Abstract

We report a low-voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized hyper-twisted-nematic (HTN) liquid crystal cell with a large dielectric anisotropy host mixture. To correct the measured voltage-dependent transmittance, we have to take the voltage shielding effect of the alignment layers into consideration. Both Kerr effect and flexoelectro-optic effect contribute to the observed induced birefringence. To evaluate the dynamic responses of these two effects, we fit the decay time data with a double relaxation model. A good agreement between the experiment and simulation is obtained. Such a HTN cell still exhibits fast response time (<2ms) even at low temperature (0°C). Potential applications for display and photonic devices are foreseeable.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. D. Xu, J. Yan, J. Yuan, F. Peng, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optic response of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 011119 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (4)

J. W. Kim, T. H. Choi, and T. H. Yoon, “Fast switching of nematic liquid crystals over a wide temperature range using a vertical bias electric field,” Appl. Opt. 53(26), 5856–5859 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Peng, Y. Chen, J. Yuan, H. Chen, S. T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Low temperature and high frequency effects on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with large dielectric anisotropy,” J. Mater. Chem. C. 2(18), 3597–3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W. S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(7), 071102 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, J. Yan, J. Yuan, F. Peng, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optic response of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 011119 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

D. Xu, Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “Refraction effect in an in-plane-switching blue phase liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24721–24735 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141116 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, L. Rao, C. D. Tu, and S. T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 67–70 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. I. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081109 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W. S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H. J. Park, I. J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 263508 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

L. Rao, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage blue-phase LCDs with double-penetrating fringe fields,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 287–289 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Castles, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “Flexoelectro-optic properties of chiral nematic liquid crystals in the uniform standing helix configuration,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 80(3), 031709 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schadt, “Milestone in the history of field-effect liquid crystal displays and materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 03B001 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. Jiao, Z. Ge, Q. Song, and S. T. Wu, “Alignment layer effects on thin liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061102 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. Gauza, X. Zhu, W. Piecek, R. Dabrowski, and S. T. Wu, “Fast switching liquid crystals for color-sequential LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(3), 250–252 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

B. J. Broughton, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, A. E. Blatch, and H. J. Coles, “Effect of polymer concentration on stabilized large-tilt-angle flexoelectro-optic switching,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 023511 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. J. Coles, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, B. J. Broughton, and A. E. Blatch, “Strong flexoelectric behavior in bimesogenic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(3), 034104 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

C. Noot, M. J. Coles, B. Musgrave, S. P. Perkins, and H. J. Coles, “The flexoelectric behaviour of a hypertwisted chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 366(1), 725–733 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. J. Coles, B. Musgrave, M. J. Coles, and J. Willmott, “The effect of the molecular structure on flexoelectric coupling in the chiral nematic phase,” J. Mater. Chem. 11(11), 2709–2716 (2001).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

S. T. Wu, A. M. Lackner, and U. Efron, “Optimal operation temperature of liquid crystal modulators,” Appl. Opt. 26(16), 3441–3445 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Patel and R. B. Meyer, “Flexoelectric electro-optics of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1538–1540 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 116(3–4), 197–206 (1985).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

M. Schadt and F. Muller, “Physical-properties of new liquid-crystal mixtures and electrooptical performance in twisted nematic displays,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 25(9), 1125–1137 (1978).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

D. J. Channin, “Triode optical gate - New liquid-crystal electro-optic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(11), 603–605 (1975).
[Crossref]

An, Z.

Blatch, A. E.

B. J. Broughton, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, A. E. Blatch, and H. J. Coles, “Effect of polymer concentration on stabilized large-tilt-angle flexoelectro-optic switching,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 023511 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. J. Coles, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, B. J. Broughton, and A. E. Blatch, “Strong flexoelectric behavior in bimesogenic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(3), 034104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Broughton, B. J.

H. J. Coles, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, B. J. Broughton, and A. E. Blatch, “Strong flexoelectric behavior in bimesogenic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(3), 034104 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. J. Broughton, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, A. E. Blatch, and H. J. Coles, “Effect of polymer concentration on stabilized large-tilt-angle flexoelectro-optic switching,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 023511 (2006).
[Crossref]

Castles, F.

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W. S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(7), 071102 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W. S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H. J. Park, I. J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 263508 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Castles, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “Flexoelectro-optic properties of chiral nematic liquid crystals in the uniform standing helix configuration,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 80(3), 031709 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Channin, D. J.

D. J. Channin, “Triode optical gate - New liquid-crystal electro-optic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(11), 603–605 (1975).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, M. Hu, F. Peng, J. Li, Z. An, and S.-T. Wu, “Ultra-low viscosity liquid crystal materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 655–660 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Peng, Y. Chen, J. Yuan, H. Chen, S. T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Low temperature and high frequency effects on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with large dielectric anisotropy,” J. Mater. Chem. C. 2(18), 3597–3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

F. Peng, Y. Chen, J. Yuan, H. Chen, S. T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Low temperature and high frequency effects on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with large dielectric anisotropy,” J. Mater. Chem. C. 2(18), 3597–3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, J. Yan, J. Yuan, F. Peng, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optic response of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 011119 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “Refraction effect in an in-plane-switching blue phase liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24721–24735 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H. C.

L. Rao, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage blue-phase LCDs with double-penetrating fringe fields,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 287–289 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. S.

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W. S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(7), 071102 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W. S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H. J. Park, I. J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 263508 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, T. H.

Chung, I. J.

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W. S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H. J. Park, I. J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 263508 (2011).
[Crossref]

Clarke, M. J.

B. J. Broughton, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, A. E. Blatch, and H. J. Coles, “Effect of polymer concentration on stabilized large-tilt-angle flexoelectro-optic switching,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 023511 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. J. Coles, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, B. J. Broughton, and A. E. Blatch, “Strong flexoelectric behavior in bimesogenic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(3), 034104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Coles, H. J.

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W. S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(7), 071102 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W. S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H. J. Park, I. J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 263508 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Castles, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “Flexoelectro-optic properties of chiral nematic liquid crystals in the uniform standing helix configuration,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 80(3), 031709 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Coles, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, B. J. Broughton, and A. E. Blatch, “Strong flexoelectric behavior in bimesogenic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(3), 034104 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. J. Broughton, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, A. E. Blatch, and H. J. Coles, “Effect of polymer concentration on stabilized large-tilt-angle flexoelectro-optic switching,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 023511 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. J. Coles, B. Musgrave, M. J. Coles, and J. Willmott, “The effect of the molecular structure on flexoelectric coupling in the chiral nematic phase,” J. Mater. Chem. 11(11), 2709–2716 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Noot, M. J. Coles, B. Musgrave, S. P. Perkins, and H. J. Coles, “The flexoelectric behaviour of a hypertwisted chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 366(1), 725–733 (2001).
[Crossref]

Coles, M. J.

C. Noot, M. J. Coles, B. Musgrave, S. P. Perkins, and H. J. Coles, “The flexoelectric behaviour of a hypertwisted chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 366(1), 725–733 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. J. Coles, B. Musgrave, M. J. Coles, and J. Willmott, “The effect of the molecular structure on flexoelectric coupling in the chiral nematic phase,” J. Mater. Chem. 11(11), 2709–2716 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dabrowski, R.

S. Gauza, X. Zhu, W. Piecek, R. Dabrowski, and S. T. Wu, “Fast switching liquid crystals for color-sequential LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(3), 250–252 (2007).
[Crossref]

Efron, U.

Gardiner, D. J.

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W. S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(7), 071102 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W. S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H. J. Park, I. J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 263508 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gauza, S.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Gauza, X. Zhu, W. Piecek, R. Dabrowski, and S. T. Wu, “Fast switching liquid crystals for color-sequential LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(3), 250–252 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ge, Z.

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Jiao, Z. Ge, Q. Song, and S. T. Wu, “Alignment layer effects on thin liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gerber, P. R.

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 116(3–4), 197–206 (1985).
[Crossref]

Haseba, Y.

F. Peng, Y. Chen, J. Yuan, H. Chen, S. T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Low temperature and high frequency effects on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with large dielectric anisotropy,” J. Mater. Chem. C. 2(18), 3597–3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141116 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. I. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hisakado, Y.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, M.

Jiao, M.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Jiao, Z. Ge, Q. Song, and S. T. Wu, “Alignment layer effects on thin liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kajiyama, T.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kikuchi, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. W.

Kim, W. S.

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W. S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(7), 071102 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W. S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H. J. Park, I. J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 263508 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lackner, A. M.

Lee, S. H.

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, Y.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Lorenz, A.

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W. S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(7), 071102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Meyer, R. B.

J. S. Patel and R. B. Meyer, “Flexoelectric electro-optics of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1538–1540 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morris, S. M.

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W. S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(7), 071102 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W. S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H. J. Park, I. J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 263508 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Castles, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “Flexoelectro-optic properties of chiral nematic liquid crystals in the uniform standing helix configuration,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 80(3), 031709 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Coles, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, B. J. Broughton, and A. E. Blatch, “Strong flexoelectric behavior in bimesogenic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(3), 034104 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. J. Broughton, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, A. E. Blatch, and H. J. Coles, “Effect of polymer concentration on stabilized large-tilt-angle flexoelectro-optic switching,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 023511 (2006).
[Crossref]

Muller, F.

M. Schadt and F. Muller, “Physical-properties of new liquid-crystal mixtures and electrooptical performance in twisted nematic displays,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 25(9), 1125–1137 (1978).
[Crossref]

Musgrave, B.

C. Noot, M. J. Coles, B. Musgrave, S. P. Perkins, and H. J. Coles, “The flexoelectric behaviour of a hypertwisted chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 366(1), 725–733 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. J. Coles, B. Musgrave, M. J. Coles, and J. Willmott, “The effect of the molecular structure on flexoelectric coupling in the chiral nematic phase,” J. Mater. Chem. 11(11), 2709–2716 (2001).
[Crossref]

Noot, C.

C. Noot, M. J. Coles, B. Musgrave, S. P. Perkins, and H. J. Coles, “The flexoelectric behaviour of a hypertwisted chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 366(1), 725–733 (2001).
[Crossref]

Park, H. J.

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W. S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H. J. Park, I. J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 263508 (2011).
[Crossref]

Patel, J. S.

J. S. Patel and R. B. Meyer, “Flexoelectric electro-optics of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1538–1540 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, F.

H. Chen, M. Hu, F. Peng, J. Li, Z. An, and S.-T. Wu, “Ultra-low viscosity liquid crystal materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 655–660 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Peng, Y. Chen, J. Yuan, H. Chen, S. T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Low temperature and high frequency effects on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with large dielectric anisotropy,” J. Mater. Chem. C. 2(18), 3597–3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, J. Yan, J. Yuan, F. Peng, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optic response of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 011119 (2014).
[Crossref]

Perkins, S. P.

C. Noot, M. J. Coles, B. Musgrave, S. P. Perkins, and H. J. Coles, “The flexoelectric behaviour of a hypertwisted chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 366(1), 725–733 (2001).
[Crossref]

Piecek, W.

S. Gauza, X. Zhu, W. Piecek, R. Dabrowski, and S. T. Wu, “Fast switching liquid crystals for color-sequential LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(3), 250–252 (2007).
[Crossref]

Qasim, M. M.

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W. S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(7), 071102 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W. S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H. J. Park, I. J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 263508 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rao, L.

D. Xu, L. Rao, C. D. Tu, and S. T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 67–70 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. I. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081109 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage blue-phase LCDs with double-penetrating fringe fields,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 287–289 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, “Milestone in the history of field-effect liquid crystal displays and materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 03B001 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Schadt and F. Muller, “Physical-properties of new liquid-crystal mixtures and electrooptical performance in twisted nematic displays,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 25(9), 1125–1137 (1978).
[Crossref]

Song, Q.

M. Jiao, Z. Ge, Q. Song, and S. T. Wu, “Alignment layer effects on thin liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tu, C. D.

D. Xu, L. Rao, C. D. Tu, and S. T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 67–70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wilkinson, T. D.

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W. S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(7), 071102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Willmott, J.

H. J. Coles, B. Musgrave, M. J. Coles, and J. Willmott, “The effect of the molecular structure on flexoelectric coupling in the chiral nematic phase,” J. Mater. Chem. 11(11), 2709–2716 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

D. Xu, J. Yan, J. Yuan, F. Peng, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optic response of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 011119 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Peng, Y. Chen, J. Yuan, H. Chen, S. T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Low temperature and high frequency effects on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with large dielectric anisotropy,” J. Mater. Chem. C. 2(18), 3597–3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, L. Rao, C. D. Tu, and S. T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 67–70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141116 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “Refraction effect in an in-plane-switching blue phase liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24721–24735 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. I. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081109 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage blue-phase LCDs with double-penetrating fringe fields,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 287–289 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Jiao, Z. Ge, Q. Song, and S. T. Wu, “Alignment layer effects on thin liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061102 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Gauza, X. Zhu, W. Piecek, R. Dabrowski, and S. T. Wu, “Fast switching liquid crystals for color-sequential LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(3), 250–252 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. T. Wu, A. M. Lackner, and U. Efron, “Optimal operation temperature of liquid crystal modulators,” Appl. Opt. 26(16), 3441–3445 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, S.-T.

Xu, D.

D. Xu, J. Yan, J. Yuan, F. Peng, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optic response of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 011119 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “Refraction effect in an in-plane-switching blue phase liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24721–24735 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Xu, L. Rao, C. D. Tu, and S. T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 67–70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, S.

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, S. I.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. I. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, J.

D. Xu, J. Yan, J. Yuan, F. Peng, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optic response of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 011119 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. I. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081109 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, T. H.

Yuan, J.

F. Peng, Y. Chen, J. Yuan, H. Chen, S. T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Low temperature and high frequency effects on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with large dielectric anisotropy,” J. Mater. Chem. C. 2(18), 3597–3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, J. Yan, J. Yuan, F. Peng, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optic response of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 011119 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

S. Gauza, X. Zhu, W. Piecek, R. Dabrowski, and S. T. Wu, “Fast switching liquid crystals for color-sequential LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(3), 250–252 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

D. J. Channin, “Triode optical gate - New liquid-crystal electro-optic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(11), 603–605 (1975).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. I. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141116 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Jiao, Z. Ge, Q. Song, and S. T. Wu, “Alignment layer effects on thin liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061102 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W. S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H. J. Park, I. J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 263508 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W. S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(7), 071102 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, J. Yan, J. Yuan, F. Peng, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optic response of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 011119 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron. Dev. (1)

M. Schadt and F. Muller, “Physical-properties of new liquid-crystal mixtures and electrooptical performance in twisted nematic displays,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 25(9), 1125–1137 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. J. Coles, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, B. J. Broughton, and A. E. Blatch, “Strong flexoelectric behavior in bimesogenic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(3), 034104 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. J. Broughton, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, A. E. Blatch, and H. J. Coles, “Effect of polymer concentration on stabilized large-tilt-angle flexoelectro-optic switching,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 023511 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (3)

L. Rao, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage blue-phase LCDs with double-penetrating fringe fields,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 287–289 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Gauza, X. Zhu, W. Piecek, R. Dabrowski, and S. T. Wu, “Fast switching liquid crystals for color-sequential LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(3), 250–252 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, L. Rao, C. D. Tu, and S. T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 67–70 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

H. J. Coles, B. Musgrave, M. J. Coles, and J. Willmott, “The effect of the molecular structure on flexoelectric coupling in the chiral nematic phase,” J. Mater. Chem. 11(11), 2709–2716 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C. (1)

F. Peng, Y. Chen, J. Yuan, H. Chen, S. T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Low temperature and high frequency effects on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with large dielectric anisotropy,” J. Mater. Chem. C. 2(18), 3597–3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Schadt, “Milestone in the history of field-effect liquid crystal displays and materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 03B001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (2)

C. Noot, M. J. Coles, B. Musgrave, S. P. Perkins, and H. J. Coles, “The flexoelectric behaviour of a hypertwisted chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 366(1), 725–733 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 116(3–4), 197–206 (1985).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

F. Castles, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “Flexoelectro-optic properties of chiral nematic liquid crystals in the uniform standing helix configuration,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 80(3), 031709 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. S. Patel and R. B. Meyer, “Flexoelectric electro-optics of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1538–1540 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (6)

M. Wittek, N. Tanaka, D. Wilkes, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, J. Canisius, A. Yeh, R. Yan, K. Skjonnemand, and M. Klasen-Memmer, “4.4: New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 43(1), 25–28 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Haseba, S.-i. Yamamoto, K. Sago, A. Takata, and H. Tobata, “22.1: Invited Paper: Low-voltage polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 44(1), 254–257 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Ishitani, Y. Niikura, M. Ikenaga, M. Kobayashi, M. Kato, T. Nagi, Y. Oe, M. Nakano, S. Seo, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, R. Sato, K. Okazaki, and M. Katayama, “4.2: Polymer-stabilized blue-phase material driven at low voltage,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 43(1), 18–21 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Lee, H.-J. Park, O.-J. Kwon, S. J. Yun, J. H. Park, S. Hong, and S.-T. Shin, “11.1: Invited Paper: The world's first blue phase liquid crystal display,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 121–124 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Tsai, C. Y. Tsai, F. C. Yu, Y. F. Lan, P. J. Huang, S. Y. Lin, Y. T. Chen, T. I. Tsao, C. T. Hsieh, B. S. Tseng, C. W. Kuo, C. H. Lin, C. C. Kuo, C. H. Chen, H. Y. Hsieh, C. T. Chuang, and N. Sugiura, “A novel blue phase liquid crystal display applying wall-electrode and high driving voltage circuit,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. #37.1 (2015).

H. Coles, S. Morris, F. Castles, D. Gardiner, and Q. Malik, “40.1: Invited Paper: Ultrafast high optical contrast flexoelectric displays for video frame rates,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 43(1), 544–547 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Measured VT curve of an IPS-15/15 cell (black dotted line) and corresponding simulation (blue solid line); Model of an IPS-2/4 cell with flat electrodes (red solid line) and 3.5μm protruded electrodes (pink solid line).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measured on-state voltage of the HTN sample at different temperatures.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Temperature dependent rise (a) and decay (b) time. Dots are experimental data and line represents fitting using Eq. (8) with B = 6 × 10−13 ms.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured transient decay process (black solid line) and fittings with single exponential decay (blue dashed curve) and double exponential decay (red solid line).

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V LC = V AP ( 1+ 2 ε LC d AL ε AL d LC ) ,
Δ n k =Δ n s [ 1exp ( E E s ) 2 ] ,
θ m =arctan( 2 e f p E x 2π( k 11 + k 33 ) ) ,
n eff = n e 2 + n o 2 2 ,
Δ n f = n eff ( ( cos( θ m ) n eff ) 2 + ( sin( θ m ) n o ) 2 ) 1/2 ,
K= Δ n s λ E s 2 .
K~ ΔnΔε p 2 k ,
τ=B E a / k B T (1T/ T c ) β ,
φ(t)= A 0 e t/ t 0 ,
φ(t)=A e t/ t 1 +B e t/ t 2 .

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