Abstract

We have grown high quality PbI2 films by thermal evaporation. We obtained in these films two amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) lines around ~2.23 eV at relatively low pump excitation threshold using 10 ns pulsed laser, along with a broad photoluminescence (PL) band that results from trapped electron and hole (e-h) pairs in shallow traps. We discuss the two ASE lines as due to the anisotropic PbI2 crystal structure. In addition, we also studied the ultrafast transient response of photoexcitations in the PbI2 films using a broadband pump-probe correlation spectroscopy in the broad spectral range of 0.3-2.4 eV with 150 fs time resolution. The transient photomodulation spectrum is dominated by two photoinduced absorption bands and a stimulated emission band that agrees with the obtained ASE band. We ascribed the low threshold laser action in PbI2 films as due to the e-h confinement in ‘quantum wells’ like structures formed between the main 2H-PbI2 crystalline and other polytypes with lower optical gap.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. R. Tubbs, “The optical properties and chemical decomposition of halides with layer structures. I. crystal structures, optical properties, and electronic structure,” Phys. Status Solidi 49(1), 11–50 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  2. V. G. Plekhanov, “Lead halides: electronic properties and applications,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 49(6), 787–886 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. N. Preda, L. Mihut, M. Baibarac, I. Baltog, and S. Lefrant, “A distinctive signature in the Raman and photoluminescence spectra of intercalated PbI2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(39), 8899–8912 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. I. Baltog, I. Piticu, M. Constantinescu, C. Ghita, and L. Ghita, “Localized levels in the PbI2 band gap induced by thermal treatment and irradiation,” Phys. Status Solidi 27(1), K39–K41 (1975).
  6. I. Baltog, M. Baibarac, and S. Lefrant, “Quantum well effect in bulk PbI2 crystals revealed by the anisotropy of photoluminescence and Raman spectra,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(2), 025507 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. Baibarac, N. Preda, L. Mihut, I. Baltog, S. Lefrant, and J. Y. Mevellec, “On the optical properties of micro-and nanometric size PbI2 particles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(13), 2345–2356 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. Lifshitz, M. Yassen, L. Bykov, and I. Dag, “Continuous photoluminescence, time resolved photoluminescence and optically detected magnetic resonance measurements of PbI2 nanometer-sized particles, embedded in SiO, films,” J. Lumin. 70(1-6), 421–434 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  9. E. Lifshitz, L. Bykov, M. Yassen, and Z. Chen-Esterlit, “The investigation of donor and acceptor states in nanoparticles of the layered semiconductor PbI2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 273(5-6), 381–388 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  10. E. Salje, B. Palosz, and B. Wruck, “In situ observation of the polytypic phase transition 2H-12R in PbI2: investigations of the thermodynamic, structural and dielectric properties,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 20(26), 4077–4096 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Rao and O. N. Srivastava, “Band gap determination in lead iodide polytypes,” Solid State Commun. 35(10), 801–804 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  12. C.-X. Sheng, M. Tong, S. Singh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Experimental determination of charge/neutral branching ratio in π-conjugated polymers by broad-band ultrafast spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085206 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  13. C.-X. Sheng, S. Singh, A. Gambetta, T. Drori, M. Tong, S. Tretiak, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Ultrafast intersystem-crossing in platinum containing π-conjugated polymers with tunable spin-orbit coupling,” Sci Rep 3, 2653 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. J. B. Anthony and A. D. Brothers, “Effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on the exciton spectrum of lead iodide,” Phys. Rev. B 7(4), 1539–1541 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. B. Buckman, N. H. Hong, and D. Wilson, “Large refractive-index change in PbI2 films by photolysis at 150–180°C,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65(8), 914–918 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. Kamatsu, T. Karasawa, I. Akai, and T. J. Iida, “Optical properties of nanostructures in layered metal tri-iodide crystals,” J. Lumin. 70(1-6), 448–467 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. S. Brodin, I. V. Blonskii, A. A. Dobrovolskii, V. N. Karataev, A. A. Kipen’, and N. I. Yanushevskiĭ, “Lasing in laminar PbI2 single crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 140–142 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  18. X. Liu, S. T. Ha, Q. Zhang, M. de la Mata, C. Magen, J. Arbiol, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Whispering gallery mode lasing from hexagonal shaped layered lead iodide crystals,” ACS Nano 9(1), 687–695 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. A. K. Tiwari, R. Uppu, and S. Mujumdar, “Aerosol-based coherent random laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1053–1055 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. Ando, M. Yazaki, I. Katayama, H. Ichida, S. Wakaiki, Y. Kanematsu, and J. Takeda, “Photoluminescence dynamics due to biexcitons and exciton-exciton scattering in the layered-type semiconductor PbI2,” Phys. Rev. B 86(15), 155206 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. N. Q. Liem, V. X. Quang, D. X. Thanh, J. I. Lee, and D. Kim, “Temperature dependence of biexciton luminescence in cubic ZnS single crystals,” Solid State Commun. 117(4), 255–259 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. Sengupta, B. Jiang, K. C. Mandal, and J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast electronic relaxation dynamics in PbI2 semiconductor colloidal manoparticles: a femtosecond transient absorption study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(16), 3128–3137 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. Sengupta, K. C. Mandal, and J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast electronic relaxation dynamics in layered iodide semiconductors: a comparative study of colloidal BiI3 and PbI2 Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(40), 9396–9403 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. L. Machol, F. W. Wise, R. C. Patel, and D. B. Tanner, “Vibronic quantum beats in PbS microcrystallites,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(4), 2819–2822 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. V. Gulia, A. G. Vedeshwar, and N. C. Mehra, “Quantum dot-like behavior of ultrathin PbI2 films,” Acta Mater. 54(15), 3899–3905 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  27. G. K. Kasi, N. R. Dollahon, and T. S. Ahmadi, “Fabrication and characterization of solid PbI2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(6), 1778–1783 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  28. Z. E. Lampert, S. E. Lappi, J. M. Papanikolas, C. L. Reynolds, and M. O. Aboelfotoh, “Morphology and chain aggregation dependence of optical gain in thermally annealed films of the conjugated polymer poly2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(23), 233509 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  29. H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

X. Liu, S. T. Ha, Q. Zhang, M. de la Mata, C. Magen, J. Arbiol, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Whispering gallery mode lasing from hexagonal shaped layered lead iodide crystals,” ACS Nano 9(1), 687–695 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

C.-X. Sheng, S. Singh, A. Gambetta, T. Drori, M. Tong, S. Tretiak, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Ultrafast intersystem-crossing in platinum containing π-conjugated polymers with tunable spin-orbit coupling,” Sci Rep 3, 2653 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. E. Lampert, S. E. Lappi, J. M. Papanikolas, C. L. Reynolds, and M. O. Aboelfotoh, “Morphology and chain aggregation dependence of optical gain in thermally annealed films of the conjugated polymer poly2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(23), 233509 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. Ando, M. Yazaki, I. Katayama, H. Ichida, S. Wakaiki, Y. Kanematsu, and J. Takeda, “Photoluminescence dynamics due to biexcitons and exciton-exciton scattering in the layered-type semiconductor PbI2,” Phys. Rev. B 86(15), 155206 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. K. Tiwari, R. Uppu, and S. Mujumdar, “Aerosol-based coherent random laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1053–1055 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

I. Baltog, M. Baibarac, and S. Lefrant, “Quantum well effect in bulk PbI2 crystals revealed by the anisotropy of photoluminescence and Raman spectra,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(2), 025507 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

C.-X. Sheng, M. Tong, S. Singh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Experimental determination of charge/neutral branching ratio in π-conjugated polymers by broad-band ultrafast spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085206 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. K. Kasi, N. R. Dollahon, and T. S. Ahmadi, “Fabrication and characterization of solid PbI2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(6), 1778–1783 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

V. Gulia, A. G. Vedeshwar, and N. C. Mehra, “Quantum dot-like behavior of ultrathin PbI2 films,” Acta Mater. 54(15), 3899–3905 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Preda, L. Mihut, M. Baibarac, I. Baltog, and S. Lefrant, “A distinctive signature in the Raman and photoluminescence spectra of intercalated PbI2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(39), 8899–8912 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

V. G. Plekhanov, “Lead halides: electronic properties and applications,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 49(6), 787–886 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Baibarac, N. Preda, L. Mihut, I. Baltog, S. Lefrant, and J. Y. Mevellec, “On the optical properties of micro-and nanometric size PbI2 particles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(13), 2345–2356 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

N. Q. Liem, V. X. Quang, D. X. Thanh, J. I. Lee, and D. Kim, “Temperature dependence of biexciton luminescence in cubic ZnS single crystals,” Solid State Commun. 117(4), 255–259 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

A. Sengupta, K. C. Mandal, and J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast electronic relaxation dynamics in layered iodide semiconductors: a comparative study of colloidal BiI3 and PbI2 Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(40), 9396–9403 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Sengupta, B. Jiang, K. C. Mandal, and J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast electronic relaxation dynamics in PbI2 semiconductor colloidal manoparticles: a femtosecond transient absorption study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(16), 3128–3137 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

E. Lifshitz, L. Bykov, M. Yassen, and Z. Chen-Esterlit, “The investigation of donor and acceptor states in nanoparticles of the layered semiconductor PbI2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 273(5-6), 381–388 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

E. Lifshitz, M. Yassen, L. Bykov, and I. Dag, “Continuous photoluminescence, time resolved photoluminescence and optically detected magnetic resonance measurements of PbI2 nanometer-sized particles, embedded in SiO, films,” J. Lumin. 70(1-6), 421–434 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. Kamatsu, T. Karasawa, I. Akai, and T. J. Iida, “Optical properties of nanostructures in layered metal tri-iodide crystals,” J. Lumin. 70(1-6), 448–467 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

J. L. Machol, F. W. Wise, R. C. Patel, and D. B. Tanner, “Vibronic quantum beats in PbS microcrystallites,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(4), 2819–2822 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

E. Salje, B. Palosz, and B. Wruck, “In situ observation of the polytypic phase transition 2H-12R in PbI2: investigations of the thermodynamic, structural and dielectric properties,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 20(26), 4077–4096 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

M. S. Brodin, I. V. Blonskii, A. A. Dobrovolskii, V. N. Karataev, A. A. Kipen’, and N. I. Yanushevskiĭ, “Lasing in laminar PbI2 single crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 140–142 (1986).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

M. Rao and O. N. Srivastava, “Band gap determination in lead iodide polytypes,” Solid State Commun. 35(10), 801–804 (1980).
[Crossref]

1975 (2)

I. Baltog, I. Piticu, M. Constantinescu, C. Ghita, and L. Ghita, “Localized levels in the PbI2 band gap induced by thermal treatment and irradiation,” Phys. Status Solidi 27(1), K39–K41 (1975).

A. B. Buckman, N. H. Hong, and D. Wilson, “Large refractive-index change in PbI2 films by photolysis at 150–180°C,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65(8), 914–918 (1975).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

J. B. Anthony and A. D. Brothers, “Effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on the exciton spectrum of lead iodide,” Phys. Rev. B 7(4), 1539–1541 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

M. R. Tubbs, “The optical properties and chemical decomposition of halides with layer structures. I. crystal structures, optical properties, and electronic structure,” Phys. Status Solidi 49(1), 11–50 (1972).
[Crossref]

Aboelfotoh, M. O.

Z. E. Lampert, S. E. Lappi, J. M. Papanikolas, C. L. Reynolds, and M. O. Aboelfotoh, “Morphology and chain aggregation dependence of optical gain in thermally annealed films of the conjugated polymer poly2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(23), 233509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ahmadi, T. S.

G. K. Kasi, N. R. Dollahon, and T. S. Ahmadi, “Fabrication and characterization of solid PbI2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(6), 1778–1783 (2007).
[Crossref]

Akai, I.

T. Kamatsu, T. Karasawa, I. Akai, and T. J. Iida, “Optical properties of nanostructures in layered metal tri-iodide crystals,” J. Lumin. 70(1-6), 448–467 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ando, M.

M. Ando, M. Yazaki, I. Katayama, H. Ichida, S. Wakaiki, Y. Kanematsu, and J. Takeda, “Photoluminescence dynamics due to biexcitons and exciton-exciton scattering in the layered-type semiconductor PbI2,” Phys. Rev. B 86(15), 155206 (2012).
[Crossref]

Anthony, J. B.

J. B. Anthony and A. D. Brothers, “Effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on the exciton spectrum of lead iodide,” Phys. Rev. B 7(4), 1539–1541 (1973).
[Crossref]

Arbiol, J.

X. Liu, S. T. Ha, Q. Zhang, M. de la Mata, C. Magen, J. Arbiol, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Whispering gallery mode lasing from hexagonal shaped layered lead iodide crystals,” ACS Nano 9(1), 687–695 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baibarac, M.

I. Baltog, M. Baibarac, and S. Lefrant, “Quantum well effect in bulk PbI2 crystals revealed by the anisotropy of photoluminescence and Raman spectra,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(2), 025507 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Preda, L. Mihut, M. Baibarac, I. Baltog, and S. Lefrant, “A distinctive signature in the Raman and photoluminescence spectra of intercalated PbI2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(39), 8899–8912 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Baibarac, N. Preda, L. Mihut, I. Baltog, S. Lefrant, and J. Y. Mevellec, “On the optical properties of micro-and nanometric size PbI2 particles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(13), 2345–2356 (2004).
[Crossref]

Baltog, I.

I. Baltog, M. Baibarac, and S. Lefrant, “Quantum well effect in bulk PbI2 crystals revealed by the anisotropy of photoluminescence and Raman spectra,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(2), 025507 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Preda, L. Mihut, M. Baibarac, I. Baltog, and S. Lefrant, “A distinctive signature in the Raman and photoluminescence spectra of intercalated PbI2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(39), 8899–8912 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Baibarac, N. Preda, L. Mihut, I. Baltog, S. Lefrant, and J. Y. Mevellec, “On the optical properties of micro-and nanometric size PbI2 particles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(13), 2345–2356 (2004).
[Crossref]

I. Baltog, I. Piticu, M. Constantinescu, C. Ghita, and L. Ghita, “Localized levels in the PbI2 band gap induced by thermal treatment and irradiation,” Phys. Status Solidi 27(1), K39–K41 (1975).

Blonskii, I. V.

M. S. Brodin, I. V. Blonskii, A. A. Dobrovolskii, V. N. Karataev, A. A. Kipen’, and N. I. Yanushevskiĭ, “Lasing in laminar PbI2 single crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 140–142 (1986).
[Crossref]

Brodin, M. S.

M. S. Brodin, I. V. Blonskii, A. A. Dobrovolskii, V. N. Karataev, A. A. Kipen’, and N. I. Yanushevskiĭ, “Lasing in laminar PbI2 single crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 140–142 (1986).
[Crossref]

Brothers, A. D.

J. B. Anthony and A. D. Brothers, “Effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on the exciton spectrum of lead iodide,” Phys. Rev. B 7(4), 1539–1541 (1973).
[Crossref]

Buckman, A. B.

Bykov, L.

E. Lifshitz, L. Bykov, M. Yassen, and Z. Chen-Esterlit, “The investigation of donor and acceptor states in nanoparticles of the layered semiconductor PbI2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 273(5-6), 381–388 (1997).
[Crossref]

E. Lifshitz, M. Yassen, L. Bykov, and I. Dag, “Continuous photoluminescence, time resolved photoluminescence and optically detected magnetic resonance measurements of PbI2 nanometer-sized particles, embedded in SiO, films,” J. Lumin. 70(1-6), 421–434 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S.-H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen-Esterlit, Z.

E. Lifshitz, L. Bykov, M. Yassen, and Z. Chen-Esterlit, “The investigation of donor and acceptor states in nanoparticles of the layered semiconductor PbI2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 273(5-6), 381–388 (1997).
[Crossref]

Constantinescu, M.

I. Baltog, I. Piticu, M. Constantinescu, C. Ghita, and L. Ghita, “Localized levels in the PbI2 band gap induced by thermal treatment and irradiation,” Phys. Status Solidi 27(1), K39–K41 (1975).

Dag, I.

E. Lifshitz, M. Yassen, L. Bykov, and I. Dag, “Continuous photoluminescence, time resolved photoluminescence and optically detected magnetic resonance measurements of PbI2 nanometer-sized particles, embedded in SiO, films,” J. Lumin. 70(1-6), 421–434 (1996).
[Crossref]

de la Mata, M.

X. Liu, S. T. Ha, Q. Zhang, M. de la Mata, C. Magen, J. Arbiol, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Whispering gallery mode lasing from hexagonal shaped layered lead iodide crystals,” ACS Nano 9(1), 687–695 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dobrovolskii, A. A.

M. S. Brodin, I. V. Blonskii, A. A. Dobrovolskii, V. N. Karataev, A. A. Kipen’, and N. I. Yanushevskiĭ, “Lasing in laminar PbI2 single crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 140–142 (1986).
[Crossref]

Dollahon, N. R.

G. K. Kasi, N. R. Dollahon, and T. S. Ahmadi, “Fabrication and characterization of solid PbI2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(6), 1778–1783 (2007).
[Crossref]

Drori, T.

C.-X. Sheng, S. Singh, A. Gambetta, T. Drori, M. Tong, S. Tretiak, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Ultrafast intersystem-crossing in platinum containing π-conjugated polymers with tunable spin-orbit coupling,” Sci Rep 3, 2653 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, H. S.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gambetta, A.

C.-X. Sheng, S. Singh, A. Gambetta, T. Drori, M. Tong, S. Tretiak, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Ultrafast intersystem-crossing in platinum containing π-conjugated polymers with tunable spin-orbit coupling,” Sci Rep 3, 2653 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghita, C.

I. Baltog, I. Piticu, M. Constantinescu, C. Ghita, and L. Ghita, “Localized levels in the PbI2 band gap induced by thermal treatment and irradiation,” Phys. Status Solidi 27(1), K39–K41 (1975).

Ghita, L.

I. Baltog, I. Piticu, M. Constantinescu, C. Ghita, and L. Ghita, “Localized levels in the PbI2 band gap induced by thermal treatment and irradiation,” Phys. Status Solidi 27(1), K39–K41 (1975).

Gulia, V.

V. Gulia, A. G. Vedeshwar, and N. C. Mehra, “Quantum dot-like behavior of ultrathin PbI2 films,” Acta Mater. 54(15), 3899–3905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ha, S. T.

X. Liu, S. T. Ha, Q. Zhang, M. de la Mata, C. Magen, J. Arbiol, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Whispering gallery mode lasing from hexagonal shaped layered lead iodide crystals,” ACS Nano 9(1), 687–695 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, N. H.

Hong, Z.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ichida, H.

M. Ando, M. Yazaki, I. Katayama, H. Ichida, S. Wakaiki, Y. Kanematsu, and J. Takeda, “Photoluminescence dynamics due to biexcitons and exciton-exciton scattering in the layered-type semiconductor PbI2,” Phys. Rev. B 86(15), 155206 (2012).
[Crossref]

Iida, T. J.

T. Kamatsu, T. Karasawa, I. Akai, and T. J. Iida, “Optical properties of nanostructures in layered metal tri-iodide crystals,” J. Lumin. 70(1-6), 448–467 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jiang, B.

A. Sengupta, B. Jiang, K. C. Mandal, and J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast electronic relaxation dynamics in PbI2 semiconductor colloidal manoparticles: a femtosecond transient absorption study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(16), 3128–3137 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kamatsu, T.

T. Kamatsu, T. Karasawa, I. Akai, and T. J. Iida, “Optical properties of nanostructures in layered metal tri-iodide crystals,” J. Lumin. 70(1-6), 448–467 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kanematsu, Y.

M. Ando, M. Yazaki, I. Katayama, H. Ichida, S. Wakaiki, Y. Kanematsu, and J. Takeda, “Photoluminescence dynamics due to biexcitons and exciton-exciton scattering in the layered-type semiconductor PbI2,” Phys. Rev. B 86(15), 155206 (2012).
[Crossref]

Karasawa, T.

T. Kamatsu, T. Karasawa, I. Akai, and T. J. Iida, “Optical properties of nanostructures in layered metal tri-iodide crystals,” J. Lumin. 70(1-6), 448–467 (1996).
[Crossref]

Karataev, V. N.

M. S. Brodin, I. V. Blonskii, A. A. Dobrovolskii, V. N. Karataev, A. A. Kipen’, and N. I. Yanushevskiĭ, “Lasing in laminar PbI2 single crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 140–142 (1986).
[Crossref]

Kasi, G. K.

G. K. Kasi, N. R. Dollahon, and T. S. Ahmadi, “Fabrication and characterization of solid PbI2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(6), 1778–1783 (2007).
[Crossref]

Katayama, I.

M. Ando, M. Yazaki, I. Katayama, H. Ichida, S. Wakaiki, Y. Kanematsu, and J. Takeda, “Photoluminescence dynamics due to biexcitons and exciton-exciton scattering in the layered-type semiconductor PbI2,” Phys. Rev. B 86(15), 155206 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.

N. Q. Liem, V. X. Quang, D. X. Thanh, J. I. Lee, and D. Kim, “Temperature dependence of biexciton luminescence in cubic ZnS single crystals,” Solid State Commun. 117(4), 255–259 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kipen’, A. A.

M. S. Brodin, I. V. Blonskii, A. A. Dobrovolskii, V. N. Karataev, A. A. Kipen’, and N. I. Yanushevskiĭ, “Lasing in laminar PbI2 single crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 140–142 (1986).
[Crossref]

Lampert, Z. E.

Z. E. Lampert, S. E. Lappi, J. M. Papanikolas, C. L. Reynolds, and M. O. Aboelfotoh, “Morphology and chain aggregation dependence of optical gain in thermally annealed films of the conjugated polymer poly2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(23), 233509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lappi, S. E.

Z. E. Lampert, S. E. Lappi, J. M. Papanikolas, C. L. Reynolds, and M. O. Aboelfotoh, “Morphology and chain aggregation dependence of optical gain in thermally annealed films of the conjugated polymer poly2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(23), 233509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. I.

N. Q. Liem, V. X. Quang, D. X. Thanh, J. I. Lee, and D. Kim, “Temperature dependence of biexciton luminescence in cubic ZnS single crystals,” Solid State Commun. 117(4), 255–259 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lefrant, S.

I. Baltog, M. Baibarac, and S. Lefrant, “Quantum well effect in bulk PbI2 crystals revealed by the anisotropy of photoluminescence and Raman spectra,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(2), 025507 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Preda, L. Mihut, M. Baibarac, I. Baltog, and S. Lefrant, “A distinctive signature in the Raman and photoluminescence spectra of intercalated PbI2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(39), 8899–8912 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Baibarac, N. Preda, L. Mihut, I. Baltog, S. Lefrant, and J. Y. Mevellec, “On the optical properties of micro-and nanometric size PbI2 particles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(13), 2345–2356 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liem, N. Q.

N. Q. Liem, V. X. Quang, D. X. Thanh, J. I. Lee, and D. Kim, “Temperature dependence of biexciton luminescence in cubic ZnS single crystals,” Solid State Commun. 117(4), 255–259 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lifshitz, E.

E. Lifshitz, L. Bykov, M. Yassen, and Z. Chen-Esterlit, “The investigation of donor and acceptor states in nanoparticles of the layered semiconductor PbI2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 273(5-6), 381–388 (1997).
[Crossref]

E. Lifshitz, M. Yassen, L. Bykov, and I. Dag, “Continuous photoluminescence, time resolved photoluminescence and optically detected magnetic resonance measurements of PbI2 nanometer-sized particles, embedded in SiO, films,” J. Lumin. 70(1-6), 421–434 (1996).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, S. T. Ha, Q. Zhang, M. de la Mata, C. Magen, J. Arbiol, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Whispering gallery mode lasing from hexagonal shaped layered lead iodide crystals,” ACS Nano 9(1), 687–695 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, S.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Machol, J. L.

J. L. Machol, F. W. Wise, R. C. Patel, and D. B. Tanner, “Vibronic quantum beats in PbS microcrystallites,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(4), 2819–2822 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Magen, C.

X. Liu, S. T. Ha, Q. Zhang, M. de la Mata, C. Magen, J. Arbiol, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Whispering gallery mode lasing from hexagonal shaped layered lead iodide crystals,” ACS Nano 9(1), 687–695 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mandal, K. C.

A. Sengupta, K. C. Mandal, and J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast electronic relaxation dynamics in layered iodide semiconductors: a comparative study of colloidal BiI3 and PbI2 Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(40), 9396–9403 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Sengupta, B. Jiang, K. C. Mandal, and J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast electronic relaxation dynamics in PbI2 semiconductor colloidal manoparticles: a femtosecond transient absorption study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(16), 3128–3137 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mehra, N. C.

V. Gulia, A. G. Vedeshwar, and N. C. Mehra, “Quantum dot-like behavior of ultrathin PbI2 films,” Acta Mater. 54(15), 3899–3905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mevellec, J. Y.

M. Baibarac, N. Preda, L. Mihut, I. Baltog, S. Lefrant, and J. Y. Mevellec, “On the optical properties of micro-and nanometric size PbI2 particles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(13), 2345–2356 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mihut, L.

N. Preda, L. Mihut, M. Baibarac, I. Baltog, and S. Lefrant, “A distinctive signature in the Raman and photoluminescence spectra of intercalated PbI2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(39), 8899–8912 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Baibarac, N. Preda, L. Mihut, I. Baltog, S. Lefrant, and J. Y. Mevellec, “On the optical properties of micro-and nanometric size PbI2 particles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(13), 2345–2356 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mujumdar, S.

Palosz, B.

E. Salje, B. Palosz, and B. Wruck, “In situ observation of the polytypic phase transition 2H-12R in PbI2: investigations of the thermodynamic, structural and dielectric properties,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 20(26), 4077–4096 (1987).
[Crossref]

Papanikolas, J. M.

Z. E. Lampert, S. E. Lappi, J. M. Papanikolas, C. L. Reynolds, and M. O. Aboelfotoh, “Morphology and chain aggregation dependence of optical gain in thermally annealed films of the conjugated polymer poly2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(23), 233509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Patel, R. C.

J. L. Machol, F. W. Wise, R. C. Patel, and D. B. Tanner, “Vibronic quantum beats in PbS microcrystallites,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(4), 2819–2822 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piticu, I.

I. Baltog, I. Piticu, M. Constantinescu, C. Ghita, and L. Ghita, “Localized levels in the PbI2 band gap induced by thermal treatment and irradiation,” Phys. Status Solidi 27(1), K39–K41 (1975).

Plekhanov, V. G.

V. G. Plekhanov, “Lead halides: electronic properties and applications,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 49(6), 787–886 (2004).
[Crossref]

Polson, R. C.

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

Preda, N.

N. Preda, L. Mihut, M. Baibarac, I. Baltog, and S. Lefrant, “A distinctive signature in the Raman and photoluminescence spectra of intercalated PbI2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(39), 8899–8912 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Baibarac, N. Preda, L. Mihut, I. Baltog, S. Lefrant, and J. Y. Mevellec, “On the optical properties of micro-and nanometric size PbI2 particles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(13), 2345–2356 (2004).
[Crossref]

Quang, V. X.

N. Q. Liem, V. X. Quang, D. X. Thanh, J. I. Lee, and D. Kim, “Temperature dependence of biexciton luminescence in cubic ZnS single crystals,” Solid State Commun. 117(4), 255–259 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rao, M.

M. Rao and O. N. Srivastava, “Band gap determination in lead iodide polytypes,” Solid State Commun. 35(10), 801–804 (1980).
[Crossref]

Reynolds, C. L.

Z. E. Lampert, S. E. Lappi, J. M. Papanikolas, C. L. Reynolds, and M. O. Aboelfotoh, “Morphology and chain aggregation dependence of optical gain in thermally annealed films of the conjugated polymer poly2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(23), 233509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Salje, E.

E. Salje, B. Palosz, and B. Wruck, “In situ observation of the polytypic phase transition 2H-12R in PbI2: investigations of the thermodynamic, structural and dielectric properties,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 20(26), 4077–4096 (1987).
[Crossref]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sengupta, A.

A. Sengupta, K. C. Mandal, and J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast electronic relaxation dynamics in layered iodide semiconductors: a comparative study of colloidal BiI3 and PbI2 Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(40), 9396–9403 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Sengupta, B. Jiang, K. C. Mandal, and J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast electronic relaxation dynamics in PbI2 semiconductor colloidal manoparticles: a femtosecond transient absorption study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(16), 3128–3137 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sheng, C.-X.

C.-X. Sheng, S. Singh, A. Gambetta, T. Drori, M. Tong, S. Tretiak, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Ultrafast intersystem-crossing in platinum containing π-conjugated polymers with tunable spin-orbit coupling,” Sci Rep 3, 2653 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-X. Sheng, M. Tong, S. Singh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Experimental determination of charge/neutral branching ratio in π-conjugated polymers by broad-band ultrafast spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085206 (2007).
[Crossref]

Singh, S.

C.-X. Sheng, S. Singh, A. Gambetta, T. Drori, M. Tong, S. Tretiak, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Ultrafast intersystem-crossing in platinum containing π-conjugated polymers with tunable spin-orbit coupling,” Sci Rep 3, 2653 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-X. Sheng, M. Tong, S. Singh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Experimental determination of charge/neutral branching ratio in π-conjugated polymers by broad-band ultrafast spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085206 (2007).
[Crossref]

Song, T. B.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srivastava, O. N.

M. Rao and O. N. Srivastava, “Band gap determination in lead iodide polytypes,” Solid State Commun. 35(10), 801–804 (1980).
[Crossref]

Sum, T. C.

X. Liu, S. T. Ha, Q. Zhang, M. de la Mata, C. Magen, J. Arbiol, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Whispering gallery mode lasing from hexagonal shaped layered lead iodide crystals,” ACS Nano 9(1), 687–695 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takeda, J.

M. Ando, M. Yazaki, I. Katayama, H. Ichida, S. Wakaiki, Y. Kanematsu, and J. Takeda, “Photoluminescence dynamics due to biexcitons and exciton-exciton scattering in the layered-type semiconductor PbI2,” Phys. Rev. B 86(15), 155206 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tanner, D. B.

J. L. Machol, F. W. Wise, R. C. Patel, and D. B. Tanner, “Vibronic quantum beats in PbS microcrystallites,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(4), 2819–2822 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thanh, D. X.

N. Q. Liem, V. X. Quang, D. X. Thanh, J. I. Lee, and D. Kim, “Temperature dependence of biexciton luminescence in cubic ZnS single crystals,” Solid State Commun. 117(4), 255–259 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tiwari, A. K.

Tong, M.

C.-X. Sheng, S. Singh, A. Gambetta, T. Drori, M. Tong, S. Tretiak, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Ultrafast intersystem-crossing in platinum containing π-conjugated polymers with tunable spin-orbit coupling,” Sci Rep 3, 2653 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-X. Sheng, M. Tong, S. Singh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Experimental determination of charge/neutral branching ratio in π-conjugated polymers by broad-band ultrafast spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085206 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tretiak, S.

C.-X. Sheng, S. Singh, A. Gambetta, T. Drori, M. Tong, S. Tretiak, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Ultrafast intersystem-crossing in platinum containing π-conjugated polymers with tunable spin-orbit coupling,” Sci Rep 3, 2653 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tubbs, M. R.

M. R. Tubbs, “The optical properties and chemical decomposition of halides with layer structures. I. crystal structures, optical properties, and electronic structure,” Phys. Status Solidi 49(1), 11–50 (1972).
[Crossref]

Tulek, A.

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

Uppu, R.

Vardeny, Z. V.

C.-X. Sheng, S. Singh, A. Gambetta, T. Drori, M. Tong, S. Tretiak, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Ultrafast intersystem-crossing in platinum containing π-conjugated polymers with tunable spin-orbit coupling,” Sci Rep 3, 2653 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-X. Sheng, M. Tong, S. Singh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Experimental determination of charge/neutral branching ratio in π-conjugated polymers by broad-band ultrafast spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085206 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vedeshwar, A. G.

V. Gulia, A. G. Vedeshwar, and N. C. Mehra, “Quantum dot-like behavior of ultrathin PbI2 films,” Acta Mater. 54(15), 3899–3905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wakaiki, S.

M. Ando, M. Yazaki, I. Katayama, H. Ichida, S. Wakaiki, Y. Kanematsu, and J. Takeda, “Photoluminescence dynamics due to biexcitons and exciton-exciton scattering in the layered-type semiconductor PbI2,” Phys. Rev. B 86(15), 155206 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wilson, D.

Wise, F. W.

J. L. Machol, F. W. Wise, R. C. Patel, and D. B. Tanner, “Vibronic quantum beats in PbS microcrystallites,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(4), 2819–2822 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wruck, B.

E. Salje, B. Palosz, and B. Wruck, “In situ observation of the polytypic phase transition 2H-12R in PbI2: investigations of the thermodynamic, structural and dielectric properties,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 20(26), 4077–4096 (1987).
[Crossref]

Xiong, Q.

X. Liu, S. T. Ha, Q. Zhang, M. de la Mata, C. Magen, J. Arbiol, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Whispering gallery mode lasing from hexagonal shaped layered lead iodide crystals,” ACS Nano 9(1), 687–695 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J. Y.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yanushevskii, N. I.

M. S. Brodin, I. V. Blonskii, A. A. Dobrovolskii, V. N. Karataev, A. A. Kipen’, and N. I. Yanushevskiĭ, “Lasing in laminar PbI2 single crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 140–142 (1986).
[Crossref]

Yassen, M.

E. Lifshitz, L. Bykov, M. Yassen, and Z. Chen-Esterlit, “The investigation of donor and acceptor states in nanoparticles of the layered semiconductor PbI2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 273(5-6), 381–388 (1997).
[Crossref]

E. Lifshitz, M. Yassen, L. Bykov, and I. Dag, “Continuous photoluminescence, time resolved photoluminescence and optically detected magnetic resonance measurements of PbI2 nanometer-sized particles, embedded in SiO, films,” J. Lumin. 70(1-6), 421–434 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yazaki, M.

M. Ando, M. Yazaki, I. Katayama, H. Ichida, S. Wakaiki, Y. Kanematsu, and J. Takeda, “Photoluminescence dynamics due to biexcitons and exciton-exciton scattering in the layered-type semiconductor PbI2,” Phys. Rev. B 86(15), 155206 (2012).
[Crossref]

You, J.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, D. Z.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. Z.

A. Sengupta, K. C. Mandal, and J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast electronic relaxation dynamics in layered iodide semiconductors: a comparative study of colloidal BiI3 and PbI2 Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(40), 9396–9403 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Sengupta, B. Jiang, K. C. Mandal, and J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast electronic relaxation dynamics in PbI2 semiconductor colloidal manoparticles: a femtosecond transient absorption study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(16), 3128–3137 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

X. Liu, S. T. Ha, Q. Zhang, M. de la Mata, C. Magen, J. Arbiol, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Whispering gallery mode lasing from hexagonal shaped layered lead iodide crystals,” ACS Nano 9(1), 687–695 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

X. Liu, S. T. Ha, Q. Zhang, M. de la Mata, C. Magen, J. Arbiol, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Whispering gallery mode lasing from hexagonal shaped layered lead iodide crystals,” ACS Nano 9(1), 687–695 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Mater. (1)

V. Gulia, A. G. Vedeshwar, and N. C. Mehra, “Quantum dot-like behavior of ultrathin PbI2 films,” Acta Mater. 54(15), 3899–3905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Lifshitz, L. Bykov, M. Yassen, and Z. Chen-Esterlit, “The investigation of donor and acceptor states in nanoparticles of the layered semiconductor PbI2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 273(5-6), 381–388 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Z. E. Lampert, S. E. Lappi, J. M. Papanikolas, C. L. Reynolds, and M. O. Aboelfotoh, “Morphology and chain aggregation dependence of optical gain in thermally annealed films of the conjugated polymer poly2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(23), 233509 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (2)

T. Kamatsu, T. Karasawa, I. Akai, and T. J. Iida, “Optical properties of nanostructures in layered metal tri-iodide crystals,” J. Lumin. 70(1-6), 448–467 (1996).
[Crossref]

E. Lifshitz, M. Yassen, L. Bykov, and I. Dag, “Continuous photoluminescence, time resolved photoluminescence and optically detected magnetic resonance measurements of PbI2 nanometer-sized particles, embedded in SiO, films,” J. Lumin. 70(1-6), 421–434 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. (1)

E. Salje, B. Palosz, and B. Wruck, “In situ observation of the polytypic phase transition 2H-12R in PbI2: investigations of the thermodynamic, structural and dielectric properties,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 20(26), 4077–4096 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

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J. Phys. Condens. Matter (3)

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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The absorption spectrum of a 100 nm thick PbI2 film; the inset shows the crystal structure of PbI2 with c crystalline axis. (b) The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of 400 nm thick PbI2 film excited with 10 ns pulse laser operated at 2.88 eV at room temperature and 40 K, respectively. The PL bands G and D are assigned (see text), and laser lines L and L’ are denoted. The inset to (b) is the PL spectrum excited at 2.54 eV at 40 K.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Laser emission spectra excited at various pump excitation intensities using the 10 ns pulse laser at 2.88 eV. The cw PL emission spectrum is also shown for comparison. The inset shows the emission intensity of the L band as a function of the excitation pulse energy. The lines through the data points are fitting using a power law (~Iα) with α = 1.49 and 1.03, respectively for the excitation intensity ranging from 2 to 10 μJ/pulse and from 10 to 100 μJ/pulse.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Laser emission from PbI2 film at various temperatures at fixed excitation energy of 100 μJ/pulse at 2.88 eV. The two laser lines L and L’ are assigned.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The transient PM spectrum of PbI2 in the spectra range from 1.6 eV to 2.4 eV at various time delays, t as denoted. The bands PA1, PA2 and SE are assigned. (b) The transient PM spectrum of PbI2 in the spectra range from 0.3 eV to 2.4 eV at t = 0 ps. (c) Transient dynamics at various PA bands up to 1,000 ps. The red line through the PA1 dynamics is a fit, whereas the black line through the PA2 data points is to ‘guide the eye’.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) A model for the PbI2 polytypes energy flow and related optical transitions. τ1 is the time for carriers relaxation from the bottom of the conduction band into trap states. The PAs are the photoinduced absorption bands from the bottom of the conduction band and/or trap states to upper states. SE is the stimulated emission within the ‘quantum well’ type structure formed between 2H-PbI2 and other polytypes in the grown film. (b) x-ray diffraction pattern of a PbI2 film.

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