Abstract

In this work swift-heavy C5+ ion irradiation with energy of 15 MeV was taken place in ZnO crystal. Planar waveguide is observed in the ion beam affected region, showing single-mode optical confinement for both TE and TM polarization, with propagation loss at a low level. Refractive index profile of the waveguide was reconstructed, showing an optical “barrier” in the ion trajectory. Furthermore, ridge waveguides with good propagation properties were produced by precise diamond blade dicing. This is the first time to our knowledge the formation of 2-dimensional waveguides in ZnO crystal, using ion beam technique.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (4)

2013 (5)

2012 (4)

Y. C. Jia and F. Chen, “Optical channel waveguides in ZnSe single crystal produced by proton implantation,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(4), 455–460 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Ming, F. Lu, J. Yin, M. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Ma, and X. Liu, “Waveguide effect in ZnO crystal by He+ ions implantation: Analysis of optical confinement from implant-induced lattice damage,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 1225–1228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Jia, F. Chen, and J. R. V. de Aldana, “Efficient continuous-wave laser operation at 1064 nm in Nd:YVO4 cladding waveguides produced by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16801–16806 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, “Micro- and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(5), 622–640 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

2009 (3)

D. Jaque and F. Chen, “High resolution fluorescence imaging of damage regions in H+ ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011109 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Zhai, H. Zeng, X. Xu, M. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultraviolet-Light Emitters, Lasers, and Sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State 34, 190–223 (2009).

S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “ZnCdO/ZnO - a new heterosystem for green-wavelength semiconductor lasing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 233–242 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, “Diverse mechanism of refractive index modification in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2 crystal induced by MeV He+ or C3+ ion implantation for waveguide construction,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083123 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, N. S. Chen, and H. H. Hng, “Low-loss and directional output ZnO thin-film ridge waveguide random lasers with MgO capped layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031112 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. K. Hwang, S. H. Kang, J. H. Lim, E. J. Yang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, and S. J. Park, “p-ZnO/n-GaN heterostructure ZnO light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 222101 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. Uetsuhara, S. Goto, Y. Nakata, N. Vasa, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, “Fabrication of a Ti:sapphire planar waveguide by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S719–S722 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. I. Najafi, T. Touam, R. Sara, M. P. Andrews, and M. A. Fardad, “Sol-Gel glass waveguide and grating on silicon,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(9), 1640–1646 (1998).
[Crossref]

Aguiló, M.

Akhmadaliev, S.

Andrews, M. P.

Bando, Y.

X. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Zhai, H. Zeng, X. Xu, M. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultraviolet-Light Emitters, Lasers, and Sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State 34, 190–223 (2009).

Benayas, A.

Bolaños, W.

Calmano, T.

Cantelar, E.

Carvajal, J. J.

Chen, F.

Y. Tan, R. He, J. Macdonald, A. K. Kar, and F. Chen, “Q-switched Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser through evanescent field interaction with surface coated graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, Y. Tan, C. Cheng, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Efficient lasing in continuous wave and graphene Q-switched regimes from Nd:YAG ridge waveguides produced by combination of swift heavy ion irradiation and femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12900–12908 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, R. He, C. Cheng, D. Wang, Y. Chen, and F. Chen, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of MoS₂ for refractive index sensing,” Sci Rep 4, 7523 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, S. Sun, and F. Chen, “Guided continuous-wave and graphene-based Q-switched lasers in carbon ion irradiated Nd:YAG ceramic channel waveguide,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3572–3577 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chen and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2013).

Y. C. Jia, C. E. Rüter, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Q. Zhou, F. Chen, and D. Kip, “Ridge waveguide lasers in Nd:YAG crystals produced by combining swift heavy ion irradiation and precise diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(4), 433–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, “Micro- and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(5), 622–640 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Jia, F. Chen, and J. R. V. de Aldana, “Efficient continuous-wave laser operation at 1064 nm in Nd:YVO4 cladding waveguides produced by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16801–16806 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Jia and F. Chen, “Optical channel waveguides in ZnSe single crystal produced by proton implantation,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(4), 455–460 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Ren, N. Dong, F. Chen, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, F. Qiu, and T. Narusawa, “Swift heavy-ion irradiated active waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: fabrication and laser generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3276–3278 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jaque and F. Chen, “High resolution fluorescence imaging of damage regions in H+ ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011109 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, “Diverse mechanism of refractive index modification in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2 crystal induced by MeV He+ or C3+ ion implantation for waveguide construction,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083123 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

X. Ming, F. Lu, J. Yin, M. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Ma, and X. Liu, “Waveguide effect in ZnO crystal by He+ ions implantation: Analysis of optical confinement from implant-induced lattice damage,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 1225–1228 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Ming, F. Lu, J. Yin, M. Chen, S. Zhang, X. Liu, Z. Qin, and Y. Ma, “Optical confinement achieved in ZnO crystal by O+ ions implantation: analysis of waveguide formation and properties,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7139–7146 (2011).
[PubMed]

Chen, N. S.

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, N. S. Chen, and H. H. Hng, “Low-loss and directional output ZnO thin-film ridge waveguide random lasers with MgO capped layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Tan, R. He, C. Cheng, D. Wang, Y. Chen, and F. Chen, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of MoS₂ for refractive index sensing,” Sci Rep 4, 7523 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, C.

Chernyak, L.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choudhary, A.

Chu, S.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cugat, J.

de Aldana, J. R. V.

Díaz, F.

Dong, N.

Fang, X.

X. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Zhai, H. Zeng, X. Xu, M. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultraviolet-Light Emitters, Lasers, and Sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State 34, 190–223 (2009).

Fardad, M. A.

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, X.

Gautam, U. K.

X. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Zhai, H. Zeng, X. Xu, M. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultraviolet-Light Emitters, Lasers, and Sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State 34, 190–223 (2009).

Golberg, D.

X. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Zhai, H. Zeng, X. Xu, M. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultraviolet-Light Emitters, Lasers, and Sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State 34, 190–223 (2009).

Goto, S.

H. Uetsuhara, S. Goto, Y. Nakata, N. Vasa, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, “Fabrication of a Ti:sapphire planar waveguide by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S719–S722 (1999).
[Crossref]

Goto, T.

Griebner, U.

He, R.

Y. Tan, R. He, J. Macdonald, A. K. Kar, and F. Chen, “Q-switched Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser through evanescent field interaction with surface coated graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Tan, R. He, C. Cheng, D. Wang, Y. Chen, and F. Chen, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of MoS₂ for refractive index sensing,” Sci Rep 4, 7523 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henneberger, F.

S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “ZnCdO/ZnO - a new heterosystem for green-wavelength semiconductor lasing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 233–242 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hng, H. H.

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, N. S. Chen, and H. H. Hng, “Low-loss and directional output ZnO thin-film ridge waveguide random lasers with MgO capped layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, G.

Hwang, D. K.

D. K. Hwang, S. H. Kang, J. H. Lim, E. J. Yang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, and S. J. Park, “p-ZnO/n-GaN heterostructure ZnO light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 222101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jaque, D.

Y. Ren, N. Dong, F. Chen, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, F. Qiu, and T. Narusawa, “Swift heavy-ion irradiated active waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: fabrication and laser generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3276–3278 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jaque and F. Chen, “High resolution fluorescence imaging of damage regions in H+ ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jia, Y.

Jia, Y. C.

Kalusniak, S.

S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “ZnCdO/ZnO - a new heterosystem for green-wavelength semiconductor lasing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 233–242 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kang, S. H.

D. K. Hwang, S. H. Kang, J. H. Lim, E. J. Yang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, and S. J. Park, “p-ZnO/n-GaN heterostructure ZnO light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 222101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kannan, P.

Kar, A. K.

Y. Tan, R. He, J. Macdonald, A. K. Kar, and F. Chen, “Q-switched Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser through evanescent field interaction with surface coated graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kawasaki, M.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kind, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kip, D.

Koinuma, H.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kong, J.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lau, S. P.

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, N. S. Chen, and H. H. Hng, “Low-loss and directional output ZnO thin-film ridge waveguide random lasers with MgO capped layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

Leong, E. S. P.

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, N. S. Chen, and H. H. Hng, “Low-loss and directional output ZnO thin-film ridge waveguide random lasers with MgO capped layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, H. K.

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “ZnO random laser diode arrays for stable single-mode operation at high power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liao, M.

X. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Zhai, H. Zeng, X. Xu, M. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultraviolet-Light Emitters, Lasers, and Sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State 34, 190–223 (2009).

Lifante, G.

Lim, J. H.

D. K. Hwang, S. H. Kang, J. H. Lim, E. J. Yang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, and S. J. Park, “p-ZnO/n-GaN heterostructure ZnO light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 222101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

X. Ming, F. Lu, J. Yin, M. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Ma, and X. Liu, “Waveguide effect in ZnO crystal by He+ ions implantation: Analysis of optical confinement from implant-induced lattice damage,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 1225–1228 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Ming, F. Lu, J. Yin, M. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Ma, and X. Liu, “Waveguide effect in ZnO crystal by He+ ions implantation: Analysis of optical confinement from implant-induced lattice damage,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 1225–1228 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Ming, F. Lu, J. Yin, M. Chen, S. Zhang, X. Liu, Z. Qin, and Y. Ma, “Optical confinement achieved in ZnO crystal by O+ ions implantation: analysis of waveguide formation and properties,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7139–7146 (2011).
[PubMed]

Lu, F.

X. Ming, F. Lu, J. Yin, M. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Ma, and X. Liu, “Waveguide effect in ZnO crystal by He+ ions implantation: Analysis of optical confinement from implant-induced lattice damage,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 1225–1228 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Ming, F. Lu, J. Yin, M. Chen, S. Zhang, X. Liu, Z. Qin, and Y. Ma, “Optical confinement achieved in ZnO crystal by O+ ions implantation: analysis of waveguide formation and properties,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7139–7146 (2011).
[PubMed]

Lu, Q. M.

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, “Diverse mechanism of refractive index modification in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2 crystal induced by MeV He+ or C3+ ion implantation for waveguide construction,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083123 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

X. Ming, F. Lu, J. Yin, M. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Ma, and X. Liu, “Waveguide effect in ZnO crystal by He+ ions implantation: Analysis of optical confinement from implant-induced lattice damage,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 1225–1228 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Ming, F. Lu, J. Yin, M. Chen, S. Zhang, X. Liu, Z. Qin, and Y. Ma, “Optical confinement achieved in ZnO crystal by O+ ions implantation: analysis of waveguide formation and properties,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7139–7146 (2011).
[PubMed]

Macdonald, J.

Y. Tan, R. He, J. Macdonald, A. K. Kar, and F. Chen, “Q-switched Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser through evanescent field interaction with surface coated graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mackenzie, J. I.

Maeda, M.

H. Uetsuhara, S. Goto, Y. Nakata, N. Vasa, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, “Fabrication of a Ti:sapphire planar waveguide by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S719–S722 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mao, S.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marangoni, M.

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[Crossref]

Massons, J.

Mateos, X.

Ming, X.

X. Ming, F. Lu, J. Yin, M. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Ma, and X. Liu, “Waveguide effect in ZnO crystal by He+ ions implantation: Analysis of optical confinement from implant-induced lattice damage,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 1225–1228 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Ming, F. Lu, J. Yin, M. Chen, S. Zhang, X. Liu, Z. Qin, and Y. Ma, “Optical confinement achieved in ZnO crystal by O+ ions implantation: analysis of waveguide formation and properties,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7139–7146 (2011).
[PubMed]

Miyazaki, H.

Murugan, G. S.

Najafi, S. I.

Nakata, Y.

H. Uetsuhara, S. Goto, Y. Nakata, N. Vasa, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, “Fabrication of a Ti:sapphire planar waveguide by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S719–S722 (1999).
[Crossref]

Narusawa, T.

Oh, J. Y.

D. K. Hwang, S. H. Kang, J. H. Lim, E. J. Yang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, and S. J. Park, “p-ZnO/n-GaN heterostructure ZnO light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 222101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ohtomo, A.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270 (1998).
[Crossref]

Okada, T.

H. Uetsuhara, S. Goto, Y. Nakata, N. Vasa, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, “Fabrication of a Ti:sapphire planar waveguide by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S719–S722 (1999).
[Crossref]

Osellame, R.

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[Crossref]

Panyutin, V. L.

Park, S. J.

D. K. Hwang, S. H. Kang, J. H. Lim, E. J. Yang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, and S. J. Park, “p-ZnO/n-GaN heterostructure ZnO light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 222101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Petermann, K.

Petrov, V.

Puls, J.

S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “ZnCdO/ZnO - a new heterosystem for green-wavelength semiconductor lasing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 233–242 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qin, Z.

Qiu, F.

Ramponi, R.

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ren, J.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, Y.

Russo, R.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rüter, C. E.

Sadofev, S.

S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “ZnCdO/ZnO - a new heterosystem for green-wavelength semiconductor lasing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 233–242 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sara, R.

Segawa, Y.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shepherd, D. P.

Siebenmorgen, J.

Solé, R.

Sun, S.

Tan, Y.

Y. Tan, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, S. Sun, and F. Chen, “Guided continuous-wave and graphene-based Q-switched lasers in carbon ion irradiated Nd:YAG ceramic channel waveguide,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3572–3577 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, R. He, C. Cheng, D. Wang, Y. Chen, and F. Chen, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of MoS₂ for refractive index sensing,” Sci Rep 4, 7523 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, Y. Tan, C. Cheng, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Efficient lasing in continuous wave and graphene Q-switched regimes from Nd:YAG ridge waveguides produced by combination of swift heavy ion irradiation and femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12900–12908 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, R. He, J. Macdonald, A. K. Kar, and F. Chen, “Q-switched Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser through evanescent field interaction with surface coated graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101111 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, “Diverse mechanism of refractive index modification in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2 crystal induced by MeV He+ or C3+ ion implantation for waveguide construction,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083123 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tang, Z. K.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270 (1998).
[Crossref]

Touam, T.

Uetsuhara, H.

H. Uetsuhara, S. Goto, Y. Nakata, N. Vasa, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, “Fabrication of a Ti:sapphire planar waveguide by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S719–S722 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vasa, N.

H. Uetsuhara, S. Goto, Y. Nakata, N. Vasa, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, “Fabrication of a Ti:sapphire planar waveguide by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S719–S722 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vazquez de Aldana, J. R.

F. Chen and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2013).

Vázquez de Aldana, J. R.

Wang, D.

Y. Tan, R. He, C. Cheng, D. Wang, Y. Chen, and F. Chen, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of MoS₂ for refractive index sensing,” Sci Rep 4, 7523 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K. M.

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, “Diverse mechanism of refractive index modification in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2 crystal induced by MeV He+ or C3+ ion implantation for waveguide construction,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083123 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, “Diverse mechanism of refractive index modification in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2 crystal induced by MeV He+ or C3+ ion implantation for waveguide construction,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083123 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. L.

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, “Diverse mechanism of refractive index modification in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2 crystal induced by MeV He+ or C3+ ion implantation for waveguide construction,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083123 (2008).
[Crossref]

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Wong, G. K. L.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

X. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Zhai, H. Zeng, X. Xu, M. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultraviolet-Light Emitters, Lasers, and Sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State 34, 190–223 (2009).

Yan, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, E. J.

D. K. Hwang, S. H. Kang, J. H. Lim, E. J. Yang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, and S. J. Park, “p-ZnO/n-GaN heterostructure ZnO light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 222101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, H. Y.

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “ZnO random laser diode arrays for stable single-mode operation at high power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241107 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, N. S. Chen, and H. H. Hng, “Low-loss and directional output ZnO thin-film ridge waveguide random lasers with MgO capped layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. H.

D. K. Hwang, S. H. Kang, J. H. Lim, E. J. Yang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, and S. J. Park, “p-ZnO/n-GaN heterostructure ZnO light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 222101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, P.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, T.

Yin, J.

X. Ming, F. Lu, J. Yin, M. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Ma, and X. Liu, “Waveguide effect in ZnO crystal by He+ ions implantation: Analysis of optical confinement from implant-induced lattice damage,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 1225–1228 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Ming, F. Lu, J. Yin, M. Chen, S. Zhang, X. Liu, Z. Qin, and Y. Ma, “Optical confinement achieved in ZnO crystal by O+ ions implantation: analysis of waveguide formation and properties,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7139–7146 (2011).
[PubMed]

Yu, P.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yu, S. F.

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “ZnO random laser diode arrays for stable single-mode operation at high power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241107 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, N. S. Chen, and H. H. Hng, “Low-loss and directional output ZnO thin-film ridge waveguide random lasers with MgO capped layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yuen, C.

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, N. S. Chen, and H. H. Hng, “Low-loss and directional output ZnO thin-film ridge waveguide random lasers with MgO capped layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

X. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Zhai, H. Zeng, X. Xu, M. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultraviolet-Light Emitters, Lasers, and Sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State 34, 190–223 (2009).

Zhai, T.

X. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Zhai, H. Zeng, X. Xu, M. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultraviolet-Light Emitters, Lasers, and Sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State 34, 190–223 (2009).

Zhang, S.

X. Ming, F. Lu, J. Yin, M. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Ma, and X. Liu, “Waveguide effect in ZnO crystal by He+ ions implantation: Analysis of optical confinement from implant-induced lattice damage,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 1225–1228 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Ming, F. Lu, J. Yin, M. Chen, S. Zhang, X. Liu, Z. Qin, and Y. Ma, “Optical confinement achieved in ZnO crystal by O+ ions implantation: analysis of waveguide formation and properties,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7139–7146 (2011).
[PubMed]

Zhao, J.

X. Ming, F. Lu, J. Yin, M. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Ma, and X. Liu, “Waveguide effect in ZnO crystal by He+ ions implantation: Analysis of optical confinement from implant-induced lattice damage,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 1225–1228 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, S.

Zhou, S. Q.

Zhou, W.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, N. S. Chen, and H. H. Hng, “Low-loss and directional output ZnO thin-film ridge waveguide random lasers with MgO capped layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031112 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. K. Hwang, S. H. Kang, J. H. Lim, E. J. Yang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, and S. J. Park, “p-ZnO/n-GaN heterostructure ZnO light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 222101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “ZnO random laser diode arrays for stable single-mode operation at high power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Tan, R. He, J. Macdonald, A. K. Kar, and F. Chen, “Q-switched Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser through evanescent field interaction with surface coated graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101111 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Jaque and F. Chen, “High resolution fluorescence imaging of damage regions in H+ ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

H. Uetsuhara, S. Goto, Y. Nakata, N. Vasa, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, “Fabrication of a Ti:sapphire planar waveguide by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S719–S722 (1999).
[Crossref]

Crit. Rev. Solid State (1)

X. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Zhai, H. Zeng, X. Xu, M. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultraviolet-Light Emitters, Lasers, and Sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State 34, 190–223 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, “Diverse mechanism of refractive index modification in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2 crystal induced by MeV He+ or C3+ ion implantation for waveguide construction,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083123 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Laser Photon. Rev. (3)

F. Chen and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2013).

F. Chen, “Micro- and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(5), 622–640 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “ZnCdO/ZnO - a new heterosystem for green-wavelength semiconductor lasing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 233–242 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Ming, F. Lu, J. Yin, M. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Ma, and X. Liu, “Waveguide effect in ZnO crystal by He+ ions implantation: Analysis of optical confinement from implant-induced lattice damage,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 1225–1228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16035–16041 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, V. L. Panyutin, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Continuous-wave and Q-switched Tm-doped KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser at 1.84 µm,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1449–1454 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ming, F. Lu, J. Yin, M. Chen, S. Zhang, X. Liu, Z. Qin, and Y. Ma, “Optical confinement achieved in ZnO crystal by O+ ions implantation: analysis of waveguide formation and properties,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7139–7146 (2011).
[PubMed]

Y. C. Jia, F. Chen, and J. R. V. de Aldana, “Efficient continuous-wave laser operation at 1064 nm in Nd:YVO4 cladding waveguides produced by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16801–16806 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Tan, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, S. Sun, and F. Chen, “Guided continuous-wave and graphene-based Q-switched lasers in carbon ion irradiated Nd:YAG ceramic channel waveguide,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3572–3577 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, Y. Tan, C. Cheng, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Efficient lasing in continuous wave and graphene Q-switched regimes from Nd:YAG ridge waveguides produced by combination of swift heavy ion irradiation and femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12900–12908 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sci Rep (1)

Y. Tan, R. He, C. Cheng, D. Wang, Y. Chen, and F. Chen, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of MoS₂ for refractive index sensing,” Sci Rep 4, 7523 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

E. J. Murphy, Integrated optical circuits and components: Desigh and applications (Marcel Dekker, New York,1999).

J. F. Ziegler, computer code. SRIM. http://www.srim.org

www.disco.co.jp

P. D. Townsend, P. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Microscope image of the cross-section of the planar waveguide, with a magnifying power of 500 × . (b) and (c) are near-field modal profile of the waveguide, observed at TM polarization, at 633nm and 532nm respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SRIM calculation of 15MeV C5+ ion irradiation process. Red dashed line and black solid line represent the electronic energy loss and nuclear energy loss respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Reconstructed extraordinary refractive index ne (corresponding to the TM polarization) as the function of depth. (b) Near-field modal profile of the waveguide, simulated by FD-BPM method, in TM polarization. Dashed line indicates the interface of air and crystal.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The microscope image of the ridge waveguides produced by diamond rotating blade cutting. G1-G3 represent waveguides with width of 40, 30 and 20μm respectively; (b)-(d) depicts the near-field modal images of G3-G1 under 633nm. (e)-(g) are modal images of G3-G1 under 532nm. All above captured in TE mode.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Propagation losses of TM modes, measured before and after each annealing step, for waveguide G3 at two different wavelength.

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