Abstract

Light-induced effects in a-GexSe100-x chalcogenide glasses, i.e., photobleaching (PB), photodarkening (PD), and photoinduced structural transformations, have been investigated as a function of composition across the glass-forming region by an optical two-laser-beam technique, Raman analysis, and first-principles simulations. It was found that there is a critical concentration of Ge x≈30% that corresponds to the crossover from transient PB to the mixture of transient PD and metastable PB. At the microscopic level, this corresponds to the change in the photoexcitation process. At low-Ge concentration (<20%), it is governed by the lone pair (LP) excitation, which diminishes with an increase in Ge content, yielding Ge-Se bond breakage at x≈ 30%. Further, an increase in Ge concentration (x>30%) favors breakage of the Ge-Ge bonds upon photoexcitation and formation of light-induced 3D nanostructures. The bond conversion process is verified by Raman analysis.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

J. Berashevich, A. Mishchenko, and A. Reznik, “Two-Step Photoexcitation Mechanism in Amorphous Se,” Phys. Rev. A 1(3), 034008 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. L. Bosse, I. Grishin, Y. G. Choi, C. Byung-ki, S. Lee, O. V. Kolosov, and B. D. Huey, “Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 053109 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

K. Darmawikarta, T. Li, S. G. Bishop, and J. R. Abelson, “Two forms of nanoscale order in amorphous GexSe1-x alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131908 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. R. Kumar, A. R. Barik, E. M. Vinod, M. Bapna, K. S. Sangunni, and K. V. Adarsh, “Crossover from photodarkening to photobleaching in a-GexSe100-x thin films,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1682–1684 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Micoulaut, A. Kachmar, M. Bauchy, S. Le Roux, C. Massobrio, and M. Boero, “Structure, topology, rings, and vibrational and electronic properties of GeSe glasses across the rigidity transition: A numerical study,” Phys. Rev. B 88(5), 054203 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

P. Boolchand, K. Gunasekera, and S. Bosle, “Midgap states, Raman scattering, glass homogeneity, percolative rigity and stress transition in chalcogenides,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(10), 2013–2018 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Arsova and E. Vateva, “Dual action of light in photodarkened Ge-As-S films,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(1), 153–157 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, A. Bruner, N. Shitrit, and B. Sfez, “Transient photodarkening and photobleaching in glassy GeSe2 films,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 949–952 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. G. Edwards and S. Sen, “Structure and Relaxation in Germanium Selenide Glasses and Supercooled Liquids: A Raman Spectroscopic Study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(15), 4307–4314 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, “Effect of Photo-Oxidation on Photobleaching of GeSe2 and Ge2Se3 Films,” J. Phys. Chem. 115, 21390–21395 (2011).

2010 (1)

E. Vateva and D. Arsova, “Transition of reversible photodarkening to photobleaching in chalcogenide films,” EPL 89(6), 64004 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. Jin, P. Boolchand, and M. Mitkova, “Heterogeneity of molecular structure of Ag photo-diffused Ge30Se70 thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(19-25), 2719–2723 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

A. Reznik, B. J. M. Lui, J. A. Rowlands, S. D. Baranovskii, O. Rubel, V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, S. O. Kasap, Y. Ohkawa, T. Matsubara, K. Miyakawa, M. Kubota, K. Tanioka, and T. Kawai, “Kinetics of the photostructural changes in a-Se films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. C. Mauro and A. K. Varshneya, “Multiscale Modeling of GeSe2 Glass Structure,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 2323–2326 (2006).

2005 (1)

P. S. Salmon, R. A. Martin, P. E. Mason, and G. J. Cuello, “Topological versus chemical ordering in network glasses at intermediate and extended length scales,” Nature 435(7038), 75–78 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

P. Nemec, J. Jedelsky, M. Frumar, M. Stabl, Z. Cernosek, and M. Vlcek, “Amorphous Ge-Se thin films prepared by pulsed-laser deposition,” Philos. Mag. 84(9), 877–885 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, S. Khalid, and S. R. Elliott, “Light-induced vector changes in the atomic structure of As-Se glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 257–262 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. Khalid, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, and S. R. Elliott, “Observation of light polarization-dependent structural changes in chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 706–708 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Ston, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Structure and photoinduced changes in bulk and films of As–Ge–S system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 220–225 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, “Transient photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299–302, 917–923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Q. Liu and F. Gan, “Photobleaching in Amorphous GeS2 Thin Films,” Mater. Lett. 53(6), 411–414 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

G. Chen, H. Jain, S. Khalid, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, and S. R. Elliott, “Study of structural changes in amorphous As2Se3 by EXAFS under in situ laser irradiation,” Solid State Commun. 120(4), 149–153 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Boolchand, X. Feng, and W. J. Bresser, “Rigity transitions in binary Ge-Se glasses and the intermediate phase,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 293–295, 348–356 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

C. R. Schardt, J. H. Simmons, P. Lucas, L. Le Neindre, and J. Lucas, “Photodarkening in Ge3Se17 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 23–29 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

K. Jackson, A. Briley, S. Grossman, D. Porezag, and M. Pederson, “Raman-active modes of a-GeSe2 and a-GeS2: A first-principles study,” Phys. Rev. B 60(22), 14985–14989 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. P. Perdew, K. Burke, and M. Ernzerhof, “Generalized Approximation made simple,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(18), 3865–3868 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliot, “Photoinduced effects and Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors and Insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

T. Kawagichi, S. Maruno, and Ke. Tanaka, “Compositional dependence of photoinduced and thermally induced bleaching of amorphous Ge-S and Ge-S-Ag films,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(9), 4560–4566 (1993).

1989 (1)

C. A. Spence and S. R. Elliott, “Light-induced oxidation and band-edge shifts in thermally evaporated films of germanium chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(8), 5452–5463 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

L. Tichý, H. Ticha, and K. Handlir, “Photoinduced changes of optical properties of amorphous chalcogenide films at ambient air pressure,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 97-98, 1227–1230 (1987).
[Crossref]

K. S. Harshavardhan and M. S. Hegde, “Origin of Anomalous Photoinduced Transformations in Amorphous Ge-Based Chalcogenide Thin Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(6), 567–570 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (3)

L. Tichy, A. Triska, H. Ticha, and N. Frumar, “On the nature of bleaching of Ge30Se70 films,” Philos. Mag. B 54, 219–230 (1986).

S. R. Elliott, “A unified Model of Reversible Photostructural Effects in Chalcogenide Glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 81(1-2), 71–98 (1986).
[Crossref]

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, P. M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 Glass: Spectroscopic Evidence for Broken Chemical Order,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 5421 (1986).

1982 (1)

S. Rajagopalan, K. S. Harshavardhan, L. K. Malhotra, and K. L. Chopra, “Photo-Optical Changes In Ge-Chalcogenide Films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 50(1), 29–38 (1982).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

K. Tanaka, “Reversible photoinduced change: mechanisms, properties and applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35-36, 1023–1034 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

P. M. Bridenbaugh, G. P. Espinosa, J. E. Griffiths, J. C. Phillips, and J. P. Remeika, “Microscopic origin of the companion A1 Raman line in glassy Ge(S,Se)2,” Phys. Rev. B 20(10), 4140–4144 (1979).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural Transformations in amorphous arsenic (III) selenide and arsenic (III) sulfide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191–223 (1974).
[Crossref]

Abelson, J. R.

K. Darmawikarta, T. Li, S. G. Bishop, and J. R. Abelson, “Two forms of nanoscale order in amorphous GexSe1-x alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adarsh, K. V.

Arsova, D.

D. Arsova and E. Vateva, “Dual action of light in photodarkened Ge-As-S films,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(1), 153–157 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Vateva and D. Arsova, “Transition of reversible photodarkening to photobleaching in chalcogenide films,” EPL 89(6), 64004 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bapna, M.

Baranovskii, S. D.

A. Reznik, B. J. M. Lui, J. A. Rowlands, S. D. Baranovskii, O. Rubel, V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, S. O. Kasap, Y. Ohkawa, T. Matsubara, K. Miyakawa, M. Kubota, K. Tanioka, and T. Kawai, “Kinetics of the photostructural changes in a-Se films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Barik, A. R.

Bauchy, M.

M. Micoulaut, A. Kachmar, M. Bauchy, S. Le Roux, C. Massobrio, and M. Boero, “Structure, topology, rings, and vibrational and electronic properties of GeSe glasses across the rigidity transition: A numerical study,” Phys. Rev. B 88(5), 054203 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berashevich, J.

J. Berashevich, A. Mishchenko, and A. Reznik, “Two-Step Photoexcitation Mechanism in Amorphous Se,” Phys. Rev. A 1(3), 034008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bishop, S. G.

K. Darmawikarta, T. Li, S. G. Bishop, and J. R. Abelson, “Two forms of nanoscale order in amorphous GexSe1-x alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boero, M.

M. Micoulaut, A. Kachmar, M. Bauchy, S. Le Roux, C. Massobrio, and M. Boero, “Structure, topology, rings, and vibrational and electronic properties of GeSe glasses across the rigidity transition: A numerical study,” Phys. Rev. B 88(5), 054203 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boolchand, P.

P. Boolchand, K. Gunasekera, and S. Bosle, “Midgap states, Raman scattering, glass homogeneity, percolative rigity and stress transition in chalcogenides,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(10), 2013–2018 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Jin, P. Boolchand, and M. Mitkova, “Heterogeneity of molecular structure of Ag photo-diffused Ge30Se70 thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(19-25), 2719–2723 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Boolchand, X. Feng, and W. J. Bresser, “Rigity transitions in binary Ge-Se glasses and the intermediate phase,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 293–295, 348–356 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, P. M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 Glass: Spectroscopic Evidence for Broken Chemical Order,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 5421 (1986).

Bosle, S.

P. Boolchand, K. Gunasekera, and S. Bosle, “Midgap states, Raman scattering, glass homogeneity, percolative rigity and stress transition in chalcogenides,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(10), 2013–2018 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bosse, J. L.

J. L. Bosse, I. Grishin, Y. G. Choi, C. Byung-ki, S. Lee, O. V. Kolosov, and B. D. Huey, “Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 053109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bresser, W. J.

P. Boolchand, X. Feng, and W. J. Bresser, “Rigity transitions in binary Ge-Se glasses and the intermediate phase,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 293–295, 348–356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bridenbaugh, P. M.

P. M. Bridenbaugh, G. P. Espinosa, J. E. Griffiths, J. C. Phillips, and J. P. Remeika, “Microscopic origin of the companion A1 Raman line in glassy Ge(S,Se)2,” Phys. Rev. B 20(10), 4140–4144 (1979).
[Crossref]

Briley, A.

K. Jackson, A. Briley, S. Grossman, D. Porezag, and M. Pederson, “Raman-active modes of a-GeSe2 and a-GeS2: A first-principles study,” Phys. Rev. B 60(22), 14985–14989 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bruner, A.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, A. Bruner, N. Shitrit, and B. Sfez, “Transient photodarkening and photobleaching in glassy GeSe2 films,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 949–952 (2011).
[Crossref]

Burke, K.

J. P. Perdew, K. Burke, and M. Ernzerhof, “Generalized Approximation made simple,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(18), 3865–3868 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byung-ki, C.

J. L. Bosse, I. Grishin, Y. G. Choi, C. Byung-ki, S. Lee, O. V. Kolosov, and B. D. Huey, “Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 053109 (2014).
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P. Nemec, J. Jedelsky, M. Frumar, M. Stabl, Z. Cernosek, and M. Vlcek, “Amorphous Ge-Se thin films prepared by pulsed-laser deposition,” Philos. Mag. 84(9), 877–885 (2004).
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Chen, G.

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, “Effect of Photo-Oxidation on Photobleaching of GeSe2 and Ge2Se3 Films,” J. Phys. Chem. 115, 21390–21395 (2011).

G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, S. Khalid, and S. R. Elliott, “Light-induced vector changes in the atomic structure of As-Se glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 257–262 (2003).
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G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. Khalid, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, and S. R. Elliott, “Observation of light polarization-dependent structural changes in chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 706–708 (2003).
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G. Chen, H. Jain, S. Khalid, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, and S. R. Elliott, “Study of structural changes in amorphous As2Se3 by EXAFS under in situ laser irradiation,” Solid State Commun. 120(4), 149–153 (2001).
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J. L. Bosse, I. Grishin, Y. G. Choi, C. Byung-ki, S. Lee, O. V. Kolosov, and B. D. Huey, “Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 053109 (2014).
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S. Rajagopalan, K. S. Harshavardhan, L. K. Malhotra, and K. L. Chopra, “Photo-Optical Changes In Ge-Chalcogenide Films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 50(1), 29–38 (1982).
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P. S. Salmon, R. A. Martin, P. E. Mason, and G. J. Cuello, “Topological versus chemical ordering in network glasses at intermediate and extended length scales,” Nature 435(7038), 75–78 (2005).
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K. Darmawikarta, T. Li, S. G. Bishop, and J. R. Abelson, “Two forms of nanoscale order in amorphous GexSe1-x alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131908 (2013).
[Crossref]

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A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, “Transient photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299–302, 917–923 (2002).
[Crossref]

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J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural Transformations in amorphous arsenic (III) selenide and arsenic (III) sulfide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191–223 (1974).
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G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. Khalid, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, and S. R. Elliott, “Observation of light polarization-dependent structural changes in chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 706–708 (2003).
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G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, S. Khalid, and S. R. Elliott, “Light-induced vector changes in the atomic structure of As-Se glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 257–262 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, H. Jain, S. Khalid, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, and S. R. Elliott, “Study of structural changes in amorphous As2Se3 by EXAFS under in situ laser irradiation,” Solid State Commun. 120(4), 149–153 (2001).
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T. G. Edwards and S. Sen, “Structure and Relaxation in Germanium Selenide Glasses and Supercooled Liquids: A Raman Spectroscopic Study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(15), 4307–4314 (2011).
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K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliot, “Photoinduced effects and Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors and Insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
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Elliott, S. R.

G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. Khalid, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, and S. R. Elliott, “Observation of light polarization-dependent structural changes in chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 706–708 (2003).
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G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, S. Khalid, and S. R. Elliott, “Light-induced vector changes in the atomic structure of As-Se glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 257–262 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, H. Jain, S. Khalid, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, and S. R. Elliott, “Study of structural changes in amorphous As2Se3 by EXAFS under in situ laser irradiation,” Solid State Commun. 120(4), 149–153 (2001).
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C. A. Spence and S. R. Elliott, “Light-induced oxidation and band-edge shifts in thermally evaporated films of germanium chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(8), 5452–5463 (1989).
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S. R. Elliott, “A unified Model of Reversible Photostructural Effects in Chalcogenide Glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 81(1-2), 71–98 (1986).
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Ernzerhof, M.

J. P. Perdew, K. Burke, and M. Ernzerhof, “Generalized Approximation made simple,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(18), 3865–3868 (1996).
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Espinosa, G. P.

P. M. Bridenbaugh, G. P. Espinosa, J. E. Griffiths, J. C. Phillips, and J. P. Remeika, “Microscopic origin of the companion A1 Raman line in glassy Ge(S,Se)2,” Phys. Rev. B 20(10), 4140–4144 (1979).
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Feng, X.

P. Boolchand, X. Feng, and W. J. Bresser, “Rigity transitions in binary Ge-Se glasses and the intermediate phase,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 293–295, 348–356 (2001).
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Frumar, M.

P. Nemec, J. Jedelsky, M. Frumar, M. Stabl, Z. Cernosek, and M. Vlcek, “Amorphous Ge-Se thin films prepared by pulsed-laser deposition,” Philos. Mag. 84(9), 877–885 (2004).
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Frumar, N.

L. Tichy, A. Triska, H. Ticha, and N. Frumar, “On the nature of bleaching of Ge30Se70 films,” Philos. Mag. B 54, 219–230 (1986).

Gan, F.

Q. Liu and F. Gan, “Photobleaching in Amorphous GeS2 Thin Films,” Mater. Lett. 53(6), 411–414 (2002).
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Ganjoo, A.

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, “Transient photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299–302, 917–923 (2002).
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Grasselli, R. K.

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, P. M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 Glass: Spectroscopic Evidence for Broken Chemical Order,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 5421 (1986).

Griffiths, J. E.

P. M. Bridenbaugh, G. P. Espinosa, J. E. Griffiths, J. C. Phillips, and J. P. Remeika, “Microscopic origin of the companion A1 Raman line in glassy Ge(S,Se)2,” Phys. Rev. B 20(10), 4140–4144 (1979).
[Crossref]

Grishin, I.

J. L. Bosse, I. Grishin, Y. G. Choi, C. Byung-ki, S. Lee, O. V. Kolosov, and B. D. Huey, “Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 053109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grossman, S.

K. Jackson, A. Briley, S. Grossman, D. Porezag, and M. Pederson, “Raman-active modes of a-GeSe2 and a-GeS2: A first-principles study,” Phys. Rev. B 60(22), 14985–14989 (1999).
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Grothaus, J.

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, P. M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 Glass: Spectroscopic Evidence for Broken Chemical Order,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 5421 (1986).

Gunasekera, K.

P. Boolchand, K. Gunasekera, and S. Bosle, “Midgap states, Raman scattering, glass homogeneity, percolative rigity and stress transition in chalcogenides,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(10), 2013–2018 (2012).
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L. Tichý, H. Ticha, and K. Handlir, “Photoinduced changes of optical properties of amorphous chalcogenide films at ambient air pressure,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 97-98, 1227–1230 (1987).
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K. S. Harshavardhan and M. S. Hegde, “Origin of Anomalous Photoinduced Transformations in Amorphous Ge-Based Chalcogenide Thin Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(6), 567–570 (1987).
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S. Rajagopalan, K. S. Harshavardhan, L. K. Malhotra, and K. L. Chopra, “Photo-Optical Changes In Ge-Chalcogenide Films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 50(1), 29–38 (1982).
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Hazle, M. A.

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, P. M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 Glass: Spectroscopic Evidence for Broken Chemical Order,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 5421 (1986).

Hegde, M. S.

K. S. Harshavardhan and M. S. Hegde, “Origin of Anomalous Photoinduced Transformations in Amorphous Ge-Based Chalcogenide Thin Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(6), 567–570 (1987).
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Huey, B. D.

J. L. Bosse, I. Grishin, Y. G. Choi, C. Byung-ki, S. Lee, O. V. Kolosov, and B. D. Huey, “Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 053109 (2014).
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Jackson, K.

K. Jackson, A. Briley, S. Grossman, D. Porezag, and M. Pederson, “Raman-active modes of a-GeSe2 and a-GeS2: A first-principles study,” Phys. Rev. B 60(22), 14985–14989 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jain, H.

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, “Effect of Photo-Oxidation on Photobleaching of GeSe2 and Ge2Se3 Films,” J. Phys. Chem. 115, 21390–21395 (2011).

G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. Khalid, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, and S. R. Elliott, “Observation of light polarization-dependent structural changes in chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 706–708 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, S. Khalid, and S. R. Elliott, “Light-induced vector changes in the atomic structure of As-Se glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 257–262 (2003).
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R. Ston, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Structure and photoinduced changes in bulk and films of As–Ge–S system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 220–225 (2003).
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G. Chen, H. Jain, S. Khalid, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, and S. R. Elliott, “Study of structural changes in amorphous As2Se3 by EXAFS under in situ laser irradiation,” Solid State Commun. 120(4), 149–153 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Khan, H. Jain, and K. V. Adarsh, “Role of Ge: As ratio in controlling the light-induced response of a-GexAs35-xSe65 thin films,” Sci Rep4, 4029 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jedelsky, J.

P. Nemec, J. Jedelsky, M. Frumar, M. Stabl, Z. Cernosek, and M. Vlcek, “Amorphous Ge-Se thin films prepared by pulsed-laser deposition,” Philos. Mag. 84(9), 877–885 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jin, M.

M. Jin, P. Boolchand, and M. Mitkova, “Heterogeneity of molecular structure of Ag photo-diffused Ge30Se70 thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(19-25), 2719–2723 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kachmar, A.

M. Micoulaut, A. Kachmar, M. Bauchy, S. Le Roux, C. Massobrio, and M. Boero, “Structure, topology, rings, and vibrational and electronic properties of GeSe glasses across the rigidity transition: A numerical study,” Phys. Rev. B 88(5), 054203 (2013).
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Kasap, S. O.

A. Reznik, B. J. M. Lui, J. A. Rowlands, S. D. Baranovskii, O. Rubel, V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, S. O. Kasap, Y. Ohkawa, T. Matsubara, K. Miyakawa, M. Kubota, K. Tanioka, and T. Kawai, “Kinetics of the photostructural changes in a-Se films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113506 (2006).
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Kawagichi, T.

T. Kawagichi, S. Maruno, and Ke. Tanaka, “Compositional dependence of photoinduced and thermally induced bleaching of amorphous Ge-S and Ge-S-Ag films,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(9), 4560–4566 (1993).

Kawai, T.

A. Reznik, B. J. M. Lui, J. A. Rowlands, S. D. Baranovskii, O. Rubel, V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, S. O. Kasap, Y. Ohkawa, T. Matsubara, K. Miyakawa, M. Kubota, K. Tanioka, and T. Kawai, “Kinetics of the photostructural changes in a-Se films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Khalid, S.

G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. Khalid, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, and S. R. Elliott, “Observation of light polarization-dependent structural changes in chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 706–708 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, S. Khalid, and S. R. Elliott, “Light-induced vector changes in the atomic structure of As-Se glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 257–262 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, H. Jain, S. Khalid, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, and S. R. Elliott, “Study of structural changes in amorphous As2Se3 by EXAFS under in situ laser irradiation,” Solid State Commun. 120(4), 149–153 (2001).
[Crossref]

Khan, P.

P. Khan, H. Jain, and K. V. Adarsh, “Role of Ge: As ratio in controlling the light-induced response of a-GexAs35-xSe65 thin films,” Sci Rep4, 4029 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kitano, K.

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, “Transient photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299–302, 917–923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Klebanov, M.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, A. Bruner, N. Shitrit, and B. Sfez, “Transient photodarkening and photobleaching in glassy GeSe2 films,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 949–952 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Reznik, B. J. M. Lui, J. A. Rowlands, S. D. Baranovskii, O. Rubel, V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, S. O. Kasap, Y. Ohkawa, T. Matsubara, K. Miyakawa, M. Kubota, K. Tanioka, and T. Kawai, “Kinetics of the photostructural changes in a-Se films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kolobov, A.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliot, “Photoinduced effects and Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors and Insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kolosov, O. V.

J. L. Bosse, I. Grishin, Y. G. Choi, C. Byung-ki, S. Lee, O. V. Kolosov, and B. D. Huey, “Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 053109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kubota, M.

A. Reznik, B. J. M. Lui, J. A. Rowlands, S. D. Baranovskii, O. Rubel, V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, S. O. Kasap, Y. Ohkawa, T. Matsubara, K. Miyakawa, M. Kubota, K. Tanioka, and T. Kawai, “Kinetics of the photostructural changes in a-Se films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kumar, R. R.

Le Neindre, L.

C. R. Schardt, J. H. Simmons, P. Lucas, L. Le Neindre, and J. Lucas, “Photodarkening in Ge3Se17 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 23–29 (2000).
[Crossref]

Le Roux, S.

M. Micoulaut, A. Kachmar, M. Bauchy, S. Le Roux, C. Massobrio, and M. Boero, “Structure, topology, rings, and vibrational and electronic properties of GeSe glasses across the rigidity transition: A numerical study,” Phys. Rev. B 88(5), 054203 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

J. L. Bosse, I. Grishin, Y. G. Choi, C. Byung-ki, S. Lee, O. V. Kolosov, and B. D. Huey, “Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 053109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. Khalid, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, and S. R. Elliott, “Observation of light polarization-dependent structural changes in chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 706–708 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, S. Khalid, and S. R. Elliott, “Light-induced vector changes in the atomic structure of As-Se glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 257–262 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, H. Jain, S. Khalid, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, and S. R. Elliott, “Study of structural changes in amorphous As2Se3 by EXAFS under in situ laser irradiation,” Solid State Commun. 120(4), 149–153 (2001).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

K. Darmawikarta, T. Li, S. G. Bishop, and J. R. Abelson, “Two forms of nanoscale order in amorphous GexSe1-x alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

Q. Liu and F. Gan, “Photobleaching in Amorphous GeS2 Thin Films,” Mater. Lett. 53(6), 411–414 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lucas, J.

C. R. Schardt, J. H. Simmons, P. Lucas, L. Le Neindre, and J. Lucas, “Photodarkening in Ge3Se17 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 23–29 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lucas, P.

C. R. Schardt, J. H. Simmons, P. Lucas, L. Le Neindre, and J. Lucas, “Photodarkening in Ge3Se17 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 23–29 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lui, B. J. M.

A. Reznik, B. J. M. Lui, J. A. Rowlands, S. D. Baranovskii, O. Rubel, V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, S. O. Kasap, Y. Ohkawa, T. Matsubara, K. Miyakawa, M. Kubota, K. Tanioka, and T. Kawai, “Kinetics of the photostructural changes in a-Se films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lyubin, V.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, A. Bruner, N. Shitrit, and B. Sfez, “Transient photodarkening and photobleaching in glassy GeSe2 films,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 949–952 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Reznik, B. J. M. Lui, J. A. Rowlands, S. D. Baranovskii, O. Rubel, V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, S. O. Kasap, Y. Ohkawa, T. Matsubara, K. Miyakawa, M. Kubota, K. Tanioka, and T. Kawai, “Kinetics of the photostructural changes in a-Se films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Malhotra, L. K.

S. Rajagopalan, K. S. Harshavardhan, L. K. Malhotra, and K. L. Chopra, “Photo-Optical Changes In Ge-Chalcogenide Films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 50(1), 29–38 (1982).
[Crossref]

Martin, R. A.

P. S. Salmon, R. A. Martin, P. E. Mason, and G. J. Cuello, “Topological versus chemical ordering in network glasses at intermediate and extended length scales,” Nature 435(7038), 75–78 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maruno, S.

T. Kawagichi, S. Maruno, and Ke. Tanaka, “Compositional dependence of photoinduced and thermally induced bleaching of amorphous Ge-S and Ge-S-Ag films,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(9), 4560–4566 (1993).

Mason, P. E.

P. S. Salmon, R. A. Martin, P. E. Mason, and G. J. Cuello, “Topological versus chemical ordering in network glasses at intermediate and extended length scales,” Nature 435(7038), 75–78 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Massobrio, C.

M. Micoulaut, A. Kachmar, M. Bauchy, S. Le Roux, C. Massobrio, and M. Boero, “Structure, topology, rings, and vibrational and electronic properties of GeSe glasses across the rigidity transition: A numerical study,” Phys. Rev. B 88(5), 054203 (2013).
[Crossref]

Matsubara, T.

A. Reznik, B. J. M. Lui, J. A. Rowlands, S. D. Baranovskii, O. Rubel, V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, S. O. Kasap, Y. Ohkawa, T. Matsubara, K. Miyakawa, M. Kubota, K. Tanioka, and T. Kawai, “Kinetics of the photostructural changes in a-Se films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mauro, J. C.

J. C. Mauro and A. K. Varshneya, “Multiscale Modeling of GeSe2 Glass Structure,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 2323–2326 (2006).

Micoulaut, M.

M. Micoulaut, A. Kachmar, M. Bauchy, S. Le Roux, C. Massobrio, and M. Boero, “Structure, topology, rings, and vibrational and electronic properties of GeSe glasses across the rigidity transition: A numerical study,” Phys. Rev. B 88(5), 054203 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mishchenko, A.

J. Berashevich, A. Mishchenko, and A. Reznik, “Two-Step Photoexcitation Mechanism in Amorphous Se,” Phys. Rev. A 1(3), 034008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mitkova, M.

M. Jin, P. Boolchand, and M. Mitkova, “Heterogeneity of molecular structure of Ag photo-diffused Ge30Se70 thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(19-25), 2719–2723 (2008).
[Crossref]

Miyakawa, K.

A. Reznik, B. J. M. Lui, J. A. Rowlands, S. D. Baranovskii, O. Rubel, V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, S. O. Kasap, Y. Ohkawa, T. Matsubara, K. Miyakawa, M. Kubota, K. Tanioka, and T. Kawai, “Kinetics of the photostructural changes in a-Se films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Moss, S. C.

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural Transformations in amorphous arsenic (III) selenide and arsenic (III) sulfide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191–223 (1974).
[Crossref]

Nemec, P.

P. Nemec, J. Jedelsky, M. Frumar, M. Stabl, Z. Cernosek, and M. Vlcek, “Amorphous Ge-Se thin films prepared by pulsed-laser deposition,” Philos. Mag. 84(9), 877–885 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ohkawa, Y.

A. Reznik, B. J. M. Lui, J. A. Rowlands, S. D. Baranovskii, O. Rubel, V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, S. O. Kasap, Y. Ohkawa, T. Matsubara, K. Miyakawa, M. Kubota, K. Tanioka, and T. Kawai, “Kinetics of the photostructural changes in a-Se films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ovshinsky, S. R.

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural Transformations in amorphous arsenic (III) selenide and arsenic (III) sulfide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191–223 (1974).
[Crossref]

Pederson, M.

K. Jackson, A. Briley, S. Grossman, D. Porezag, and M. Pederson, “Raman-active modes of a-GeSe2 and a-GeS2: A first-principles study,” Phys. Rev. B 60(22), 14985–14989 (1999).
[Crossref]

Perdew, J. P.

J. P. Perdew, K. Burke, and M. Ernzerhof, “Generalized Approximation made simple,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(18), 3865–3868 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, J. C.

P. M. Bridenbaugh, G. P. Espinosa, J. E. Griffiths, J. C. Phillips, and J. P. Remeika, “Microscopic origin of the companion A1 Raman line in glassy Ge(S,Se)2,” Phys. Rev. B 20(10), 4140–4144 (1979).
[Crossref]

Porezag, D.

K. Jackson, A. Briley, S. Grossman, D. Porezag, and M. Pederson, “Raman-active modes of a-GeSe2 and a-GeS2: A first-principles study,” Phys. Rev. B 60(22), 14985–14989 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rajagopalan, S.

S. Rajagopalan, K. S. Harshavardhan, L. K. Malhotra, and K. L. Chopra, “Photo-Optical Changes In Ge-Chalcogenide Films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 50(1), 29–38 (1982).
[Crossref]

Remeika, J. P.

P. M. Bridenbaugh, G. P. Espinosa, J. E. Griffiths, J. C. Phillips, and J. P. Remeika, “Microscopic origin of the companion A1 Raman line in glassy Ge(S,Se)2,” Phys. Rev. B 20(10), 4140–4144 (1979).
[Crossref]

Ren, J.

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, “Effect of Photo-Oxidation on Photobleaching of GeSe2 and Ge2Se3 Films,” J. Phys. Chem. 115, 21390–21395 (2011).

Reznik, A.

J. Berashevich, A. Mishchenko, and A. Reznik, “Two-Step Photoexcitation Mechanism in Amorphous Se,” Phys. Rev. A 1(3), 034008 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Reznik, B. J. M. Lui, J. A. Rowlands, S. D. Baranovskii, O. Rubel, V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, S. O. Kasap, Y. Ohkawa, T. Matsubara, K. Miyakawa, M. Kubota, K. Tanioka, and T. Kawai, “Kinetics of the photostructural changes in a-Se films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rowlands, J. A.

A. Reznik, B. J. M. Lui, J. A. Rowlands, S. D. Baranovskii, O. Rubel, V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, S. O. Kasap, Y. Ohkawa, T. Matsubara, K. Miyakawa, M. Kubota, K. Tanioka, and T. Kawai, “Kinetics of the photostructural changes in a-Se films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rubel, O.

A. Reznik, B. J. M. Lui, J. A. Rowlands, S. D. Baranovskii, O. Rubel, V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, S. O. Kasap, Y. Ohkawa, T. Matsubara, K. Miyakawa, M. Kubota, K. Tanioka, and T. Kawai, “Kinetics of the photostructural changes in a-Se films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Salmon, P. S.

P. S. Salmon, R. A. Martin, P. E. Mason, and G. J. Cuello, “Topological versus chemical ordering in network glasses at intermediate and extended length scales,” Nature 435(7038), 75–78 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sangunni, K. S.

Schardt, C. R.

C. R. Schardt, J. H. Simmons, P. Lucas, L. Le Neindre, and J. Lucas, “Photodarkening in Ge3Se17 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 23–29 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sen, S.

T. G. Edwards and S. Sen, “Structure and Relaxation in Germanium Selenide Glasses and Supercooled Liquids: A Raman Spectroscopic Study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(15), 4307–4314 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sfez, B.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, A. Bruner, N. Shitrit, and B. Sfez, “Transient photodarkening and photobleaching in glassy GeSe2 films,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 949–952 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shimakawa, K.

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, “Transient photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299–302, 917–923 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliot, “Photoinduced effects and Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors and Insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shitrit, N.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, A. Bruner, N. Shitrit, and B. Sfez, “Transient photodarkening and photobleaching in glassy GeSe2 films,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 949–952 (2011).
[Crossref]

Simmons, J. H.

C. R. Schardt, J. H. Simmons, P. Lucas, L. Le Neindre, and J. Lucas, “Photodarkening in Ge3Se17 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 23–29 (2000).
[Crossref]

Spence, C. A.

C. A. Spence and S. R. Elliott, “Light-induced oxidation and band-edge shifts in thermally evaporated films of germanium chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(8), 5452–5463 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stabl, M.

P. Nemec, J. Jedelsky, M. Frumar, M. Stabl, Z. Cernosek, and M. Vlcek, “Amorphous Ge-Se thin films prepared by pulsed-laser deposition,” Philos. Mag. 84(9), 877–885 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ston, R.

R. Ston, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Structure and photoinduced changes in bulk and films of As–Ge–S system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 220–225 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, “Reversible photoinduced change: mechanisms, properties and applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35-36, 1023–1034 (1980).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, Ke.

T. Kawagichi, S. Maruno, and Ke. Tanaka, “Compositional dependence of photoinduced and thermally induced bleaching of amorphous Ge-S and Ge-S-Ag films,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(9), 4560–4566 (1993).

Tanioka, K.

A. Reznik, B. J. M. Lui, J. A. Rowlands, S. D. Baranovskii, O. Rubel, V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, S. O. Kasap, Y. Ohkawa, T. Matsubara, K. Miyakawa, M. Kubota, K. Tanioka, and T. Kawai, “Kinetics of the photostructural changes in a-Se films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tenhover, P. M.

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, P. M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 Glass: Spectroscopic Evidence for Broken Chemical Order,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 5421 (1986).

Ticha, H.

L. Tichý, H. Ticha, and K. Handlir, “Photoinduced changes of optical properties of amorphous chalcogenide films at ambient air pressure,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 97-98, 1227–1230 (1987).
[Crossref]

L. Tichy, A. Triska, H. Ticha, and N. Frumar, “On the nature of bleaching of Ge30Se70 films,” Philos. Mag. B 54, 219–230 (1986).

Tichy, L.

L. Tichy, A. Triska, H. Ticha, and N. Frumar, “On the nature of bleaching of Ge30Se70 films,” Philos. Mag. B 54, 219–230 (1986).

Tichý, L.

L. Tichý, H. Ticha, and K. Handlir, “Photoinduced changes of optical properties of amorphous chalcogenide films at ambient air pressure,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 97-98, 1227–1230 (1987).
[Crossref]

Triska, A.

L. Tichy, A. Triska, H. Ticha, and N. Frumar, “On the nature of bleaching of Ge30Se70 films,” Philos. Mag. B 54, 219–230 (1986).

Varshneya, A. K.

J. C. Mauro and A. K. Varshneya, “Multiscale Modeling of GeSe2 Glass Structure,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 2323–2326 (2006).

Vateva, E.

D. Arsova and E. Vateva, “Dual action of light in photodarkened Ge-As-S films,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(1), 153–157 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Vateva and D. Arsova, “Transition of reversible photodarkening to photobleaching in chalcogenide films,” EPL 89(6), 64004 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vinod, E. M.

Vlcek, M.

P. Nemec, J. Jedelsky, M. Frumar, M. Stabl, Z. Cernosek, and M. Vlcek, “Amorphous Ge-Se thin films prepared by pulsed-laser deposition,” Philos. Mag. 84(9), 877–885 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Ston, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Structure and photoinduced changes in bulk and films of As–Ge–S system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 220–225 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. Khalid, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, and S. R. Elliott, “Observation of light polarization-dependent structural changes in chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 706–708 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, S. Khalid, and S. R. Elliott, “Light-induced vector changes in the atomic structure of As-Se glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 257–262 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yan, Q.

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, “Effect of Photo-Oxidation on Photobleaching of GeSe2 and Ge2Se3 Films,” J. Phys. Chem. 115, 21390–21395 (2011).

Zakery, A.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhao, D.

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, “Effect of Photo-Oxidation on Photobleaching of GeSe2 and Ge2Se3 Films,” J. Phys. Chem. 115, 21390–21395 (2011).

Adv. Phys. (1)

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliot, “Photoinduced effects and Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors and Insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. Khalid, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, and S. R. Elliott, “Observation of light polarization-dependent structural changes in chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 706–708 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Darmawikarta, T. Li, S. G. Bishop, and J. R. Abelson, “Two forms of nanoscale order in amorphous GexSe1-x alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131908 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. L. Bosse, I. Grishin, Y. G. Choi, C. Byung-ki, S. Lee, O. V. Kolosov, and B. D. Huey, “Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 053109 (2014).
[Crossref]

EPL (1)

E. Vateva and D. Arsova, “Transition of reversible photodarkening to photobleaching in chalcogenide films,” EPL 89(6), 64004 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

J. C. Mauro and A. K. Varshneya, “Multiscale Modeling of GeSe2 Glass Structure,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 2323–2326 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Kawagichi, S. Maruno, and Ke. Tanaka, “Compositional dependence of photoinduced and thermally induced bleaching of amorphous Ge-S and Ge-S-Ag films,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(9), 4560–4566 (1993).

A. Reznik, B. J. M. Lui, J. A. Rowlands, S. D. Baranovskii, O. Rubel, V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, S. O. Kasap, Y. Ohkawa, T. Matsubara, K. Miyakawa, M. Kubota, K. Tanioka, and T. Kawai, “Kinetics of the photostructural changes in a-Se films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (12)

M. Jin, P. Boolchand, and M. Mitkova, “Heterogeneity of molecular structure of Ag photo-diffused Ge30Se70 thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(19-25), 2719–2723 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Tichý, H. Ticha, and K. Handlir, “Photoinduced changes of optical properties of amorphous chalcogenide films at ambient air pressure,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 97-98, 1227–1230 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. Rajagopalan, K. S. Harshavardhan, L. K. Malhotra, and K. L. Chopra, “Photo-Optical Changes In Ge-Chalcogenide Films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 50(1), 29–38 (1982).
[Crossref]

R. Ston, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Structure and photoinduced changes in bulk and films of As–Ge–S system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 220–225 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, “Transient photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299–302, 917–923 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural Transformations in amorphous arsenic (III) selenide and arsenic (III) sulfide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191–223 (1974).
[Crossref]

K. Tanaka, “Reversible photoinduced change: mechanisms, properties and applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35-36, 1023–1034 (1980).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, S. Khalid, and S. R. Elliott, “Light-induced vector changes in the atomic structure of As-Se glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 257–262 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. R. Elliott, “A unified Model of Reversible Photostructural Effects in Chalcogenide Glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 81(1-2), 71–98 (1986).
[Crossref]

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Boolchand, X. Feng, and W. J. Bresser, “Rigity transitions in binary Ge-Se glasses and the intermediate phase,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 293–295, 348–356 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. R. Schardt, J. H. Simmons, P. Lucas, L. Le Neindre, and J. Lucas, “Photodarkening in Ge3Se17 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 23–29 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, “Effect of Photo-Oxidation on Photobleaching of GeSe2 and Ge2Se3 Films,” J. Phys. Chem. 115, 21390–21395 (2011).

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

T. G. Edwards and S. Sen, “Structure and Relaxation in Germanium Selenide Glasses and Supercooled Liquids: A Raman Spectroscopic Study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(15), 4307–4314 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mater. Lett. (1)

Q. Liu and F. Gan, “Photobleaching in Amorphous GeS2 Thin Films,” Mater. Lett. 53(6), 411–414 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

P. S. Salmon, R. A. Martin, P. E. Mason, and G. J. Cuello, “Topological versus chemical ordering in network glasses at intermediate and extended length scales,” Nature 435(7038), 75–78 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, A. Bruner, N. Shitrit, and B. Sfez, “Transient photodarkening and photobleaching in glassy GeSe2 films,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 949–952 (2011).
[Crossref]

Philos. Mag. (1)

P. Nemec, J. Jedelsky, M. Frumar, M. Stabl, Z. Cernosek, and M. Vlcek, “Amorphous Ge-Se thin films prepared by pulsed-laser deposition,” Philos. Mag. 84(9), 877–885 (2004).
[Crossref]

Philos. Mag. B (1)

L. Tichy, A. Triska, H. Ticha, and N. Frumar, “On the nature of bleaching of Ge30Se70 films,” Philos. Mag. B 54, 219–230 (1986).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Berashevich, A. Mishchenko, and A. Reznik, “Two-Step Photoexcitation Mechanism in Amorphous Se,” Phys. Rev. A 1(3), 034008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

M. Micoulaut, A. Kachmar, M. Bauchy, S. Le Roux, C. Massobrio, and M. Boero, “Structure, topology, rings, and vibrational and electronic properties of GeSe glasses across the rigidity transition: A numerical study,” Phys. Rev. B 88(5), 054203 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Jackson, A. Briley, S. Grossman, D. Porezag, and M. Pederson, “Raman-active modes of a-GeSe2 and a-GeS2: A first-principles study,” Phys. Rev. B 60(22), 14985–14989 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. M. Bridenbaugh, G. P. Espinosa, J. E. Griffiths, J. C. Phillips, and J. P. Remeika, “Microscopic origin of the companion A1 Raman line in glassy Ge(S,Se)2,” Phys. Rev. B 20(10), 4140–4144 (1979).
[Crossref]

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, P. M. Tenhover, M. A. Hazle, and R. K. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 Glass: Spectroscopic Evidence for Broken Chemical Order,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 5421 (1986).

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

C. A. Spence and S. R. Elliott, “Light-induced oxidation and band-edge shifts in thermally evaporated films of germanium chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(8), 5452–5463 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

K. S. Harshavardhan and M. S. Hegde, “Origin of Anomalous Photoinduced Transformations in Amorphous Ge-Based Chalcogenide Thin Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(6), 567–570 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Perdew, K. Burke, and M. Ernzerhof, “Generalized Approximation made simple,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(18), 3865–3868 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. (2)

P. Boolchand, K. Gunasekera, and S. Bosle, “Midgap states, Raman scattering, glass homogeneity, percolative rigity and stress transition in chalcogenides,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(10), 2013–2018 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Arsova and E. Vateva, “Dual action of light in photodarkened Ge-As-S films,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(1), 153–157 (2012).
[Crossref]

Solid State Commun. (1)

G. Chen, H. Jain, S. Khalid, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, and S. R. Elliott, “Study of structural changes in amorphous As2Se3 by EXAFS under in situ laser irradiation,” Solid State Commun. 120(4), 149–153 (2001).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

H. Jain, “Photoinduced Atom Displacement in Solids: Glasses vs. Polymers,” in Physics and Applications of Disordered Materials, M. Popescu, ed. (INOE Publications, 2002).

H. Fritzsche, “Light Induced Structural Changes in Glasses,” in Insulating and Semiconducting Glasses, P. Boolchand, ed. (World Scientific, 2000).

A. V. Kolobov, Chalcogenides Metastability and Phase Change Phenomena, Vol. 164, Springer Series in Materials Science (Springer, 2012).

D. A. Drabold, X. Zhang, and J. Li, “First principle molecular dynamics and photostructural response in amorphous silicon and chalcogenide glasses,” in Photo-induced metastability in amorphous semiconductors, A. V. Kolobov, ed. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2003).

P. Blaha, K. Schwarz, G. K. H. Madsen, D. Kvasnicka, and J. Luitz, Wien2k: An Augmented Plane Wave + Local Orbitals Program for Calculating Crystal Properties: Karlheinz Schwarz (Technische University, Vienna, Austria, 2001).

P. Khan, H. Jain, and K. V. Adarsh, “Role of Ge: As ratio in controlling the light-induced response of a-GexAs35-xSe65 thin films,” Sci Rep4, 4029 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Time evolution of (a) Ge29.2Se70.8 film transparency shows transient PB; (b) Ge32.1Se67.9 and Ge39.5Se60.5 demonstrate mixture of: transient PD (during pump cycle) and metastable PB (during rest period).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Raman spectra of the virgin and post-illuminated films with the following compositions: (a) Ge29.2Se70.8; (b) Ge32.1Se67.9; (c) Ge39.5Se60.5.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Observed structural changes in Ge29.2Se70.8, Ge32.1Se67.9 and Ge39.5Se60.5 films before and after light exposure, as determined through integration of deconvoluted bands in Raman spectra with curve-fitting error: (a) ES/CS ratio; (b) ETH and (c) Se-Se structures.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The Ge19Se81 structure possesses high amorphicity with almost uniform distribution of the atoms; (b) The Ge28Se72 system is distinguished by the well-defined layered structure and appearance of the Ge-Ge bond.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The photoinduced transition of the Ge36Se64 system to more ordered state. (a) Pre- excitation regime: the layered structure with weakly defined molecular cages; (b) Post- excitation regime: clustering of the molecular cages into 3D nanostructures.

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