optical properties in the novel refractory plasmonic material titanium nitride using the Z-scan method at 1550 nm and 780 nm. We compare the extracted nonlinear parameters for TiN with previous works on noble metals and note a similarly large nonlinear optical response. However, TiN films have been shown to exhibit a damage threshold up to an order of magnitude higher than gold films of a similar thickness, while also being robust, cost-efficient, bio- and CMOS-compatible. Together, these properties make TiN a promising material for metal-based nonlinear optics.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

Nathaniel Kinsey, Akbar Ali Syed, Devon Courtwright, Clayton DeVault, Carl E. Bonner, Vladimir I. Gavrilenko, Vladimir M. Shalaev, David J. Hagan, Eric W. Van Stryland, and Alexandra Boltasseva, "Effective third-order nonlinearities in metallic refractory titanium nitride thin films: publisher’s note," Opt. Mater. Express 5, 2587-2587 (2015)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ome/abstract.cfm?uri=ome-5-11-2587

14 October 2015: A correction was made to the acknowledgments.


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References

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2014 (7)

U. Guler, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Applied physics. Refractory plasmonics,” Science 344(6181), 263–264 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions,” Nature 511(7507), 65–69 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Li, U. Guler, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, J. Guan, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Refractory plasmonics with titanium nitride: broadband metamaterial absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7959–7965 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Divya, V. Nampoori, P. Radhakrishnan, and A. Mujeeb, “Evaluation of nonlinear optical parameters of TiN/PVA nanocomposite - A comparison between semi-empirical relation and Z-scan results,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 14(1), 93–98 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Divya, V. P. N. Nampoori, P. Radhakrishnan, and A. Mujeeb, “Origin of optical non-linear response in TiN owing to excitation dynamics of surface plasmon resonance electronic oscillations,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085401 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. T. Sundari, R. Ramaseshan, F. Jose, S. Dash, and A. K. Tyagi, “Investigation of temperature dependent dielectric constant of a sputtered TiN thin film by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Opt. 115, 00335161–00335166 (2014).

G. V. Naik, B. Saha, J. Liu, S. M. Saber, E. A. Stach, J. M. K. Irudayaraj, T. D. Sands, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Epitaxial superlattices with titanium nitride as a plasmonic component for optical hyperbolic metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(21), 7546–7551 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative plasmonic materials: beyond gold and silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Khurgin and G. Sun, “Plasmonic enhancement of the third order nonlinear optical phenomena: figures of merit,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27460–27480 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

M. R. Ferdinandus, M. Reichert, T. R. Ensley, H. Hu, D. A. Fishman, S. Webster, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Dual-arm Z-scan technique to extract dilute solute nonlinearities from solution measurements,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(12), 1776–1790 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Sharma, R. R. Frontiera, A. I. Henry, E. Ringe, and R. P. van Duyne, “SERS: Materials, applications, and the future,” Mater. Today 15(1-2), 16–25 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 737–748 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

M. I. Stockman, “Nanoplasmonics: past, present, and glimpse into future,” Opt. Express 19(22), 22029–22106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S. W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 5(11), 677–681 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

K. MacDonald, Z. Sámson, M. Stockman, and N. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

E. Xenogiannopoulou, P. Aloukos, S. Couris, E. Kaminska, A. Piotrowska, and E. Dynowska, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of thin sputtered gold films,” Opt. Commun. 275(1), 217–222 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Rotenberg, A. D. Bristow, M. Pfeiffer, M. Betz, and H. M. van Driel, “Nonlinear absorption in Au films: Role of thermal effects,” Phys. Rev. B 75(15), 155426 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Gakovic, M. Trtica, D. Batani, P. Panjan, and D. Vasiljevic-Radovic, “Surface modification of titanium nitride film by a picosecond Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(6), 76–80 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Zharov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Second-harmonic generation in nonlinear left-handed metamaterials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(3), 529–534 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Second-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials,” Science 313(5786), 502–504 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, “Plasmonics in biology and plasmon-controlled flourescence,” Plasmonics 1(1), 5–33 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. McMahon, R. Lopez, R. F. H. Jr, E. A. Ray, and P. H. Bunton, “Second-harmonic generation from arrays of symmetric gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 041401 (2006).

2004 (2)

R. del Coso and J. Solis, “Relation between nonlinear refractive index and third-order susceptibility in absorbing media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(3), 640–644 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, D. Guan, W. Wang, W. Wu, and Z. Chen, “The inherent optical nonlinearities of thin silver films,” Opt. Mater. 25(4), 439–443 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D. Starosvetsky and I. Gotman, “Corrosion behavior of titanium nitride coated Ni-Ti shape memory surgical alloy,” Biomaterials 22(13), 1853–1859 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-Scan Measurement of the Nonlinear Absorption of a Thin Gold Film,” J. Appl. Opt. 86, 6200 (1999).

1997 (1)

M. M. Alvarez, J. T. Khoury, T. G. Schaaff, M. N. Shafigullin, I. Vezmar, and R. L. Whetten, “Optical Absorption Spectra of Nanocrystal Gold Molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(19), 3706–3712 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

K. Fukumi, A. Chayahara, K. Kadono, T. Sakaguchi, Y. Horino, M. Miya, K. Fujii, J. Hayakawa, and M. Satou, “Gold nanoparticles ion implanted in glass with enhanced nonlinear optical properties,” J. Appl. Opt. 75, 3075 (1994).

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

J. E. Sipe, V. C. Y. So, M. Fukui, and G. I. Stegeman, “Analysis of second-harmonic generation at metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 21(10), 4389–4403 (1980).

1969 (1)

N. Bloembergen, W. Burns, and M. Matsuoka, “Reflected third harmonic generated by picosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 1(4), 1–4 (1969).
[Crossref]

1946 (1)

B. F. Naylor, “High-temperature heat contents of Titanium Carbide and Titanium Nitride,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 68(3), 370–371 (1946).
[Crossref]

Aloukos, P.

E. Xenogiannopoulou, P. Aloukos, S. Couris, E. Kaminska, A. Piotrowska, and E. Dynowska, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of thin sputtered gold films,” Opt. Commun. 275(1), 217–222 (2007).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions,” Nature 511(7507), 65–69 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alvarez, M. M.

M. M. Alvarez, J. T. Khoury, T. G. Schaaff, M. N. Shafigullin, I. Vezmar, and R. L. Whetten, “Optical Absorption Spectra of Nanocrystal Gold Molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(19), 3706–3712 (1997).
[Crossref]

Amann, M. C.

J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions,” Nature 511(7507), 65–69 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Argyropoulos, C.

J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions,” Nature 511(7507), 65–69 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, L. A.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-Scan Measurement of the Nonlinear Absorption of a Thin Gold Film,” J. Appl. Opt. 86, 6200 (1999).

Batani, D.

B. Gakovic, M. Trtica, D. Batani, P. Panjan, and D. Vasiljevic-Radovic, “Surface modification of titanium nitride film by a picosecond Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(6), 76–80 (2007).
[Crossref]

Belkin, M. A.

J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions,” Nature 511(7507), 65–69 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Betz, M.

N. Rotenberg, A. D. Bristow, M. Pfeiffer, M. Betz, and H. M. van Driel, “Nonlinear absorption in Au films: Role of thermal effects,” Phys. Rev. B 75(15), 155426 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, W. Burns, and M. Matsuoka, “Reflected third harmonic generated by picosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 1(4), 1–4 (1969).
[Crossref]

Boehm, G.

J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions,” Nature 511(7507), 65–69 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolger, P. M.

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

G. V. Naik, B. Saha, J. Liu, S. M. Saber, E. A. Stach, J. M. K. Irudayaraj, T. D. Sands, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Epitaxial superlattices with titanium nitride as a plasmonic component for optical hyperbolic metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(21), 7546–7551 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Li, U. Guler, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, J. Guan, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Refractory plasmonics with titanium nitride: broadband metamaterial absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7959–7965 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Guler, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Applied physics. Refractory plasmonics,” Science 344(6181), 263–264 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative plasmonic materials: beyond gold and silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-Scan Measurement of the Nonlinear Absorption of a Thin Gold Film,” J. Appl. Opt. 86, 6200 (1999).

Bristow, A. D.

N. Rotenberg, A. D. Bristow, M. Pfeiffer, M. Betz, and H. M. van Driel, “Nonlinear absorption in Au films: Role of thermal effects,” Phys. Rev. B 75(15), 155426 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bunton, P. H.

M. D. McMahon, R. Lopez, R. F. H. Jr, E. A. Ray, and P. H. Bunton, “Second-harmonic generation from arrays of symmetric gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 041401 (2006).

Burns, W.

N. Bloembergen, W. Burns, and M. Matsuoka, “Reflected third harmonic generated by picosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 1(4), 1–4 (1969).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. K.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-Scan Measurement of the Nonlinear Absorption of a Thin Gold Film,” J. Appl. Opt. 86, 6200 (1999).

Chayahara, A.

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K. Fukumi, A. Chayahara, K. Kadono, T. Sakaguchi, Y. Horino, M. Miya, K. Fujii, J. Hayakawa, and M. Satou, “Gold nanoparticles ion implanted in glass with enhanced nonlinear optical properties,” J. Appl. Opt. 75, 3075 (1994).

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B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
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S. Divya, V. P. N. Nampoori, P. Radhakrishnan, and A. Mujeeb, “Origin of optical non-linear response in TiN owing to excitation dynamics of surface plasmon resonance electronic oscillations,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085401 (2014).
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M. D. McMahon, R. Lopez, R. F. H. Jr, E. A. Ray, and P. H. Bunton, “Second-harmonic generation from arrays of symmetric gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 041401 (2006).

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Sakaguchi, T.

K. Fukumi, A. Chayahara, K. Kadono, T. Sakaguchi, Y. Horino, M. Miya, K. Fujii, J. Hayakawa, and M. Satou, “Gold nanoparticles ion implanted in glass with enhanced nonlinear optical properties,” J. Appl. Opt. 75, 3075 (1994).

Sámson, Z.

K. MacDonald, Z. Sámson, M. Stockman, and N. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sands, T. D.

G. V. Naik, B. Saha, J. Liu, S. M. Saber, E. A. Stach, J. M. K. Irudayaraj, T. D. Sands, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Epitaxial superlattices with titanium nitride as a plasmonic component for optical hyperbolic metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(21), 7546–7551 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Satou, M.

K. Fukumi, A. Chayahara, K. Kadono, T. Sakaguchi, Y. Horino, M. Miya, K. Fujii, J. Hayakawa, and M. Satou, “Gold nanoparticles ion implanted in glass with enhanced nonlinear optical properties,” J. Appl. Opt. 75, 3075 (1994).

Schaaff, T. G.

M. M. Alvarez, J. T. Khoury, T. G. Schaaff, M. N. Shafigullin, I. Vezmar, and R. L. Whetten, “Optical Absorption Spectra of Nanocrystal Gold Molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(19), 3706–3712 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shadrivov, I. V.

Shafigullin, M. N.

M. M. Alvarez, J. T. Khoury, T. G. Schaaff, M. N. Shafigullin, I. Vezmar, and R. L. Whetten, “Optical Absorption Spectra of Nanocrystal Gold Molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(19), 3706–3712 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

U. Guler, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Applied physics. Refractory plasmonics,” Science 344(6181), 263–264 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Li, U. Guler, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, J. Guan, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Refractory plasmonics with titanium nitride: broadband metamaterial absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7959–7965 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. V. Naik, B. Saha, J. Liu, S. M. Saber, E. A. Stach, J. M. K. Irudayaraj, T. D. Sands, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Epitaxial superlattices with titanium nitride as a plasmonic component for optical hyperbolic metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(21), 7546–7551 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative plasmonic materials: beyond gold and silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharma, B.

B. Sharma, R. R. Frontiera, A. I. Henry, E. Ringe, and R. P. van Duyne, “SERS: Materials, applications, and the future,” Mater. Today 15(1-2), 16–25 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe, V. C. Y. So, M. Fukui, and G. I. Stegeman, “Analysis of second-harmonic generation at metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 21(10), 4389–4403 (1980).

Smith, D. D.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-Scan Measurement of the Nonlinear Absorption of a Thin Gold Film,” J. Appl. Opt. 86, 6200 (1999).

So, V. C. Y.

J. E. Sipe, V. C. Y. So, M. Fukui, and G. I. Stegeman, “Analysis of second-harmonic generation at metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 21(10), 4389–4403 (1980).

Solis, J.

Stach, E. A.

G. V. Naik, B. Saha, J. Liu, S. M. Saber, E. A. Stach, J. M. K. Irudayaraj, T. D. Sands, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Epitaxial superlattices with titanium nitride as a plasmonic component for optical hyperbolic metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(21), 7546–7551 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starosvetsky, D.

D. Starosvetsky and I. Gotman, “Corrosion behavior of titanium nitride coated Ni-Ti shape memory surgical alloy,” Biomaterials 22(13), 1853–1859 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G. I.

J. E. Sipe, V. C. Y. So, M. Fukui, and G. I. Stegeman, “Analysis of second-harmonic generation at metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 21(10), 4389–4403 (1980).

Stockman, M.

K. MacDonald, Z. Sámson, M. Stockman, and N. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, “Nanoplasmonics: past, present, and glimpse into future,” Opt. Express 19(22), 22029–22106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S. W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 5(11), 677–681 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sun, G.

Sundari, S. T.

S. T. Sundari, R. Ramaseshan, F. Jose, S. Dash, and A. K. Tyagi, “Investigation of temperature dependent dielectric constant of a sputtered TiN thin film by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Opt. 115, 00335161–00335166 (2014).

Trtica, M.

B. Gakovic, M. Trtica, D. Batani, P. Panjan, and D. Vasiljevic-Radovic, “Surface modification of titanium nitride film by a picosecond Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(6), 76–80 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tyagi, A. K.

S. T. Sundari, R. Ramaseshan, F. Jose, S. Dash, and A. K. Tyagi, “Investigation of temperature dependent dielectric constant of a sputtered TiN thin film by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Opt. 115, 00335161–00335166 (2014).

Tymchenko, M.

J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions,” Nature 511(7507), 65–69 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Driel, H. M.

N. Rotenberg, A. D. Bristow, M. Pfeiffer, M. Betz, and H. M. van Driel, “Nonlinear absorption in Au films: Role of thermal effects,” Phys. Rev. B 75(15), 155426 (2007).
[Crossref]

van Duyne, R. P.

B. Sharma, R. R. Frontiera, A. I. Henry, E. Ringe, and R. P. van Duyne, “SERS: Materials, applications, and the future,” Mater. Today 15(1-2), 16–25 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Stryland, E. W.

M. R. Ferdinandus, M. Reichert, T. R. Ensley, H. Hu, D. A. Fishman, S. Webster, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Dual-arm Z-scan technique to extract dilute solute nonlinearities from solution measurements,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(12), 1776–1790 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Vasiljevic-Radovic, D.

B. Gakovic, M. Trtica, D. Batani, P. Panjan, and D. Vasiljevic-Radovic, “Surface modification of titanium nitride film by a picosecond Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(6), 76–80 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vezmar, I.

M. M. Alvarez, J. T. Khoury, T. G. Schaaff, M. N. Shafigullin, I. Vezmar, and R. L. Whetten, “Optical Absorption Spectra of Nanocrystal Gold Molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(19), 3706–3712 (1997).
[Crossref]

Vo, T. P.

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

G. Yang, D. Guan, W. Wang, W. Wu, and Z. Chen, “The inherent optical nonlinearities of thin silver films,” Opt. Mater. 25(4), 439–443 (2004).
[Crossref]

Webster, S.

Wegener, M.

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Second-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials,” Science 313(5786), 502–504 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, T.-H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Whetten, R. L.

M. M. Alvarez, J. T. Khoury, T. G. Schaaff, M. N. Shafigullin, I. Vezmar, and R. L. Whetten, “Optical Absorption Spectra of Nanocrystal Gold Molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(19), 3706–3712 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wu, W.

G. Yang, D. Guan, W. Wang, W. Wu, and Z. Chen, “The inherent optical nonlinearities of thin silver films,” Opt. Mater. 25(4), 439–443 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xenogiannopoulou, E.

E. Xenogiannopoulou, P. Aloukos, S. Couris, E. Kaminska, A. Piotrowska, and E. Dynowska, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of thin sputtered gold films,” Opt. Commun. 275(1), 217–222 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, G.

G. Yang, D. Guan, W. Wang, W. Wu, and Z. Chen, “The inherent optical nonlinearities of thin silver films,” Opt. Mater. 25(4), 439–443 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yoon, Y.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-Scan Measurement of the Nonlinear Absorption of a Thin Gold Film,” J. Appl. Opt. 86, 6200 (1999).

Zayats, A. V.

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 737–748 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zharov, A. A.

Zheludev, N.

K. MacDonald, Z. Sámson, M. Stockman, and N. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zheludev, N. I.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (2)

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative plasmonic materials: beyond gold and silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Li, U. Guler, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, J. Guan, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Refractory plasmonics with titanium nitride: broadband metamaterial absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7959–7965 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomaterials (1)

D. Starosvetsky and I. Gotman, “Corrosion behavior of titanium nitride coated Ni-Ti shape memory surgical alloy,” Biomaterials 22(13), 1853–1859 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Divya, V. Nampoori, P. Radhakrishnan, and A. Mujeeb, “Evaluation of nonlinear optical parameters of TiN/PVA nanocomposite - A comparison between semi-empirical relation and Z-scan results,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 14(1), 93–98 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

B. F. Naylor, “High-temperature heat contents of Titanium Carbide and Titanium Nitride,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 68(3), 370–371 (1946).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Opt. (3)

S. T. Sundari, R. Ramaseshan, F. Jose, S. Dash, and A. K. Tyagi, “Investigation of temperature dependent dielectric constant of a sputtered TiN thin film by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Opt. 115, 00335161–00335166 (2014).

K. Fukumi, A. Chayahara, K. Kadono, T. Sakaguchi, Y. Horino, M. Miya, K. Fujii, J. Hayakawa, and M. Satou, “Gold nanoparticles ion implanted in glass with enhanced nonlinear optical properties,” J. Appl. Opt. 75, 3075 (1994).

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-Scan Measurement of the Nonlinear Absorption of a Thin Gold Film,” J. Appl. Opt. 86, 6200 (1999).

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

B. Gakovic, M. Trtica, D. Batani, P. Panjan, and D. Vasiljevic-Radovic, “Surface modification of titanium nitride film by a picosecond Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(6), 76–80 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

M. M. Alvarez, J. T. Khoury, T. G. Schaaff, M. N. Shafigullin, I. Vezmar, and R. L. Whetten, “Optical Absorption Spectra of Nanocrystal Gold Molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(19), 3706–3712 (1997).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Divya, V. P. N. Nampoori, P. Radhakrishnan, and A. Mujeeb, “Origin of optical non-linear response in TiN owing to excitation dynamics of surface plasmon resonance electronic oscillations,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mater. Today (1)

B. Sharma, R. R. Frontiera, A. I. Henry, E. Ringe, and R. P. van Duyne, “SERS: Materials, applications, and the future,” Mater. Today 15(1-2), 16–25 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

I. Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S. W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 5(11), 677–681 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. MacDonald, Z. Sámson, M. Stockman, and N. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 737–748 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions,” Nature 511(7507), 65–69 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

E. Xenogiannopoulou, P. Aloukos, S. Couris, E. Kaminska, A. Piotrowska, and E. Dynowska, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of thin sputtered gold films,” Opt. Commun. 275(1), 217–222 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Bloembergen, W. Burns, and M. Matsuoka, “Reflected third harmonic generated by picosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 1(4), 1–4 (1969).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

G. Yang, D. Guan, W. Wang, W. Wu, and Z. Chen, “The inherent optical nonlinearities of thin silver films,” Opt. Mater. 25(4), 439–443 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

J. E. Sipe, V. C. Y. So, M. Fukui, and G. I. Stegeman, “Analysis of second-harmonic generation at metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 21(10), 4389–4403 (1980).

N. Rotenberg, A. D. Bristow, M. Pfeiffer, M. Betz, and H. M. van Driel, “Nonlinear absorption in Au films: Role of thermal effects,” Phys. Rev. B 75(15), 155426 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. D. McMahon, R. Lopez, R. F. H. Jr, E. A. Ray, and P. H. Bunton, “Second-harmonic generation from arrays of symmetric gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 041401 (2006).

Plasmonics (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, “Plasmonics in biology and plasmon-controlled flourescence,” Plasmonics 1(1), 5–33 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

G. V. Naik, B. Saha, J. Liu, S. M. Saber, E. A. Stach, J. M. K. Irudayaraj, T. D. Sands, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Epitaxial superlattices with titanium nitride as a plasmonic component for optical hyperbolic metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(21), 7546–7551 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Second-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials,” Science 313(5786), 502–504 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Guler, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Applied physics. Refractory plasmonics,” Science 344(6181), 263–264 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (6)

S. Ishii, U. K. Chettiar, X. Ni, and A. V. Kildishev, “PhotonicsRT: Wave propagation in multilayer structures,” https://nanohub.org/resources/photonicsrt (2014).

R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Elsevier, 2008).

R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, 2005).

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

X. Ni, Z. Liu, and A. V. Kildishev, “PhotonicsDB: Optical Constants,” https://nanohub.org/resources/3692 (2010).

R. L. Sutherland, D. G. Mclean, and S. Kirkpatrick, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, 2003).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Linear optical spectra of TiN deposited at 350°C on silica glass as derived from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Compilation of the a) open aperture and b) closed aperture Z-scan curves for several different intensities at 1550 nm. Experimental results are shown with symbols and the fitted curves are depicted with a solid line.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Compilation of the a) open aperture and b) closed aperture Z-scan curves for several different intensities at 780 nm. Experimental results are shown with symbols and the fitted curves are depicted with a solid line.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the third-order susceptibilities of thin metal films. Some results used the simplified relations for χ ˜ e f f ( 3 ) (marked with *). The results for silver film were recalculated using the full complex relationship of χ ˜ e f f ( 3 ) (marked with **) using the refractive index of silver at 532 nm as found from literature (since the value was not provided in the paper) [40].

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Re { χ ( 3 ) } = 4 3 n o ' ε o c [ n o ' n 2 n o " α 2 λ 4 π ]
Im { χ ( 3 ) } = 4 3 n o ' ε o c [ n o ' α 2 λ 4 π + n o " n 2 ]
ε ( ω ) = ε f D r u d e ω p 2 ω 2 + i Γ D r u d e ω + m = 1 2 f m ω m 2 ω m 2 ω 2 i Γ m ω
χ ˜ ( 3 ) = 4 3 ε o c n o ' n ˜ o n ˜ 2
Re { χ ( 3 ) } = 4 3 n o ' ε o c [ n o ' n 2 n o " α 2 λ 4 π ]
Im { χ ( 3 ) } = 4 3 n o ' ε o c [ n o ' α 2 λ 4 π + n o " n 2 ]
Re { χ ( 3 ) } = 4 3 n o ' 2 ε o c n 2
Im { χ ( 3 ) } = 4 3 n o ' 2 ε o c α 2 λ 4 π

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