Abstract

Cs+ ion exchange in RbTiOPO4 and (Yb,Nb):RTP/RTP(001) has been used to locally increase the refractive indices for waveguide circuit fabrication. Ti masks were fabricated on RTP samples by conventional photolithography. Cs+ exchange was done using a CsNO3 melt at 698 K during 2 h. Elemental analysis confirms an Cs+ profile with a variable depth. Apparently the Cs+ exchange is disfavored in the doped epitaxial sample. The refractive index variation is higher for nz than for nx,y. Near-field images of the guided modes at 633, 1064 and 1520 nm were recorded. The optical characterization shows propagation losses of 5 dB/cm at 1520 nm.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  28. K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, S. Tsygankov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of optical strength of diffused planar Rb:KTP waveguides,” Kvant. Electron. 17(4), 494–495 (1990).

2013 (2)

A. Choudhary, J. Cugat, K. Pradeesh, R. Solé, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, H. M. H. Chong, and D. P. Shepherd, “Single-mode rib waveguides in (Yb,Nb):RbTiOPO4 by reactive ion etching,” J. Phys. D 46(14), 145108 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Cugat, R. Solé, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, J. Massons, G. Lifante, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Channel waveguides on RbTiOPO4 by Cs+ ion exchange,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 323–325 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

J. Gavaldà, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Dielectric properties of Yb3+ and Nb5+ doped RbTiOPO4 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 034106 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. Cugat, R. M. Solé, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Crystal growth and characterization of RbTi1-x-yYbxNbyOPO4/RbTiOPO4(001) non-linear optical epitaxial layers,” CrystEngComm 13(6), 2015–2022 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Peña, B. Ménaert, B. Boulanger, F. Laurell, C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, P. Segonds, C. Félix, J. Debray, and S. Pairis, “Template-growth of periodically domain-structured KTiOPO4 [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 185–191 (2011).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

V. I. Voronkova, V. K. Yanovskii, T. Yu. Losevskaya, and S. Yu. Stefanovich, “Electrical and nonlinear optical properties of KTiOPO4 single crystals doped by Nb or Sb,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 1954–1958 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Guillien, B. Ménaert, J. P. Féve, P. Segonds, J. Douady, B. Boulanger, and O. Pacaud, “Crystal growth and refined Sellmeier equations over the complete transparency range of RbTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 22(2), 155–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. J. Carvajal, V. Nikolov, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, J. Massons, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Enhancement of Erbium Concentration in RbTiOPO4 by Codoping with Niobium,” Chem. Mater. 12(10), 3171–3180 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. N. Satyanarayan, A. Deepthy, and H. L. Bhat, “Potassium Titanyl Phosphate and its isomorphs: Growth, properties and applications,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 24(2), 103–191 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

S. Yu, A. I. Oseledchik, A. L. Pisarevsky, V. V. Prosvirnin, N. V. Starshenko, and N. V. Svitanko, “Nonlinear optical properties of the flux grown RbTiOPO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 3(4), 237–242 (1994).
[Crossref]

V. D. Kugel, G. Roseman, N. Angert, E. Yaschin, and M. Roth, “Domain inversion in KTiOPO4 crystal near the Curie point,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(8), 4823–4826 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. G. Roelofs, A. Ferretti, and J. D. Bierlein, “Proton-exchanged and ammonium-exchanged waveguides in KTiOPO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(8), 3608–3613 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (3)

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahai, and A. J. McCaffery, “Second-harmonic generation in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28(16), 1478–1480 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. U. M. Sastry, M. S. Somayazulu, and A. Sequiera, “Influence of some partial substitutions on conductivity and dielectric behaviour of potassium titanyl phosphate,” Mater. Res. Bull. 27(12), 1385–1392 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. A. Thomas, S. C. Mayo, and B. E. Watts, “Crystal structures of RbTiOAsO4, KTiO(P0.58,As0.42)O4, RbTiOPO4 and(Rb0.465,K0.535)TiOPO4, and analysis of pseudosymmetry in crystals of the KTiOPO4 family,” Acta Crystallogr. B 48(4), 401–407 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (3)

J. D. Bierlein, D. B. Laubacher, J. B. Brown, and C. J. van der Poel, “Balanced phase matching in segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(18), 1725–1727 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of optical anisotropy in KTP:Rb waveguides,” Kvant. Electron. 17(10), 1369–1370 (1990).

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, S. Tsygankov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of optical strength of diffused planar Rb:KTP waveguides,” Kvant. Electron. 17(4), 494–495 (1990).

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, and W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(18), 1216–1918 (1987).
[Crossref]

Aguiló, M.

A. Choudhary, J. Cugat, K. Pradeesh, R. Solé, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, H. M. H. Chong, and D. P. Shepherd, “Single-mode rib waveguides in (Yb,Nb):RbTiOPO4 by reactive ion etching,” J. Phys. D 46(14), 145108 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Cugat, R. Solé, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, J. Massons, G. Lifante, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Channel waveguides on RbTiOPO4 by Cs+ ion exchange,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 323–325 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gavaldà, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Dielectric properties of Yb3+ and Nb5+ doped RbTiOPO4 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 034106 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Cugat, R. M. Solé, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Crystal growth and characterization of RbTi1-x-yYbxNbyOPO4/RbTiOPO4(001) non-linear optical epitaxial layers,” CrystEngComm 13(6), 2015–2022 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. J. Carvajal, V. Nikolov, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, J. Massons, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Enhancement of Erbium Concentration in RbTiOPO4 by Codoping with Niobium,” Chem. Mater. 12(10), 3171–3180 (2000).
[Crossref]

Alwahai, Z. T.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahai, and A. J. McCaffery, “Second-harmonic generation in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28(16), 1478–1480 (1992).
[Crossref]

Angert, N.

V. D. Kugel, G. Roseman, N. Angert, E. Yaschin, and M. Roth, “Domain inversion in KTiOPO4 crystal near the Curie point,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(8), 4823–4826 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bhat, H. L.

M. N. Satyanarayan, A. Deepthy, and H. L. Bhat, “Potassium Titanyl Phosphate and its isomorphs: Growth, properties and applications,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 24(2), 103–191 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bierlein, J. D.

M. G. Roelofs, A. Ferretti, and J. D. Bierlein, “Proton-exchanged and ammonium-exchanged waveguides in KTiOPO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(8), 3608–3613 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. D. Bierlein, D. B. Laubacher, J. B. Brown, and C. J. van der Poel, “Balanced phase matching in segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(18), 1725–1727 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. D. Bierlein and H. Vanherzeele, “Potassium titanyl phosphate: properties and new applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6(4), 622–633 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, and W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(18), 1216–1918 (1987).
[Crossref]

Boulanger, B.

A. Peña, B. Ménaert, B. Boulanger, F. Laurell, C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, P. Segonds, C. Félix, J. Debray, and S. Pairis, “Template-growth of periodically domain-structured KTiOPO4 [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 185–191 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Guillien, B. Ménaert, J. P. Féve, P. Segonds, J. Douady, B. Boulanger, and O. Pacaud, “Crystal growth and refined Sellmeier equations over the complete transparency range of RbTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 22(2), 155–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

Brixner, L. H.

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, and W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(18), 1216–1918 (1987).
[Crossref]

Brown, J. B.

J. D. Bierlein, D. B. Laubacher, J. B. Brown, and C. J. van der Poel, “Balanced phase matching in segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(18), 1725–1727 (1990).
[Crossref]

Buritskii, K. S.

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of optical anisotropy in KTP:Rb waveguides,” Kvant. Electron. 17(10), 1369–1370 (1990).

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, S. Tsygankov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of optical strength of diffused planar Rb:KTP waveguides,” Kvant. Electron. 17(4), 494–495 (1990).

Canalias, C.

Carvajal, J. J.

J. Cugat, R. Solé, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, J. Massons, G. Lifante, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Channel waveguides on RbTiOPO4 by Cs+ ion exchange,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 323–325 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gavaldà, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Dielectric properties of Yb3+ and Nb5+ doped RbTiOPO4 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 034106 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Cugat, R. M. Solé, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Crystal growth and characterization of RbTi1-x-yYbxNbyOPO4/RbTiOPO4(001) non-linear optical epitaxial layers,” CrystEngComm 13(6), 2015–2022 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. J. Carvajal, V. Nikolov, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, J. Massons, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Enhancement of Erbium Concentration in RbTiOPO4 by Codoping with Niobium,” Chem. Mater. 12(10), 3171–3180 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chandler, P. J.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahai, and A. J. McCaffery, “Second-harmonic generation in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28(16), 1478–1480 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chernykh, V. A.

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of optical anisotropy in KTP:Rb waveguides,” Kvant. Electron. 17(10), 1369–1370 (1990).

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, S. Tsygankov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of optical strength of diffused planar Rb:KTP waveguides,” Kvant. Electron. 17(4), 494–495 (1990).

Chong, H. M. H.

A. Choudhary, J. Cugat, K. Pradeesh, R. Solé, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, H. M. H. Chong, and D. P. Shepherd, “Single-mode rib waveguides in (Yb,Nb):RbTiOPO4 by reactive ion etching,” J. Phys. D 46(14), 145108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choudhary, A.

A. Choudhary, J. Cugat, K. Pradeesh, R. Solé, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, H. M. H. Chong, and D. P. Shepherd, “Single-mode rib waveguides in (Yb,Nb):RbTiOPO4 by reactive ion etching,” J. Phys. D 46(14), 145108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cugat, J.

A. Choudhary, J. Cugat, K. Pradeesh, R. Solé, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, H. M. H. Chong, and D. P. Shepherd, “Single-mode rib waveguides in (Yb,Nb):RbTiOPO4 by reactive ion etching,” J. Phys. D 46(14), 145108 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Cugat, R. Solé, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, J. Massons, G. Lifante, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Channel waveguides on RbTiOPO4 by Cs+ ion exchange,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 323–325 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cugat, R. M. Solé, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Crystal growth and characterization of RbTi1-x-yYbxNbyOPO4/RbTiOPO4(001) non-linear optical epitaxial layers,” CrystEngComm 13(6), 2015–2022 (2011).
[Crossref]

Debray, J.

Deepthy, A.

M. N. Satyanarayan, A. Deepthy, and H. L. Bhat, “Potassium Titanyl Phosphate and its isomorphs: Growth, properties and applications,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 24(2), 103–191 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dianov, E. M.

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of optical anisotropy in KTP:Rb waveguides,” Kvant. Electron. 17(10), 1369–1370 (1990).

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, S. Tsygankov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of optical strength of diffused planar Rb:KTP waveguides,” Kvant. Electron. 17(4), 494–495 (1990).

Díaz, F.

J. Cugat, R. Solé, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, J. Massons, G. Lifante, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Channel waveguides on RbTiOPO4 by Cs+ ion exchange,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 323–325 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Choudhary, J. Cugat, K. Pradeesh, R. Solé, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, H. M. H. Chong, and D. P. Shepherd, “Single-mode rib waveguides in (Yb,Nb):RbTiOPO4 by reactive ion etching,” J. Phys. D 46(14), 145108 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gavaldà, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Dielectric properties of Yb3+ and Nb5+ doped RbTiOPO4 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 034106 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Cugat, R. M. Solé, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Crystal growth and characterization of RbTi1-x-yYbxNbyOPO4/RbTiOPO4(001) non-linear optical epitaxial layers,” CrystEngComm 13(6), 2015–2022 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. J. Carvajal, V. Nikolov, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, J. Massons, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Enhancement of Erbium Concentration in RbTiOPO4 by Codoping with Niobium,” Chem. Mater. 12(10), 3171–3180 (2000).
[Crossref]

Douady, J.

Y. Guillien, B. Ménaert, J. P. Féve, P. Segonds, J. Douady, B. Boulanger, and O. Pacaud, “Crystal growth and refined Sellmeier equations over the complete transparency range of RbTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 22(2), 155–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

Félix, C.

Ferretti, A.

M. G. Roelofs, A. Ferretti, and J. D. Bierlein, “Proton-exchanged and ammonium-exchanged waveguides in KTiOPO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(8), 3608–3613 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, and W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(18), 1216–1918 (1987).
[Crossref]

Féve, J. P.

Y. Guillien, B. Ménaert, J. P. Féve, P. Segonds, J. Douady, B. Boulanger, and O. Pacaud, “Crystal growth and refined Sellmeier equations over the complete transparency range of RbTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 22(2), 155–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gavaldà, J.

J. Gavaldà, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Dielectric properties of Yb3+ and Nb5+ doped RbTiOPO4 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 034106 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. J. Carvajal, V. Nikolov, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, J. Massons, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Enhancement of Erbium Concentration in RbTiOPO4 by Codoping with Niobium,” Chem. Mater. 12(10), 3171–3180 (2000).
[Crossref]

Guillien, Y.

Y. Guillien, B. Ménaert, J. P. Féve, P. Segonds, J. Douady, B. Boulanger, and O. Pacaud, “Crystal growth and refined Sellmeier equations over the complete transparency range of RbTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 22(2), 155–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hsu, W. Y.

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, and W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(18), 1216–1918 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kugel, V. D.

V. D. Kugel, G. Roseman, N. Angert, E. Yaschin, and M. Roth, “Domain inversion in KTiOPO4 crystal near the Curie point,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(8), 4823–4826 (1994).
[Crossref]

Laubacher, D. B.

J. D. Bierlein, D. B. Laubacher, J. B. Brown, and C. J. van der Poel, “Balanced phase matching in segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(18), 1725–1727 (1990).
[Crossref]

Laurell, F.

Lifante, G.

Losevskaya, T. Yu.

V. I. Voronkova, V. K. Yanovskii, T. Yu. Losevskaya, and S. Yu. Stefanovich, “Electrical and nonlinear optical properties of KTiOPO4 single crystals doped by Nb or Sb,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 1954–1958 (2003).
[Crossref]

Maslov, V. A.

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, S. Tsygankov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of optical strength of diffused planar Rb:KTP waveguides,” Kvant. Electron. 17(4), 494–495 (1990).

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of optical anisotropy in KTP:Rb waveguides,” Kvant. Electron. 17(10), 1369–1370 (1990).

Massons, J.

J. Cugat, R. Solé, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, J. Massons, G. Lifante, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Channel waveguides on RbTiOPO4 by Cs+ ion exchange,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 323–325 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Carvajal, V. Nikolov, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, J. Massons, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Enhancement of Erbium Concentration in RbTiOPO4 by Codoping with Niobium,” Chem. Mater. 12(10), 3171–3180 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mateos, X.

J. Cugat, R. Solé, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, J. Massons, G. Lifante, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Channel waveguides on RbTiOPO4 by Cs+ ion exchange,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 323–325 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gavaldà, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Dielectric properties of Yb3+ and Nb5+ doped RbTiOPO4 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 034106 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Cugat, R. M. Solé, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Crystal growth and characterization of RbTi1-x-yYbxNbyOPO4/RbTiOPO4(001) non-linear optical epitaxial layers,” CrystEngComm 13(6), 2015–2022 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mayo, S. C.

P. A. Thomas, S. C. Mayo, and B. E. Watts, “Crystal structures of RbTiOAsO4, KTiO(P0.58,As0.42)O4, RbTiOPO4 and(Rb0.465,K0.535)TiOPO4, and analysis of pseudosymmetry in crystals of the KTiOPO4 family,” Acta Crystallogr. B 48(4), 401–407 (1992).
[Crossref]

McCaffery, A. J.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahai, and A. J. McCaffery, “Second-harmonic generation in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28(16), 1478–1480 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ménaert, B.

A. Peña, B. Ménaert, B. Boulanger, F. Laurell, C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, P. Segonds, C. Félix, J. Debray, and S. Pairis, “Template-growth of periodically domain-structured KTiOPO4 [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 185–191 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Guillien, B. Ménaert, J. P. Féve, P. Segonds, J. Douady, B. Boulanger, and O. Pacaud, “Crystal growth and refined Sellmeier equations over the complete transparency range of RbTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 22(2), 155–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nikolov, V.

J. J. Carvajal, V. Nikolov, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, J. Massons, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Enhancement of Erbium Concentration in RbTiOPO4 by Codoping with Niobium,” Chem. Mater. 12(10), 3171–3180 (2000).
[Crossref]

Oseledchik, A. I.

S. Yu, A. I. Oseledchik, A. L. Pisarevsky, V. V. Prosvirnin, N. V. Starshenko, and N. V. Svitanko, “Nonlinear optical properties of the flux grown RbTiOPO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 3(4), 237–242 (1994).
[Crossref]

Pacaud, O.

Y. Guillien, B. Ménaert, J. P. Féve, P. Segonds, J. Douady, B. Boulanger, and O. Pacaud, “Crystal growth and refined Sellmeier equations over the complete transparency range of RbTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 22(2), 155–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pairis, S.

Pasiskevicius, V.

Peña, A.

Pisarevsky, A. L.

S. Yu, A. I. Oseledchik, A. L. Pisarevsky, V. V. Prosvirnin, N. V. Starshenko, and N. V. Svitanko, “Nonlinear optical properties of the flux grown RbTiOPO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 3(4), 237–242 (1994).
[Crossref]

Pradeesh, K.

A. Choudhary, J. Cugat, K. Pradeesh, R. Solé, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, H. M. H. Chong, and D. P. Shepherd, “Single-mode rib waveguides in (Yb,Nb):RbTiOPO4 by reactive ion etching,” J. Phys. D 46(14), 145108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Prosvirnin, V. V.

S. Yu, A. I. Oseledchik, A. L. Pisarevsky, V. V. Prosvirnin, N. V. Starshenko, and N. V. Svitanko, “Nonlinear optical properties of the flux grown RbTiOPO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 3(4), 237–242 (1994).
[Crossref]

Pujol, M. C.

J. Cugat, R. M. Solé, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Crystal growth and characterization of RbTi1-x-yYbxNbyOPO4/RbTiOPO4(001) non-linear optical epitaxial layers,” CrystEngComm 13(6), 2015–2022 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rico, M.

J. J. Carvajal, V. Nikolov, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, J. Massons, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Enhancement of Erbium Concentration in RbTiOPO4 by Codoping with Niobium,” Chem. Mater. 12(10), 3171–3180 (2000).
[Crossref]

Roelofs, M. G.

M. G. Roelofs, A. Ferretti, and J. D. Bierlein, “Proton-exchanged and ammonium-exchanged waveguides in KTiOPO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(8), 3608–3613 (1993).
[Crossref]

Roseman, G.

V. D. Kugel, G. Roseman, N. Angert, E. Yaschin, and M. Roth, “Domain inversion in KTiOPO4 crystal near the Curie point,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(8), 4823–4826 (1994).
[Crossref]

Roth, M.

V. D. Kugel, G. Roseman, N. Angert, E. Yaschin, and M. Roth, “Domain inversion in KTiOPO4 crystal near the Curie point,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(8), 4823–4826 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sastry, P. U. M.

P. U. M. Sastry, M. S. Somayazulu, and A. Sequiera, “Influence of some partial substitutions on conductivity and dielectric behaviour of potassium titanyl phosphate,” Mater. Res. Bull. 27(12), 1385–1392 (1992).
[Crossref]

Satyanarayan, M. N.

M. N. Satyanarayan, A. Deepthy, and H. L. Bhat, “Potassium Titanyl Phosphate and its isomorphs: Growth, properties and applications,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 24(2), 103–191 (1999).
[Crossref]

Segonds, P.

A. Peña, B. Ménaert, B. Boulanger, F. Laurell, C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, P. Segonds, C. Félix, J. Debray, and S. Pairis, “Template-growth of periodically domain-structured KTiOPO4 [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 185–191 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Guillien, B. Ménaert, J. P. Féve, P. Segonds, J. Douady, B. Boulanger, and O. Pacaud, “Crystal growth and refined Sellmeier equations over the complete transparency range of RbTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 22(2), 155–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sequiera, A.

P. U. M. Sastry, M. S. Somayazulu, and A. Sequiera, “Influence of some partial substitutions on conductivity and dielectric behaviour of potassium titanyl phosphate,” Mater. Res. Bull. 27(12), 1385–1392 (1992).
[Crossref]

Shcherbakov, E. A.

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, S. Tsygankov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of optical strength of diffused planar Rb:KTP waveguides,” Kvant. Electron. 17(4), 494–495 (1990).

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of optical anisotropy in KTP:Rb waveguides,” Kvant. Electron. 17(10), 1369–1370 (1990).

Shepherd, D. P.

A. Choudhary, J. Cugat, K. Pradeesh, R. Solé, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, H. M. H. Chong, and D. P. Shepherd, “Single-mode rib waveguides in (Yb,Nb):RbTiOPO4 by reactive ion etching,” J. Phys. D 46(14), 145108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Solé, R.

A. Choudhary, J. Cugat, K. Pradeesh, R. Solé, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, H. M. H. Chong, and D. P. Shepherd, “Single-mode rib waveguides in (Yb,Nb):RbTiOPO4 by reactive ion etching,” J. Phys. D 46(14), 145108 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Cugat, R. Solé, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, J. Massons, G. Lifante, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Channel waveguides on RbTiOPO4 by Cs+ ion exchange,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 323–325 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Carvajal, V. Nikolov, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, J. Massons, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Enhancement of Erbium Concentration in RbTiOPO4 by Codoping with Niobium,” Chem. Mater. 12(10), 3171–3180 (2000).
[Crossref]

Solé, R. M.

J. Cugat, R. M. Solé, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Crystal growth and characterization of RbTi1-x-yYbxNbyOPO4/RbTiOPO4(001) non-linear optical epitaxial layers,” CrystEngComm 13(6), 2015–2022 (2011).
[Crossref]

Somayazulu, M. S.

P. U. M. Sastry, M. S. Somayazulu, and A. Sequiera, “Influence of some partial substitutions on conductivity and dielectric behaviour of potassium titanyl phosphate,” Mater. Res. Bull. 27(12), 1385–1392 (1992).
[Crossref]

Starshenko, N. V.

S. Yu, A. I. Oseledchik, A. L. Pisarevsky, V. V. Prosvirnin, N. V. Starshenko, and N. V. Svitanko, “Nonlinear optical properties of the flux grown RbTiOPO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 3(4), 237–242 (1994).
[Crossref]

Stefanovich, S. Yu.

V. I. Voronkova, V. K. Yanovskii, T. Yu. Losevskaya, and S. Yu. Stefanovich, “Electrical and nonlinear optical properties of KTiOPO4 single crystals doped by Nb or Sb,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 1954–1958 (2003).
[Crossref]

Svitanko, N. V.

S. Yu, A. I. Oseledchik, A. L. Pisarevsky, V. V. Prosvirnin, N. V. Starshenko, and N. V. Svitanko, “Nonlinear optical properties of the flux grown RbTiOPO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 3(4), 237–242 (1994).
[Crossref]

Thomas, P. A.

P. A. Thomas, S. C. Mayo, and B. E. Watts, “Crystal structures of RbTiOAsO4, KTiO(P0.58,As0.42)O4, RbTiOPO4 and(Rb0.465,K0.535)TiOPO4, and analysis of pseudosymmetry in crystals of the KTiOPO4 family,” Acta Crystallogr. B 48(4), 401–407 (1992).
[Crossref]

Townsend, P. D.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahai, and A. J. McCaffery, “Second-harmonic generation in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28(16), 1478–1480 (1992).
[Crossref]

Tsygankov, S.

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, S. Tsygankov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of optical strength of diffused planar Rb:KTP waveguides,” Kvant. Electron. 17(4), 494–495 (1990).

van der Poel, C. J.

J. D. Bierlein, D. B. Laubacher, J. B. Brown, and C. J. van der Poel, “Balanced phase matching in segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(18), 1725–1727 (1990).
[Crossref]

Vanherzeele, H.

Voronkova, V. I.

V. I. Voronkova, V. K. Yanovskii, T. Yu. Losevskaya, and S. Yu. Stefanovich, “Electrical and nonlinear optical properties of KTiOPO4 single crystals doped by Nb or Sb,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 1954–1958 (2003).
[Crossref]

Watts, B. E.

P. A. Thomas, S. C. Mayo, and B. E. Watts, “Crystal structures of RbTiOAsO4, KTiO(P0.58,As0.42)O4, RbTiOPO4 and(Rb0.465,K0.535)TiOPO4, and analysis of pseudosymmetry in crystals of the KTiOPO4 family,” Acta Crystallogr. B 48(4), 401–407 (1992).
[Crossref]

Yanovskii, V. K.

V. I. Voronkova, V. K. Yanovskii, T. Yu. Losevskaya, and S. Yu. Stefanovich, “Electrical and nonlinear optical properties of KTiOPO4 single crystals doped by Nb or Sb,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 1954–1958 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yaschin, E.

V. D. Kugel, G. Roseman, N. Angert, E. Yaschin, and M. Roth, “Domain inversion in KTiOPO4 crystal near the Curie point,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(8), 4823–4826 (1994).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

S. Yu, A. I. Oseledchik, A. L. Pisarevsky, V. V. Prosvirnin, N. V. Starshenko, and N. V. Svitanko, “Nonlinear optical properties of the flux grown RbTiOPO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 3(4), 237–242 (1994).
[Crossref]

Zaldo, C.

J. J. Carvajal, V. Nikolov, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, J. Massons, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Enhancement of Erbium Concentration in RbTiOPO4 by Codoping with Niobium,” Chem. Mater. 12(10), 3171–3180 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahai, and A. J. McCaffery, “Second-harmonic generation in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28(16), 1478–1480 (1992).
[Crossref]

Acta Crystallogr. B (1)

P. A. Thomas, S. C. Mayo, and B. E. Watts, “Crystal structures of RbTiOAsO4, KTiO(P0.58,As0.42)O4, RbTiOPO4 and(Rb0.465,K0.535)TiOPO4, and analysis of pseudosymmetry in crystals of the KTiOPO4 family,” Acta Crystallogr. B 48(4), 401–407 (1992).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. D. Bierlein, D. B. Laubacher, J. B. Brown, and C. J. van der Poel, “Balanced phase matching in segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(18), 1725–1727 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, and W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(18), 1216–1918 (1987).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

J. J. Carvajal, V. Nikolov, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, J. Massons, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Enhancement of Erbium Concentration in RbTiOPO4 by Codoping with Niobium,” Chem. Mater. 12(10), 3171–3180 (2000).
[Crossref]

Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (1)

M. N. Satyanarayan, A. Deepthy, and H. L. Bhat, “Potassium Titanyl Phosphate and its isomorphs: Growth, properties and applications,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 24(2), 103–191 (1999).
[Crossref]

CrystEngComm (1)

J. Cugat, R. M. Solé, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Crystal growth and characterization of RbTi1-x-yYbxNbyOPO4/RbTiOPO4(001) non-linear optical epitaxial layers,” CrystEngComm 13(6), 2015–2022 (2011).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahai, and A. J. McCaffery, “Second-harmonic generation in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28(16), 1478–1480 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

V. D. Kugel, G. Roseman, N. Angert, E. Yaschin, and M. Roth, “Domain inversion in KTiOPO4 crystal near the Curie point,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(8), 4823–4826 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Gavaldà, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Dielectric properties of Yb3+ and Nb5+ doped RbTiOPO4 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 034106 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. G. Roelofs, A. Ferretti, and J. D. Bierlein, “Proton-exchanged and ammonium-exchanged waveguides in KTiOPO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(8), 3608–3613 (1993).
[Crossref]

V. I. Voronkova, V. K. Yanovskii, T. Yu. Losevskaya, and S. Yu. Stefanovich, “Electrical and nonlinear optical properties of KTiOPO4 single crystals doped by Nb or Sb,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 1954–1958 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

A. Choudhary, J. Cugat, K. Pradeesh, R. Solé, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, H. M. H. Chong, and D. P. Shepherd, “Single-mode rib waveguides in (Yb,Nb):RbTiOPO4 by reactive ion etching,” J. Phys. D 46(14), 145108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kvant. Electron. (2)

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of optical anisotropy in KTP:Rb waveguides,” Kvant. Electron. 17(10), 1369–1370 (1990).

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, S. Tsygankov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of optical strength of diffused planar Rb:KTP waveguides,” Kvant. Electron. 17(4), 494–495 (1990).

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

P. U. M. Sastry, M. S. Somayazulu, and A. Sequiera, “Influence of some partial substitutions on conductivity and dielectric behaviour of potassium titanyl phosphate,” Mater. Res. Bull. 27(12), 1385–1392 (1992).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (2)

S. Yu, A. I. Oseledchik, A. L. Pisarevsky, V. V. Prosvirnin, N. V. Starshenko, and N. V. Svitanko, “Nonlinear optical properties of the flux grown RbTiOPO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 3(4), 237–242 (1994).
[Crossref]

Y. Guillien, B. Ménaert, J. P. Féve, P. Segonds, J. Douady, B. Boulanger, and O. Pacaud, “Crystal growth and refined Sellmeier equations over the complete transparency range of RbTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 22(2), 155–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Other (8)

J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, and F. Díaz, Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth. High-Temperature Solution Growth: Application to Laser and Nonlinear Optical Crystals. Chapter 21 (Eds: G. Dhanaraj, K. Byrappa, V. Prasad, M. Dudley, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2010), pp. 725–757.

Ytterbium and erbium doped RbTi1-xMxOPO4 (M = Nb or Ta) crystals. New laser and nonlinear bifunctional materials, Alexandra Peña Revellez, Ph. D. Thesis 2007.

J. Guo, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, J. J. Carvajal, A. Butt, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, X. Mateos, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Effect of doping on crystalline quality of rubidium titanyl phosphate (RTP) crystals grown by the TSSG method,” MRS Proceedings, 1698 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Lifante, Integrated Photonics: Fundamentals (Wiley, 2003).

T. Suhara and M. Fujimura, Waveguide Nonlinear-Optic Devices (Springer, 2003).

T. L. Koch, F. J. Leonberger, and P. G. Suchoski, Handbook of Optics, Integrated Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1995).

N. Yu. Korkishko and V. A. Fedorov, Ion Exchange in Single Crystals for Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, (Cambridge International Science Publishing, 1999).

M. Roth, Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth. Stoichiometry and domain structure of KTP-Type Nonlinear Optical Crystals. Chapter 20 (Eds: G. Dhanaraj, K. Byrappa, V. Prasad, M. Dudley, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2010), pp. 691–723.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 RTP bulk single crystal grown by TSSG-SC and a cut and polished RTP(001) oriented substrate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Pattern design of (a) MZ, (b) S-bend WG, (c) straight WG.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Steps for the fabrication of the Cs+ ion exchange WGs in RTP.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Cut and polished plates of RTP from a single RTP bulk single crystal, on the left, before the wet chemistry attack, on the right after the wet chemical attack. The attacked parts have been highlighted to help to visualize them.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (Yb,Nb):RTP/RTP(001) epitaxial layer after wet etching.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Cs+ concentration in the channel as a function of the depth in the RTP substrate and (Yb,Nb):RTP epitaxial layer.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 ESEM images of the top view of (a) Cs:RTP(001) coated with a patterned Ti layer (b) Cs:(Yb,Nb):RTP/RTP (001) sample coated with a patterned Ti layer.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Near field mode intensity profile from a 9 mm long straight WG, (b) of the output guided modes in a 9 mm long S-bend WG, (c) of the output guided mode in 9 mm long MZ at 633 nm.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Near field image of the TE01 mode at 633 nm of a straight WG, (b) Near field image of TM11 mode at 633 nm of a straight WG, (c) Near field image of the TE01 at 1064 nm of a straight WG, (d) measured near field image of the TM00 at 1064 nm of a straight WG, (e) Near field image of the TE mode at 1520 nm of a straight WG, (f) Near field image of the TM00 mode at 1520 nm of a straight WG.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 TM modes of straight WGs fabricated on Cs+ exchanged (Yb,Nb):RTP/RTP(001) along the [120] direction.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Geometrical parameters of the designs.

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Table 2 Description of the fabricated WGs.

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Table 3 Losses evaluation in Cs+ exchanged WGs.

Equations (1)

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L I = 10* log 10 ( P wg / P nowg ), 

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