Abstract

We report a wide nematic range and low absorption loss chlorinated liquid crystal mixture, designated as IR-M2, for mid-wave infrared applications. IR-M2 is quite transparent in the 3.8-5.0 μm window while keeping a high birefringence (Δn~0.194) in the infrared region and a modest dielectric anisotropy. For long-wave infrared applications, we propose another high Δn chlorinated cyanoterphenyl compound.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

2014 (1)

F. Peng, Y. Chen, S.-T. Wu, S. Tripathi, and R. J. Twieg, “Low loss liquid crystals for infrared applications,” Liq. Cryst. 41(11), 1545–1552 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

R. Dąbrowski, P. Kula, and J. Herman, “High birefringence liquid crystals,” Crystals 3(3), 443–482 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

X. Lin, J. Wu, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. Jin, and Y. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, H. Xianyu, J. Sun, P. Kula, R. Dabrowski, S. Tripathi, R. J. Twieg, and S.-T. Wu, “Low absorption liquid crystals for mid-wave infrared applications,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10843–10848 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

S. R. Davis, G. Farca, S. D. Rommel, S. Johnson, and M. H. Anderson, “Liquid crystal waveguides: new devices enabled by >1000 waves of optical phase control,” Proc. SPIE 7618, E1–E14 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2002 (1)

S.-T. Wu, Q.-H. Wang, M. D. Kempe, and J. A. Kornfield, “Perdeuterated cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals for infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7146–7148 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S.-T. Wu, “Absorption measurements of liquid crystals in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4462–4465 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

S. T. Wu, J. D. Margerum, H. B. Meng, C. S. Hsu, and L. R. Dalton, “Potential liquid crystal mixtures for CO2 laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(10), 1204–1206 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

D. Dolfi, M. Labeyrie, P. Joffre, and J. P. Huignard, “Liquid crystal microwave phase shifter,” Electron. Lett. 29(10), 926–928 (1993).
[Crossref]

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, and A. M. Lackner, “Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(10), 1065–1067 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

S.-T. Wu and C.-S. Wu, “Experimental confirmation of the Osipov-Terentjev theory on the viscosity of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 42(4), 2219–2227 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

S.-T. Wu, “Infrared properties of nematic liquid crystals: an overview,” Opt. Eng. 26(2), 120–128 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

S.-T. Wu, “Birefringence dispersions of liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 33(2), 1270–1274 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

S.-T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Birefringence measurements of liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 23(21), 3911–3915 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Infrared birefringence of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(11), 1033–1035 (1984).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

G. W. Gray and A. Mosley, “The synthesis of deuteriated 4-n-alkyl-4-cyanobiphenyls,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 48(3–4), 233–242 (1978).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

I. Haller, “Thermodynamic and static properties of liquid crystals,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 10, 103–118 (1975).
[Crossref]

Anderson, M. H.

S. R. Davis, G. Farca, S. D. Rommel, S. Johnson, and M. H. Anderson, “Liquid crystal waveguides: new devices enabled by >1000 waves of optical phase control,” Proc. SPIE 7618, E1–E14 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, H.-L.

Chen, Y.

F. Peng, Y. Chen, S.-T. Wu, S. Tripathi, and R. J. Twieg, “Low loss liquid crystals for infrared applications,” Liq. Cryst. 41(11), 1545–1552 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, H. Xianyu, J. Sun, P. Kula, R. Dabrowski, S. Tripathi, R. J. Twieg, and S.-T. Wu, “Low absorption liquid crystals for mid-wave infrared applications,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10843–10848 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, D. L.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dabrowski, R.

Dalton, L. R.

S. T. Wu, J. D. Margerum, H. B. Meng, C. S. Hsu, and L. R. Dalton, “Potential liquid crystal mixtures for CO2 laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(10), 1204–1206 (1994).
[Crossref]

Davis, S. R.

S. R. Davis, G. Farca, S. D. Rommel, S. Johnson, and M. H. Anderson, “Liquid crystal waveguides: new devices enabled by >1000 waves of optical phase control,” Proc. SPIE 7618, E1–E14 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dolfi, D.

D. Dolfi, M. Labeyrie, P. Joffre, and J. P. Huignard, “Liquid crystal microwave phase shifter,” Electron. Lett. 29(10), 926–928 (1993).
[Crossref]

Dorschner, T. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Efron, U.

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Infrared birefringence of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(11), 1033–1035 (1984).
[Crossref]

S.-T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Birefringence measurements of liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 23(21), 3911–3915 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farca, G.

S. R. Davis, G. Farca, S. D. Rommel, S. Johnson, and M. H. Anderson, “Liquid crystal waveguides: new devices enabled by >1000 waves of optical phase control,” Proc. SPIE 7618, E1–E14 (2010).
[Crossref]

Friedman, L. J.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Gray, G. W.

G. W. Gray and A. Mosley, “The synthesis of deuteriated 4-n-alkyl-4-cyanobiphenyls,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 48(3–4), 233–242 (1978).
[Crossref]

Haller, I.

I. Haller, “Thermodynamic and static properties of liquid crystals,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 10, 103–118 (1975).
[Crossref]

Herman, J.

R. Dąbrowski, P. Kula, and J. Herman, “High birefringence liquid crystals,” Crystals 3(3), 443–482 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hess, L. D.

S.-T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Birefringence measurements of liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 23(21), 3911–3915 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Infrared birefringence of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(11), 1033–1035 (1984).
[Crossref]

Hobbs, D. S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Holz, M.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C.-F.

Hsu, C. S.

S. T. Wu, J. D. Margerum, H. B. Meng, C. S. Hsu, and L. R. Dalton, “Potential liquid crystal mixtures for CO2 laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(10), 1204–1206 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

X. Lin, J. Wu, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. Jin, and Y. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huignard, J. P.

D. Dolfi, M. Labeyrie, P. Joffre, and J. P. Huignard, “Liquid crystal microwave phase shifter,” Electron. Lett. 29(10), 926–928 (1993).
[Crossref]

Jin, B.

X. Lin, J. Wu, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. Jin, and Y. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Joffre, P.

D. Dolfi, M. Labeyrie, P. Joffre, and J. P. Huignard, “Liquid crystal microwave phase shifter,” Electron. Lett. 29(10), 926–928 (1993).
[Crossref]

Johnson, S.

S. R. Davis, G. Farca, S. D. Rommel, S. Johnson, and M. H. Anderson, “Liquid crystal waveguides: new devices enabled by >1000 waves of optical phase control,” Proc. SPIE 7618, E1–E14 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kempe, M. D.

S.-T. Wu, Q.-H. Wang, M. D. Kempe, and J. A. Kornfield, “Perdeuterated cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals for infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7146–7148 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kornfield, J. A.

S.-T. Wu, Q.-H. Wang, M. D. Kempe, and J. A. Kornfield, “Perdeuterated cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals for infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7146–7148 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kula, P.

Labeyrie, M.

D. Dolfi, M. Labeyrie, P. Joffre, and J. P. Huignard, “Liquid crystal microwave phase shifter,” Electron. Lett. 29(10), 926–928 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lackner, A. M.

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, and A. M. Lackner, “Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(10), 1065–1067 (1993).
[Crossref]

Liberman, S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lim, K. C.

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, and A. M. Lackner, “Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(10), 1065–1067 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lin, X.

X. Lin, J. Wu, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. Jin, and Y. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

X. Lin, J. Wu, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. Jin, and Y. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Margerum, J. D.

S. T. Wu, J. D. Margerum, H. B. Meng, C. S. Hsu, and L. R. Dalton, “Potential liquid crystal mixtures for CO2 laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(10), 1204–1206 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, and A. M. Lackner, “Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(10), 1065–1067 (1993).
[Crossref]

McManamon, P. F.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Meng, H. B.

S. T. Wu, J. D. Margerum, H. B. Meng, C. S. Hsu, and L. R. Dalton, “Potential liquid crystal mixtures for CO2 laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(10), 1204–1206 (1994).
[Crossref]

Mosley, A.

G. W. Gray and A. Mosley, “The synthesis of deuteriated 4-n-alkyl-4-cyanobiphenyls,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 48(3–4), 233–242 (1978).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, H. Q.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Pan, C.-L.

Pan, R.-P.

Peng, F.

Resler, D. P.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Rommel, S. D.

S. R. Davis, G. Farca, S. D. Rommel, S. Johnson, and M. H. Anderson, “Liquid crystal waveguides: new devices enabled by >1000 waves of optical phase control,” Proc. SPIE 7618, E1–E14 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sharp, R. C.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

Tang, T.-T.

Tripathi, S.

Twieg, R. J.

Wang, Q.-H.

S.-T. Wu, Q.-H. Wang, M. D. Kempe, and J. A. Kornfield, “Perdeuterated cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals for infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7146–7148 (2002).
[Crossref]

Watson, E. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.-S.

S.-T. Wu and C.-S. Wu, “Experimental confirmation of the Osipov-Terentjev theory on the viscosity of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 42(4), 2219–2227 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

X. Lin, J. Wu, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. Jin, and Y. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

S. T. Wu, J. D. Margerum, H. B. Meng, C. S. Hsu, and L. R. Dalton, “Potential liquid crystal mixtures for CO2 laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(10), 1204–1206 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Infrared birefringence of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(11), 1033–1035 (1984).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-T.

F. Peng, H. Chen, S. Tripathi, R. J. Twieg, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response infrared phase modulator based on polymer network liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(2), 265–273 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Peng, D. Xu, H. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Low voltage polymer network liquid crystal for infrared spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2361–2368 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Peng, Y. Chen, S.-T. Wu, S. Tripathi, and R. J. Twieg, “Low loss liquid crystals for infrared applications,” Liq. Cryst. 41(11), 1545–1552 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, H. Xianyu, J. Sun, P. Kula, R. Dabrowski, S. Tripathi, R. J. Twieg, and S.-T. Wu, “Low absorption liquid crystals for mid-wave infrared applications,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10843–10848 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-T. Wu, Q.-H. Wang, M. D. Kempe, and J. A. Kornfield, “Perdeuterated cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals for infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7146–7148 (2002).
[Crossref]

S.-T. Wu, “Absorption measurements of liquid crystals in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4462–4465 (1998).
[Crossref]

S.-T. Wu and C.-S. Wu, “Experimental confirmation of the Osipov-Terentjev theory on the viscosity of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 42(4), 2219–2227 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-T. Wu, “Infrared properties of nematic liquid crystals: an overview,” Opt. Eng. 26(2), 120–128 (1987).
[Crossref]

S.-T. Wu, “Birefringence dispersions of liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 33(2), 1270–1274 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Birefringence measurements of liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 23(21), 3911–3915 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Z.

X. Lin, J. Wu, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. Jin, and Y. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xianyu, H.

Xu, D.

Xu, F.

X. Lin, J. Wu, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. Jin, and Y. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z.

X. Lin, J. Wu, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. Jin, and Y. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhu, G.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Temperature dependent birefringence of IR-M2 at λ = 633nm. The black dots are measured data and the red line is a fitting curve with Eq. (2).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Birefringence dispersion of IR-M2 at room temperature: the black dots are measured data and the solid line is a fitting with Eq. (3).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Temperature dependent visco-elastic coefficients of IR-M2: black dots are measured data and red line is fitting with Eq. (4) at λ = 633nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured transmittance spectrum of IR-M2 in the IR region with cell gap d = 21μm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured transmittance spectrum of compound 6 and mixture E7 in the LWIR region. The required cell gaps for compound 6 and mixture E7 are 37μm and 56μm, separately.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Chemical structures and phase transition temperatures of the six chlorinated compounds studied. Tm represents melting point and Tc clearing point.

Equations (6)

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λ=2π μ/κ .
Δn=Δ n 0 (1T/ T c ) β ,
Δn=G λ 2 λ * 2 λ 2 λ *2 .
γ 1 K 11 =A exp( E a / k B T) (1T/ T c ) β .
T=exp(αd),
FoM= Δn / α.

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