Abstract

Both of oblique angle deposition and conventional deposition techniques were used by a RF sputtering system to grow the slanted (β = 32°) and planar (β = 0°) n-ZnO films on p-GaN, respectively. These two kinds of n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunctions were then fabricated the light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The electrical and optical properties of these two kinds of LEDs were investigated systematically. The results show that the slanted n-ZnO/p-GaN LEDs have a lower turn-on voltage and less leakage current than that of planar n-ZnO/p-GaN LEDs. Moreover, different from the planar n-ZnO/p-GaN LEDs which emitting colors changes with injection current, the slanted n-ZnO/p-GaN LEDs retains UV emissions (385-400 nm) under the entire range of injection currents we applied. The dominant UV luminescence of slanted n-ZnO/p-GaN LEDs is attributed to the ZnO near band edge transitions, indicating the high quality of slanted ZnO films and exhibiting the essential property dedicated to nano-sized heterojunctions. Hence, we have demonstrated that the slanted n-ZnO/p-GaN LEDs fabricated by oblique angle deposition have better performance than the planar n-ZnO/p-GaN LEDs fabricated by convention deposition means.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
UV-free red electroluminescence from the cross-connected p-ZnO:Cu nanobushes/n-GaN light emitting diode

Yumei Wang, Yibo Han, Junbo Han, Xianghui Zhang, Ying Chen, Siliang Wang, Li Wen, Nishuang Liu, Jun Su, Luying Li, and Yihua Gao
Opt. Express 24(4) 3940-3949 (2016)

Visible electroluminescence from a ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diode

C. Baratto, R. Kumar, E. Comini, G. Faglia, and G. Sberveglieri
Opt. Express 23(15) 18937-18942 (2015)

Ultraviolet electroluminescence from hybrid inorganic/organic ZnO/GaN/poly(3-hexylthiophene) dual heterojunctions

Yungting Chen, Hanyu Shih, Chunhsiung Wang, Chunyi Hsieh, Chihwei Chen, Yangfang Chen, and Taiyuan Lin
Opt. Express 19(S3) A319-A325 (2011)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  3. Z. L. Wang, “Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(25), R829–R858 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. Y. Huang, Y. J. Lee, T. Y. Lin, S. L. Chang, J. T. Lian, H. M. Lin, N. C. Chen, and Y. J. Yang, “Direct formation of InN-codoped p-ZnO/n-GaN heterojunction diode by solgel spin-coating scheme,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 805–808 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. B. Xiang, P. W. Wang, X. Z. Zhang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, C. Soci, D. P. Yu, and D. L. Wang, “Rational Synthesis of p-Type Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays Using Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 323–328 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. Ya. I. Alivov, J. E. Van Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Huang, G. Fang, Y. Li, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Long, H. Wang, D. L. Carroll, and X. Zhao, “Improved and color tunable electroluminescence from n-ZnO/HfO2/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 233502 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Chen, D. Bagnall, and T. Yao, “ZnO as a novel photonic material for the UV region,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 75(2–3), 190–198 (2003).
  9. A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. H. C. Chen, M. J. Chen, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. L. Tsai, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “UV Electroluminescence and Structure of n-ZnO/p-GaN Heterojunction LEDs Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 265–271 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. P. F. Carcia, R. S. McLean, M. H. Reilly, and G. Nunes, “Transparent ZnO thin-film transistor fabricated by rf magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1117–1119 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).
  13. R. Teki, T. C. Parker, H. Li, N. Korotkar, T. M. Lu, and S. Lee, “Low temperature synthesis of single crystalline ZnO nanorods by oblique angle deposition,” Thin Solid Films 516(15), 4993–4996 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. M. LaForge, M. T. Taschuk, and M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition of crystalline zinc oxide nanorods,” Thin Solid Films 519(11), 3530–3537 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  15. C. Y. Chen, J. H. Huang, K. Y. Lai, Y. J. Jen, C. P. Liu, and J. H. He, “Giant optical anisotropy of oblique-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2015–2024 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. D. Toledano, R. E. Galindo, M. Yuste, J. M. Albella, and O. Sanchez, “Compositional and structural properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films grown by oblique angle reactive sputtering deposition: effect on the refractive index,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(4), 045306 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. J. Lee, Z. P. Yang, J. J. Siao, Z. H. Xie, Y. L. Chuang, T. Y. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “Slanted n-ZnO/p-GaN nanorod arrays light-emitting diodes grown by oblique-angle deposition,” APL Material 2(5), 056101 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y.-C. Yao, M.-T. Tsai, H.-C. Hsu, L.-W. She, C.-M. Cheng, Y.-C. Chen, C.-J. Wu, and Y.-J. Lee, “Use of two-dimensional nanorod arrays with slanted ITO film to enhance optical absorption for photovoltaic applications,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3479–3489 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. Y.-J. Lee, Y.-C. Yao, and C.-H. Yang, “Direct electrical contact of slanted ITO film on axial p-n junction silicon nanowire solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(S1Suppl 1), A7–A14 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. V. Tvarrozek, I. Novotny, P. Sutta, M. Netrvalova, I. Vavra, J. Bruncko, P. Gaspierik, and S. Flickyngerova, “Oblique Angle Sputtering of ZnO:Ga Thin Films,” Physics Procedia 32, 456–463 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. K. Sheu, K. W. Shu, M. L. Lee, C. J. Tun, and G. C. Chi, “Effect of Thermal Annealing on Ga-Doped ZnO Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(6), H521–H524 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. Janotti and C. G. V. Walle, “Native point defects in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 76(16), 165202 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  23. K. Ellmer, “Resistivity of polycrystalline zinc oxide films: current status and physical limit,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(21), 3097–3108 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-Uv Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. R. A. Rosenberg, M. Abu Haija, K. Vijayalakshmi, J. Zhou, S. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Depth resolved luminescence from oriented ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243101 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  26. X. Y. Xu, Y. C. Liu, Y. X. Liu, C. S. Xu, C. L. Shao, and R. Mu, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from p-GaN/i-ZnO/n-ZnO heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 80(7), 871–874 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

Y. J. Lee, Z. P. Yang, J. J. Siao, Z. H. Xie, Y. L. Chuang, T. Y. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “Slanted n-ZnO/p-GaN nanorod arrays light-emitting diodes grown by oblique-angle deposition,” APL Material 2(5), 056101 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Huang, Y. J. Lee, T. Y. Lin, S. L. Chang, J. T. Lian, H. M. Lin, N. C. Chen, and Y. J. Yang, “Direct formation of InN-codoped p-ZnO/n-GaN heterojunction diode by solgel spin-coating scheme,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 805–808 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

D. Toledano, R. E. Galindo, M. Yuste, J. M. Albella, and O. Sanchez, “Compositional and structural properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films grown by oblique angle reactive sputtering deposition: effect on the refractive index,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(4), 045306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-C. Yao, and C.-H. Yang, “Direct electrical contact of slanted ITO film on axial p-n junction silicon nanowire solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(S1Suppl 1), A7–A14 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

C. Y. Chen, J. H. Huang, K. Y. Lai, Y. J. Jen, C. P. Liu, and J. H. He, “Giant optical anisotropy of oblique-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2015–2024 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Yao, M.-T. Tsai, H.-C. Hsu, L.-W. She, C.-M. Cheng, Y.-C. Chen, C.-J. Wu, and Y.-J. Lee, “Use of two-dimensional nanorod arrays with slanted ITO film to enhance optical absorption for photovoltaic applications,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3479–3489 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Tvarrozek, I. Novotny, P. Sutta, M. Netrvalova, I. Vavra, J. Bruncko, P. Gaspierik, and S. Flickyngerova, “Oblique Angle Sputtering of ZnO:Ga Thin Films,” Physics Procedia 32, 456–463 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Fang, Y. Li, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Long, H. Wang, D. L. Carroll, and X. Zhao, “Improved and color tunable electroluminescence from n-ZnO/HfO2/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 233502 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. M. LaForge, M. T. Taschuk, and M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition of crystalline zinc oxide nanorods,” Thin Solid Films 519(11), 3530–3537 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H. C. Chen, M. J. Chen, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. L. Tsai, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “UV Electroluminescence and Structure of n-ZnO/p-GaN Heterojunction LEDs Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 265–271 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-Uv Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

R. A. Rosenberg, M. Abu Haija, K. Vijayalakshmi, J. Zhou, S. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Depth resolved luminescence from oriented ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243101 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

R. Teki, T. C. Parker, H. Li, N. Korotkar, T. M. Lu, and S. Lee, “Low temperature synthesis of single crystalline ZnO nanorods by oblique angle deposition,” Thin Solid Films 516(15), 4993–4996 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

J. K. Sheu, K. W. Shu, M. L. Lee, C. J. Tun, and G. C. Chi, “Effect of Thermal Annealing on Ga-Doped ZnO Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(6), H521–H524 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Janotti and C. G. V. Walle, “Native point defects in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 76(16), 165202 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

B. Xiang, P. W. Wang, X. Z. Zhang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, C. Soci, D. P. Yu, and D. L. Wang, “Rational Synthesis of p-Type Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays Using Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 323–328 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

X. Y. Xu, Y. C. Liu, Y. X. Liu, C. S. Xu, C. L. Shao, and R. Mu, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from p-GaN/i-ZnO/n-ZnO heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 80(7), 871–874 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

Z. L. Wang, “Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(25), R829–R858 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

Ya. I. Alivov, J. E. Van Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, D. Bagnall, and T. Yao, “ZnO as a novel photonic material for the UV region,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 75(2–3), 190–198 (2003).

P. F. Carcia, R. S. McLean, M. H. Reilly, and G. Nunes, “Transparent ZnO thin-film transistor fabricated by rf magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1117–1119 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

K. Ellmer, “Resistivity of polycrystalline zinc oxide films: current status and physical limit,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(21), 3097–3108 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[Crossref]

Abu Haija, M.

R. A. Rosenberg, M. Abu Haija, K. Vijayalakshmi, J. Zhou, S. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Depth resolved luminescence from oriented ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Albella, J. M.

D. Toledano, R. E. Galindo, M. Yuste, J. M. Albella, and O. Sanchez, “Compositional and structural properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films grown by oblique angle reactive sputtering deposition: effect on the refractive index,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(4), 045306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alivov, Ya. I.

Ya. I. Alivov, J. E. Van Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[Crossref]

Aplin, D. P. R.

B. Xiang, P. W. Wang, X. Z. Zhang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, C. Soci, D. P. Yu, and D. L. Wang, “Rational Synthesis of p-Type Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays Using Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 323–328 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ataev, B. M.

Ya. I. Alivov, J. E. Van Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bagnall, D.

Y. Chen, D. Bagnall, and T. Yao, “ZnO as a novel photonic material for the UV region,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 75(2–3), 190–198 (2003).

Bagnall, D. M.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brett, M. J.

J. M. LaForge, M. T. Taschuk, and M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition of crystalline zinc oxide nanorods,” Thin Solid Films 519(11), 3530–3537 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bruncko, J.

V. Tvarrozek, I. Novotny, P. Sutta, M. Netrvalova, I. Vavra, J. Bruncko, P. Gaspierik, and S. Flickyngerova, “Oblique Angle Sputtering of ZnO:Ga Thin Films,” Physics Procedia 32, 456–463 (2012).
[Crossref]

Carcia, P. F.

P. F. Carcia, R. S. McLean, M. H. Reilly, and G. Nunes, “Transparent ZnO thin-film transistor fabricated by rf magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1117–1119 (2003).
[Crossref]

Carroll, D. L.

H. Huang, G. Fang, Y. Li, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Long, H. Wang, D. L. Carroll, and X. Zhao, “Improved and color tunable electroluminescence from n-ZnO/HfO2/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 233502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chan, W. K.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S. L.

Cheah, K. W.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, H. C.

H. C. Chen, M. J. Chen, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. L. Tsai, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “UV Electroluminescence and Structure of n-ZnO/p-GaN Heterojunction LEDs Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 265–271 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Chen, M. J.

H. C. Chen, M. J. Chen, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. L. Tsai, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “UV Electroluminescence and Structure of n-ZnO/p-GaN Heterojunction LEDs Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 265–271 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, N. C.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, D. Bagnall, and T. Yao, “ZnO as a novel photonic material for the UV region,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 75(2–3), 190–198 (2003).

Chen, Y. F.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-C.

Cheng, C.-M.

Chi, G. C.

J. K. Sheu, K. W. Shu, M. L. Lee, C. J. Tun, and G. C. Chi, “Effect of Thermal Annealing on Ga-Doped ZnO Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(6), H521–H524 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chichibu, S. F.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-Uv Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chuang, Y. L.

Y. J. Lee, Z. P. Yang, J. J. Siao, Z. H. Xie, Y. L. Chuang, T. Y. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “Slanted n-ZnO/p-GaN nanorod arrays light-emitting diodes grown by oblique-angle deposition,” APL Material 2(5), 056101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chukichev, M. V.

Ya. I. Alivov, J. E. Van Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dayeh, S. A.

B. Xiang, P. W. Wang, X. Z. Zhang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, C. Soci, D. P. Yu, and D. L. Wang, “Rational Synthesis of p-Type Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays Using Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 323–328 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Djurisic, A. B.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dupuis, R.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-Uv Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ellmer, K.

K. Ellmer, “Resistivity of polycrystalline zinc oxide films: current status and physical limit,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(21), 3097–3108 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fang, G.

H. Huang, G. Fang, Y. Li, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Long, H. Wang, D. L. Carroll, and X. Zhao, “Improved and color tunable electroluminescence from n-ZnO/HfO2/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 233502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Flickyngerova, S.

V. Tvarrozek, I. Novotny, P. Sutta, M. Netrvalova, I. Vavra, J. Bruncko, P. Gaspierik, and S. Flickyngerova, “Oblique Angle Sputtering of ZnO:Ga Thin Films,” Physics Procedia 32, 456–463 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fong, P. W. K.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuke, S.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

Galindo, R. E.

D. Toledano, R. E. Galindo, M. Yuste, J. M. Albella, and O. Sanchez, “Compositional and structural properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films grown by oblique angle reactive sputtering deposition: effect on the refractive index,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(4), 045306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gaspierik, P.

V. Tvarrozek, I. Novotny, P. Sutta, M. Netrvalova, I. Vavra, J. Bruncko, P. Gaspierik, and S. Flickyngerova, “Oblique Angle Sputtering of ZnO:Ga Thin Films,” Physics Procedia 32, 456–463 (2012).
[Crossref]

Goto, T.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gwo, S.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, J. H.

Hsu, H.-C.

Hsu, Y. F.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, Y.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-Uv Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C. Y.

Huang, H.

H. Huang, G. Fang, Y. Li, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Long, H. Wang, D. L. Carroll, and X. Zhao, “Improved and color tunable electroluminescence from n-ZnO/HfO2/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 233502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, J. H.

Janotti, A.

A. Janotti and C. G. V. Walle, “Native point defects in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 76(16), 165202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jen, Y. J.

Kawasaki, M.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. J.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-Uv Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Koinuma, H.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

Korotkar, N.

R. Teki, T. C. Parker, H. Li, N. Korotkar, T. M. Lu, and S. Lee, “Low temperature synthesis of single crystalline ZnO nanorods by oblique angle deposition,” Thin Solid Films 516(15), 4993–4996 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kuan, H.

H. C. Chen, M. J. Chen, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. L. Tsai, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “UV Electroluminescence and Structure of n-ZnO/p-GaN Heterojunction LEDs Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 265–271 (2010).
[Crossref]

LaForge, J. M.

J. M. LaForge, M. T. Taschuk, and M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition of crystalline zinc oxide nanorods,” Thin Solid Films 519(11), 3530–3537 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lai, K. Y.

Lee, M. L.

J. K. Sheu, K. W. Shu, M. L. Lee, C. J. Tun, and G. C. Chi, “Effect of Thermal Annealing on Ga-Doped ZnO Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(6), H521–H524 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

R. Teki, T. C. Parker, H. Li, N. Korotkar, T. M. Lu, and S. Lee, “Low temperature synthesis of single crystalline ZnO nanorods by oblique angle deposition,” Thin Solid Films 516(15), 4993–4996 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, Z. P. Yang, J. J. Siao, Z. H. Xie, Y. L. Chuang, T. Y. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “Slanted n-ZnO/p-GaN nanorod arrays light-emitting diodes grown by oblique-angle deposition,” APL Material 2(5), 056101 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Huang, Y. J. Lee, T. Y. Lin, S. L. Chang, J. T. Lian, H. M. Lin, N. C. Chen, and Y. J. Yang, “Direct formation of InN-codoped p-ZnO/n-GaN heterojunction diode by solgel spin-coating scheme,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 805–808 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-J.

Li, H.

R. Teki, T. C. Parker, H. Li, N. Korotkar, T. M. Lu, and S. Lee, “Low temperature synthesis of single crystalline ZnO nanorods by oblique angle deposition,” Thin Solid Films 516(15), 4993–4996 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

H. Huang, G. Fang, Y. Li, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Long, H. Wang, D. L. Carroll, and X. Zhao, “Improved and color tunable electroluminescence from n-ZnO/HfO2/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 233502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, W. C.

H. C. Chen, M. J. Chen, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. L. Tsai, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “UV Electroluminescence and Structure of n-ZnO/p-GaN Heterojunction LEDs Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 265–271 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

H. Huang, G. Fang, Y. Li, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Long, H. Wang, D. L. Carroll, and X. Zhao, “Improved and color tunable electroluminescence from n-ZnO/HfO2/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 233502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lian, J. T.

Lin, H. M.

Lin, S. Y.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Lin, T. Y.

Y. J. Lee, Z. P. Yang, J. J. Siao, Z. H. Xie, Y. L. Chuang, T. Y. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “Slanted n-ZnO/p-GaN nanorod arrays light-emitting diodes grown by oblique-angle deposition,” APL Material 2(5), 056101 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Huang, Y. J. Lee, T. Y. Lin, S. L. Chang, J. T. Lian, H. M. Lin, N. C. Chen, and Y. J. Yang, “Direct formation of InN-codoped p-ZnO/n-GaN heterojunction diode by solgel spin-coating scheme,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 805–808 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C. P.

Liu, W.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Liu, Y.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-Uv Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. C.

X. Y. Xu, Y. C. Liu, Y. X. Liu, C. S. Xu, C. L. Shao, and R. Mu, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from p-GaN/i-ZnO/n-ZnO heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 80(7), 871–874 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. X.

X. Y. Xu, Y. C. Liu, Y. X. Liu, C. S. Xu, C. L. Shao, and R. Mu, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from p-GaN/i-ZnO/n-ZnO heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 80(7), 871–874 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lochner, Z.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-Uv Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Long, H.

H. Huang, G. Fang, Y. Li, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Long, H. Wang, D. L. Carroll, and X. Zhao, “Improved and color tunable electroluminescence from n-ZnO/HfO2/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 233502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Look, D. C.

Ya. I. Alivov, J. E. Van Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lu, T. M.

R. Teki, T. C. Parker, H. Li, N. Korotkar, T. M. Lu, and S. Lee, “Low temperature synthesis of single crystalline ZnO nanorods by oblique angle deposition,” Thin Solid Films 516(15), 4993–4996 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lui, H. F.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makino, T.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

McLean, R. S.

P. F. Carcia, R. S. McLean, M. H. Reilly, and G. Nunes, “Transparent ZnO thin-film transistor fabricated by rf magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1117–1119 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mo, X.

H. Huang, G. Fang, Y. Li, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Long, H. Wang, D. L. Carroll, and X. Zhao, “Improved and color tunable electroluminescence from n-ZnO/HfO2/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 233502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mu, R.

X. Y. Xu, Y. C. Liu, Y. X. Liu, C. S. Xu, C. L. Shao, and R. Mu, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from p-GaN/i-ZnO/n-ZnO heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 80(7), 871–874 (2005).
[Crossref]

Netrvalova, M.

V. Tvarrozek, I. Novotny, P. Sutta, M. Netrvalova, I. Vavra, J. Bruncko, P. Gaspierik, and S. Flickyngerova, “Oblique Angle Sputtering of ZnO:Ga Thin Films,” Physics Procedia 32, 456–463 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ng, A. M. C.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novotny, I.

V. Tvarrozek, I. Novotny, P. Sutta, M. Netrvalova, I. Vavra, J. Bruncko, P. Gaspierik, and S. Flickyngerova, “Oblique Angle Sputtering of ZnO:Ga Thin Films,” Physics Procedia 32, 456–463 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nunes, G.

P. F. Carcia, R. S. McLean, M. H. Reilly, and G. Nunes, “Transparent ZnO thin-film transistor fabricated by rf magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1117–1119 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ohno, H.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ohtani, K.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ohtani, M.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ohtomo, A.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

Onuma, T.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

Parker, T. C.

R. Teki, T. C. Parker, H. Li, N. Korotkar, T. M. Lu, and S. Lee, “Low temperature synthesis of single crystalline ZnO nanorods by oblique angle deposition,” Thin Solid Films 516(15), 4993–4996 (2008).
[Crossref]

Reilly, M. H.

P. F. Carcia, R. S. McLean, M. H. Reilly, and G. Nunes, “Transparent ZnO thin-film transistor fabricated by rf magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1117–1119 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rosenberg, R. A.

R. A. Rosenberg, M. Abu Haija, K. Vijayalakshmi, J. Zhou, S. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Depth resolved luminescence from oriented ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ryou, J. H.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-Uv Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanchez, O.

D. Toledano, R. E. Galindo, M. Yuste, J. M. Albella, and O. Sanchez, “Compositional and structural properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films grown by oblique angle reactive sputtering deposition: effect on the refractive index,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(4), 045306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Schubert, M. F.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Segawa, Y.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shao, C. L.

X. Y. Xu, Y. C. Liu, Y. X. Liu, C. S. Xu, C. L. Shao, and R. Mu, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from p-GaN/i-ZnO/n-ZnO heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 80(7), 871–874 (2005).
[Crossref]

She, L.-W.

Shen, M. Y.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sheu, J. K.

Y. J. Lee, Z. P. Yang, J. J. Siao, Z. H. Xie, Y. L. Chuang, T. Y. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “Slanted n-ZnO/p-GaN nanorod arrays light-emitting diodes grown by oblique-angle deposition,” APL Material 2(5), 056101 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. K. Sheu, K. W. Shu, M. L. Lee, C. J. Tun, and G. C. Chi, “Effect of Thermal Annealing on Ga-Doped ZnO Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(6), H521–H524 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shiojiri, M.

H. C. Chen, M. J. Chen, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. L. Tsai, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “UV Electroluminescence and Structure of n-ZnO/p-GaN Heterojunction LEDs Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 265–271 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shu, K. W.

J. K. Sheu, K. W. Shu, M. L. Lee, C. J. Tun, and G. C. Chi, “Effect of Thermal Annealing on Ga-Doped ZnO Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(6), H521–H524 (2007).
[Crossref]

Siao, J. J.

Y. J. Lee, Z. P. Yang, J. J. Siao, Z. H. Xie, Y. L. Chuang, T. Y. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “Slanted n-ZnO/p-GaN nanorod arrays light-emitting diodes grown by oblique-angle deposition,” APL Material 2(5), 056101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Smart, J. A.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Soci, C.

B. Xiang, P. W. Wang, X. Z. Zhang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, C. Soci, D. P. Yu, and D. L. Wang, “Rational Synthesis of p-Type Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays Using Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 323–328 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sumiya, M.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

Surya, C.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutta, P.

V. Tvarrozek, I. Novotny, P. Sutta, M. Netrvalova, I. Vavra, J. Bruncko, P. Gaspierik, and S. Flickyngerova, “Oblique Angle Sputtering of ZnO:Ga Thin Films,” Physics Procedia 32, 456–463 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tam, H. L.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taschuk, M. T.

J. M. LaForge, M. T. Taschuk, and M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition of crystalline zinc oxide nanorods,” Thin Solid Films 519(11), 3530–3537 (2011).
[Crossref]

Teki, R.

R. Teki, T. C. Parker, H. Li, N. Korotkar, T. M. Lu, and S. Lee, “Low temperature synthesis of single crystalline ZnO nanorods by oblique angle deposition,” Thin Solid Films 516(15), 4993–4996 (2008).
[Crossref]

Toledano, D.

D. Toledano, R. E. Galindo, M. Yuste, J. M. Albella, and O. Sanchez, “Compositional and structural properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films grown by oblique angle reactive sputtering deposition: effect on the refractive index,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(4), 045306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsai, H. L.

H. C. Chen, M. J. Chen, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. L. Tsai, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “UV Electroluminescence and Structure of n-ZnO/p-GaN Heterojunction LEDs Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 265–271 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsai, M.-T.

Tsukazaki, A.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tun, C. J.

J. K. Sheu, K. W. Shu, M. L. Lee, C. J. Tun, and G. C. Chi, “Effect of Thermal Annealing on Ga-Doped ZnO Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(6), H521–H524 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tvarrozek, V.

V. Tvarrozek, I. Novotny, P. Sutta, M. Netrvalova, I. Vavra, J. Bruncko, P. Gaspierik, and S. Flickyngerova, “Oblique Angle Sputtering of ZnO:Ga Thin Films,” Physics Procedia 32, 456–463 (2012).
[Crossref]

Van Nostrand, J. E.

Ya. I. Alivov, J. E. Van Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vavra, I.

V. Tvarrozek, I. Novotny, P. Sutta, M. Netrvalova, I. Vavra, J. Bruncko, P. Gaspierik, and S. Flickyngerova, “Oblique Angle Sputtering of ZnO:Ga Thin Films,” Physics Procedia 32, 456–463 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vijayalakshmi, K.

R. A. Rosenberg, M. Abu Haija, K. Vijayalakshmi, J. Zhou, S. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Depth resolved luminescence from oriented ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Walle, C. G. V.

A. Janotti and C. G. V. Walle, “Native point defects in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 76(16), 165202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, D. L.

B. Xiang, P. W. Wang, X. Z. Zhang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, C. Soci, D. P. Yu, and D. L. Wang, “Rational Synthesis of p-Type Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays Using Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 323–328 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Huang, G. Fang, Y. Li, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Long, H. Wang, D. L. Carroll, and X. Zhao, “Improved and color tunable electroluminescence from n-ZnO/HfO2/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 233502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, P. W.

B. Xiang, P. W. Wang, X. Z. Zhang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, C. Soci, D. P. Yu, and D. L. Wang, “Rational Synthesis of p-Type Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays Using Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 323–328 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. L.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-Uv Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Rosenberg, M. Abu Haija, K. Vijayalakshmi, J. Zhou, S. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Depth resolved luminescence from oriented ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Wang, “Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(25), R829–R858 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.-J.

Wu, M. K.

H. C. Chen, M. J. Chen, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. L. Tsai, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “UV Electroluminescence and Structure of n-ZnO/p-GaN Heterojunction LEDs Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 265–271 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xi, J. Q.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Xi, Y. Y.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiang, B.

B. Xiang, P. W. Wang, X. Z. Zhang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, C. Soci, D. P. Yu, and D. L. Wang, “Rational Synthesis of p-Type Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays Using Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 323–328 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, Z. H.

Y. J. Lee, Z. P. Yang, J. J. Siao, Z. H. Xie, Y. L. Chuang, T. Y. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “Slanted n-ZnO/p-GaN nanorod arrays light-emitting diodes grown by oblique-angle deposition,” APL Material 2(5), 056101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-Uv Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, C. S.

X. Y. Xu, Y. C. Liu, Y. X. Liu, C. S. Xu, C. L. Shao, and R. Mu, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from p-GaN/i-ZnO/n-ZnO heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 80(7), 871–874 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-Uv Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Rosenberg, M. Abu Haija, K. Vijayalakshmi, J. Zhou, S. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Depth resolved luminescence from oriented ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, X. Y.

X. Y. Xu, Y. C. Liu, Y. X. Liu, C. S. Xu, C. L. Shao, and R. Mu, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from p-GaN/i-ZnO/n-ZnO heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 80(7), 871–874 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.-H.

Yang, J. R.

H. C. Chen, M. J. Chen, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. L. Tsai, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “UV Electroluminescence and Structure of n-ZnO/p-GaN Heterojunction LEDs Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 265–271 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-Uv Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, R.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-Uv Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y. J.

Yang, Z. P.

Y. J. Lee, Z. P. Yang, J. J. Siao, Z. H. Xie, Y. L. Chuang, T. Y. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “Slanted n-ZnO/p-GaN nanorod arrays light-emitting diodes grown by oblique-angle deposition,” APL Material 2(5), 056101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yao, T.

Y. Chen, D. Bagnall, and T. Yao, “ZnO as a novel photonic material for the UV region,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 75(2–3), 190–198 (2003).

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yao, Y.-C.

Yu, D. P.

B. Xiang, P. W. Wang, X. Z. Zhang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, C. Soci, D. P. Yu, and D. L. Wang, “Rational Synthesis of p-Type Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays Using Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 323–328 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuste, M.

D. Toledano, R. E. Galindo, M. Yuste, J. M. Albella, and O. Sanchez, “Compositional and structural properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films grown by oblique angle reactive sputtering deposition: effect on the refractive index,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(4), 045306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. Z.

B. Xiang, P. W. Wang, X. Z. Zhang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, C. Soci, D. P. Yu, and D. L. Wang, “Rational Synthesis of p-Type Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays Using Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 323–328 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, X.

H. Huang, G. Fang, Y. Li, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Long, H. Wang, D. L. Carroll, and X. Zhao, “Improved and color tunable electroluminescence from n-ZnO/HfO2/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 233502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

R. A. Rosenberg, M. Abu Haija, K. Vijayalakshmi, J. Zhou, S. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Depth resolved luminescence from oriented ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-Uv Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

APL Material (1)

Y. J. Lee, Z. P. Yang, J. J. Siao, Z. H. Xie, Y. L. Chuang, T. Y. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “Slanted n-ZnO/p-GaN nanorod arrays light-emitting diodes grown by oblique-angle deposition,” APL Material 2(5), 056101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

X. Y. Xu, Y. C. Liu, Y. X. Liu, C. S. Xu, C. L. Shao, and R. Mu, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from p-GaN/i-ZnO/n-ZnO heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 80(7), 871–874 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

R. A. Rosenberg, M. Abu Haija, K. Vijayalakshmi, J. Zhou, S. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Depth resolved luminescence from oriented ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243101 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ya. I. Alivov, J. E. Van Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Fang, Y. Li, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Long, H. Wang, D. L. Carroll, and X. Zhao, “Improved and color tunable electroluminescence from n-ZnO/HfO2/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 233502 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. F. Carcia, R. S. McLean, M. H. Reilly, and G. Nunes, “Transparent ZnO thin-film transistor fabricated by rf magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1117–1119 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. C. Chen, M. J. Chen, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. L. Tsai, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “UV Electroluminescence and Structure of n-ZnO/p-GaN Heterojunction LEDs Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 265–271 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

J. K. Sheu, K. W. Shu, M. L. Lee, C. J. Tun, and G. C. Chi, “Effect of Thermal Annealing on Ga-Doped ZnO Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(6), H521–H524 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

Z. L. Wang, “Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(25), R829–R858 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (2)

D. Toledano, R. E. Galindo, M. Yuste, J. M. Albella, and O. Sanchez, “Compositional and structural properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films grown by oblique angle reactive sputtering deposition: effect on the refractive index,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(4), 045306 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Ellmer, “Resistivity of polycrystalline zinc oxide films: current status and physical limit,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(21), 3097–3108 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

Y. Chen, D. Bagnall, and T. Yao, “ZnO as a novel photonic material for the UV region,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 75(2–3), 190–198 (2003).

Nano Lett. (1)

B. Xiang, P. W. Wang, X. Z. Zhang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, C. Soci, D. P. Yu, and D. L. Wang, “Rational Synthesis of p-Type Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays Using Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 323–328 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Janotti and C. G. V. Walle, “Native point defects in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 76(16), 165202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Physics Procedia (1)

V. Tvarrozek, I. Novotny, P. Sutta, M. Netrvalova, I. Vavra, J. Bruncko, P. Gaspierik, and S. Flickyngerova, “Oblique Angle Sputtering of ZnO:Ga Thin Films,” Physics Procedia 32, 456–463 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (2)

R. Teki, T. C. Parker, H. Li, N. Korotkar, T. M. Lu, and S. Lee, “Low temperature synthesis of single crystalline ZnO nanorods by oblique angle deposition,” Thin Solid Films 516(15), 4993–4996 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. LaForge, M. T. Taschuk, and M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition of crystalline zinc oxide nanorods,” Thin Solid Films 519(11), 3530–3537 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The schematic of the slanted n-ZnO/p-GaN LEDs. (b) The top-view SEM image of the slanted ZnO film. The cross-sectional SEM images of (c) planar and (d) slanted ZnO films. The slanted ZnO rods/columns exhibit titling angle of 32° respect to surface normal. The possible stacking way of wurtize lattice for slanted ZnO film is also shown. The scale bar is 100 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The XRD curves for the as-grown and post-annealed samples of planar (top) and slanted (bottom) ZnO films on sapphire. The inset of top panel shows the zoom in of planar ZnO (002) peak. (b) The FWHM of (002) peak and average grain size of planar (top) and slanted (bottom) ZnO films versus RTA temperature. The dashed lines are the guides to eye.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The carrier concentration and mobility as function of RTA temperature for the (a) planar ZnO films and (b) slanted ZnO films. The carrier concentration and mobility of both as-grown samples are also plotted in the figure for comparison.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) I-V curves of the slanted and planar ZnO/p-GaN LEDs. The inset shows the semi-log plot of the same I-V curves. (b) Normalized output power and wall-plug efficiency as function of injection current for planar and slanted ZnO/p-GaN LEDs. The dashed lines are guides to eye.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Normalized PL spectra of planar and slanted ZnO /p-GaN heterostructures and p-GaN.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The EL spectra of the (a) planar and (b) slanted ZnO/p-GaN LEDs under various injection currents. The position and FWHM of dominant peak versus injection current for the planar and slanted ZnO/p-GaN LEDs are shown in the inset of (b). The photographs of the planar and slanted ZnO/p-GaN LEDs under 30 mA are also shown in the inset of (b). (c) and (d) show the 3D contour images of EL spectra for the planar and slanted ZnO/p-GaN LEDs, respectively.

Metrics