Abstract

Pyramidal nature PSS (n-PSS) substrates were produced by a simple wet etching process without standard lithography and dry-etching processes. We found that the output power of the LED on the pyramidal n-PSS substrates is larger than the output power of the LED chip on the flat c-plane sapphire substrate by 46.4% to 51.5%. LED chip on the n-PSS(III) substrate with 73% pattern coverage has the highest output power among LED chips on all n-PSS substrates. The light emission patterns of LED bare chips on different n-PSS and r-PSS substrates were studied. The shape of the light emission pattern was qualitatively defined by the broadness angle, which is the angle at the maximum intensity of the light emission pattern away from the normal direction. The broadness angle is inversely proportional to the facet angle of pyramids created on the n-PSS substrates. In addition, we found that the light extraction efficiency at the GaN/silicone interface has a dependence on the light emission pattern of the bare chips on different n-PSS substrates. The broader light emission pattern (larger broadness angle) would result in higher light extraction efficiency at the GaN/silicone interface.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. G. Kim, M. G. Na, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, T. V. Cuong, and C. H. Hong, “Effect of periodic deflector embedded in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261117 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. T. Törmä, M. Ali, O. Svensk, S. Suihkonen, M. Sopanen, H. Lipsanen, M. Mulot, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and V. E. Bougrov, “InGaN-based 405 nm near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes on pillar patterned sapphire substrates,” CrystEngComm 12(10), 3152–3156 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. Nepal, P. Frajtag, J. M. Zavada, N. A. El-Masry, and S. M. Bedair, “Light emitting diodes based on sidewall m-plane epitaxy of etched GaN/sapphire templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7–8), 2354–2356 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. Y. Chen, T. H. Yang, C. H. Hsu, and C. C. Sun, “High-efficiency white LED packaging with reduced phosphor concentration,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett.25(7), 694-696 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Sol. State Light 1(1), 19 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. L. Chang, and X. F. Li, “Characterization study of GaN-based epitaxial layer and light-emitting diode on nature-patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Mater. Res.27(6), 917977(2012).
  7. H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 242–245 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. J. Wu, Y. S. Liu, C. Y. Hsieh, P. M. Lee, Y. S. Wei, Y. H. Chang, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Light extraction enhancement of vertical LED by growing ZnO nano-rods on tips of pyramids,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 25(18), 1774-1777 (2013).
  10. H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-coverage effect on light extraction efficiency of GaN LED on patterned-sapphire substrate,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. K. Su, J. J. Chen, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Pattern-size dependence of characteristics of nitride-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2973–2976 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. Y. C. Lin, W. C. Liu, C. L. Chang, C. C. Chung, Y. H. Chen, T. Y. Chung, and C. Y. Liu, “Internal quantum efficiency enhancement by relieving compressive stress of GaN-based LED,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 26(18), 1793–1796 (2014).

2014 (2)

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Sol. State Light 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Lin, W. C. Liu, C. L. Chang, C. C. Chung, Y. H. Chen, T. Y. Chung, and C. Y. Liu, “Internal quantum efficiency enhancement by relieving compressive stress of GaN-based LED,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 26(18), 1793–1796 (2014).

2013 (1)

Y. J. Wu, Y. S. Liu, C. Y. Hsieh, P. M. Lee, Y. S. Wei, Y. H. Chang, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Light extraction enhancement of vertical LED by growing ZnO nano-rods on tips of pyramids,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 25(18), 1774-1777 (2013).

2012 (1)

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-coverage effect on light extraction efficiency of GaN LED on patterned-sapphire substrate,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

N. Nepal, P. Frajtag, J. M. Zavada, N. A. El-Masry, and S. M. Bedair, “Light emitting diodes based on sidewall m-plane epitaxy of etched GaN/sapphire templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7–8), 2354–2356 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

P. T. Törmä, M. Ali, O. Svensk, S. Suihkonen, M. Sopanen, H. Lipsanen, M. Mulot, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and V. E. Bougrov, “InGaN-based 405 nm near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes on pillar patterned sapphire substrates,” CrystEngComm 12(10), 3152–3156 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Y. K. Su, J. J. Chen, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Pattern-size dependence of characteristics of nitride-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2973–2976 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. G. Kim, M. G. Na, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, T. V. Cuong, and C. H. Hong, “Effect of periodic deflector embedded in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ali, M.

P. T. Törmä, M. Ali, O. Svensk, S. Suihkonen, M. Sopanen, H. Lipsanen, M. Mulot, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and V. E. Bougrov, “InGaN-based 405 nm near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes on pillar patterned sapphire substrates,” CrystEngComm 12(10), 3152–3156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bedair, S. M.

N. Nepal, P. Frajtag, J. M. Zavada, N. A. El-Masry, and S. M. Bedair, “Light emitting diodes based on sidewall m-plane epitaxy of etched GaN/sapphire templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7–8), 2354–2356 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bougrov, V. E.

P. T. Törmä, M. Ali, O. Svensk, S. Suihkonen, M. Sopanen, H. Lipsanen, M. Mulot, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and V. E. Bougrov, “InGaN-based 405 nm near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes on pillar patterned sapphire substrates,” CrystEngComm 12(10), 3152–3156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. C.

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-coverage effect on light extraction efficiency of GaN LED on patterned-sapphire substrate,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. L.

Y. C. Lin, W. C. Liu, C. L. Chang, C. C. Chung, Y. H. Chen, T. Y. Chung, and C. Y. Liu, “Internal quantum efficiency enhancement by relieving compressive stress of GaN-based LED,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 26(18), 1793–1796 (2014).

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. L. Chang, and X. F. Li, “Characterization study of GaN-based epitaxial layer and light-emitting diode on nature-patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Mater. Res.27(6), 917977(2012).

Chang, Y. H.

Y. J. Wu, Y. S. Liu, C. Y. Hsieh, P. M. Lee, Y. S. Wei, Y. H. Chang, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Light extraction enhancement of vertical LED by growing ZnO nano-rods on tips of pyramids,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 25(18), 1774-1777 (2013).

Chang, Y. Y.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Sol. State Light 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. C.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Sol. State Light 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

C. Y. Chen, T. H. Yang, C. H. Hsu, and C. C. Sun, “High-efficiency white LED packaging with reduced phosphor concentration,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett.25(7), 694-696 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. J.

Y. K. Su, J. J. Chen, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Pattern-size dependence of characteristics of nitride-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2973–2976 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. M.

Y. K. Su, J. J. Chen, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Pattern-size dependence of characteristics of nitride-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2973–2976 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. C.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Sol. State Light 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. H.

Y. C. Lin, W. C. Liu, C. L. Chang, C. C. Chung, Y. H. Chen, T. Y. Chung, and C. Y. Liu, “Internal quantum efficiency enhancement by relieving compressive stress of GaN-based LED,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 26(18), 1793–1796 (2014).

Chen, Y. J.

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-coverage effect on light extraction efficiency of GaN LED on patterned-sapphire substrate,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. L. Chang, and X. F. Li, “Characterization study of GaN-based epitaxial layer and light-emitting diode on nature-patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Mater. Res.27(6), 917977(2012).

Chiu, C. H.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chung, C. C.

Y. C. Lin, W. C. Liu, C. L. Chang, C. C. Chung, Y. H. Chen, T. Y. Chung, and C. Y. Liu, “Internal quantum efficiency enhancement by relieving compressive stress of GaN-based LED,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 26(18), 1793–1796 (2014).

Chung, T. Y.

Y. C. Lin, W. C. Liu, C. L. Chang, C. C. Chung, Y. H. Chen, T. Y. Chung, and C. Y. Liu, “Internal quantum efficiency enhancement by relieving compressive stress of GaN-based LED,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 26(18), 1793–1796 (2014).

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Sol. State Light 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cuong, T. V.

H. G. Kim, M. G. Na, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, T. V. Cuong, and C. H. Hong, “Effect of periodic deflector embedded in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261117 (2007).
[Crossref]

El-Masry, N. A.

N. Nepal, P. Frajtag, J. M. Zavada, N. A. El-Masry, and S. M. Bedair, “Light emitting diodes based on sidewall m-plane epitaxy of etched GaN/sapphire templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7–8), 2354–2356 (2011).
[Crossref]

Frajtag, P.

N. Nepal, P. Frajtag, J. M. Zavada, N. A. El-Masry, and S. M. Bedair, “Light emitting diodes based on sidewall m-plane epitaxy of etched GaN/sapphire templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7–8), 2354–2356 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gao, H. Y.

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Glorieux, B.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Sol. State Light 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hong, C. H.

H. G. Kim, M. G. Na, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, T. V. Cuong, and C. H. Hong, “Effect of periodic deflector embedded in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C. Y.

Y. J. Wu, Y. S. Liu, C. Y. Hsieh, P. M. Lee, Y. S. Wei, Y. H. Chang, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Light extraction enhancement of vertical LED by growing ZnO nano-rods on tips of pyramids,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 25(18), 1774-1777 (2013).

Hsu, C. H.

C. Y. Chen, T. H. Yang, C. H. Hsu, and C. C. Sun, “High-efficiency white LED packaging with reduced phosphor concentration,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett.25(7), 694-696 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hsu, S. C.

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-coverage effect on light extraction efficiency of GaN LED on patterned-sapphire substrate,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kao, C. C.

Y. K. Su, J. J. Chen, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Pattern-size dependence of characteristics of nitride-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2973–2976 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ke, C. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. G.

H. G. Kim, M. G. Na, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, T. V. Cuong, and C. H. Hong, “Effect of periodic deflector embedded in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. K.

H. G. Kim, M. G. Na, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, T. V. Cuong, and C. H. Hong, “Effect of periodic deflector embedded in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. Y.

H. G. Kim, M. G. Na, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, T. V. Cuong, and C. H. Hong, “Effect of periodic deflector embedded in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lai, K. Y.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Sol. State Light 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Wu, Y. S. Liu, C. Y. Hsieh, P. M. Lee, Y. S. Wei, Y. H. Chang, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Light extraction enhancement of vertical LED by growing ZnO nano-rods on tips of pyramids,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 25(18), 1774-1777 (2013).

Lee, P. M.

Y. J. Wu, Y. S. Liu, C. Y. Hsieh, P. M. Lee, Y. S. Wei, Y. H. Chang, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Light extraction enhancement of vertical LED by growing ZnO nano-rods on tips of pyramids,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 25(18), 1774-1777 (2013).

Lee, T. X.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Sol. State Light 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, D. R.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Sol. State Light 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, J. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, J. M.

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, W. L.

Y. K. Su, J. J. Chen, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Pattern-size dependence of characteristics of nitride-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2973–2976 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, X. F.

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-coverage effect on light extraction efficiency of GaN LED on patterned-sapphire substrate,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. L. Chang, and X. F. Li, “Characterization study of GaN-based epitaxial layer and light-emitting diode on nature-patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Mater. Res.27(6), 917977(2012).

Lin, C. L.

Y. K. Su, J. J. Chen, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Pattern-size dependence of characteristics of nitride-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2973–2976 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. Y.

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-coverage effect on light extraction efficiency of GaN LED on patterned-sapphire substrate,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. L. Chang, and X. F. Li, “Characterization study of GaN-based epitaxial layer and light-emitting diode on nature-patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Mater. Res.27(6), 917977(2012).

Lin, Y. C.

Y. C. Lin, W. C. Liu, C. L. Chang, C. C. Chung, Y. H. Chen, T. Y. Chung, and C. Y. Liu, “Internal quantum efficiency enhancement by relieving compressive stress of GaN-based LED,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 26(18), 1793–1796 (2014).

Lipsanen, H.

P. T. Törmä, M. Ali, O. Svensk, S. Suihkonen, M. Sopanen, H. Lipsanen, M. Mulot, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and V. E. Bougrov, “InGaN-based 405 nm near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes on pillar patterned sapphire substrates,” CrystEngComm 12(10), 3152–3156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, C. Y.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Sol. State Light 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Lin, W. C. Liu, C. L. Chang, C. C. Chung, Y. H. Chen, T. Y. Chung, and C. Y. Liu, “Internal quantum efficiency enhancement by relieving compressive stress of GaN-based LED,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 26(18), 1793–1796 (2014).

Y. J. Wu, Y. S. Liu, C. Y. Hsieh, P. M. Lee, Y. S. Wei, Y. H. Chang, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Light extraction enhancement of vertical LED by growing ZnO nano-rods on tips of pyramids,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 25(18), 1774-1777 (2013).

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-coverage effect on light extraction efficiency of GaN LED on patterned-sapphire substrate,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, W. C.

Y. C. Lin, W. C. Liu, C. L. Chang, C. C. Chung, Y. H. Chen, T. Y. Chung, and C. Y. Liu, “Internal quantum efficiency enhancement by relieving compressive stress of GaN-based LED,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 26(18), 1793–1796 (2014).

Liu, Y. S.

Y. J. Wu, Y. S. Liu, C. Y. Hsieh, P. M. Lee, Y. S. Wei, Y. H. Chang, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Light extraction enhancement of vertical LED by growing ZnO nano-rods on tips of pyramids,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 25(18), 1774-1777 (2013).

Lu, C. Y.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Sol. State Light 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, T. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mulot, M.

P. T. Törmä, M. Ali, O. Svensk, S. Suihkonen, M. Sopanen, H. Lipsanen, M. Mulot, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and V. E. Bougrov, “InGaN-based 405 nm near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes on pillar patterned sapphire substrates,” CrystEngComm 12(10), 3152–3156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Na, M. G.

H. G. Kim, M. G. Na, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, T. V. Cuong, and C. H. Hong, “Effect of periodic deflector embedded in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nepal, N.

N. Nepal, P. Frajtag, J. M. Zavada, N. A. El-Masry, and S. M. Bedair, “Light emitting diodes based on sidewall m-plane epitaxy of etched GaN/sapphire templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7–8), 2354–2356 (2011).
[Crossref]

Odnoblyudov, M. A.

P. T. Törmä, M. Ali, O. Svensk, S. Suihkonen, M. Sopanen, H. Lipsanen, M. Mulot, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and V. E. Bougrov, “InGaN-based 405 nm near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes on pillar patterned sapphire substrates,” CrystEngComm 12(10), 3152–3156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ryu, J. H.

H. G. Kim, M. G. Na, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, T. V. Cuong, and C. H. Hong, “Effect of periodic deflector embedded in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sopanen, M.

P. T. Törmä, M. Ali, O. Svensk, S. Suihkonen, M. Sopanen, H. Lipsanen, M. Mulot, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and V. E. Bougrov, “InGaN-based 405 nm near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes on pillar patterned sapphire substrates,” CrystEngComm 12(10), 3152–3156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Su, Y. K.

Y. K. Su, J. J. Chen, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Pattern-size dependence of characteristics of nitride-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2973–2976 (2009).
[Crossref]

Suihkonen, S.

P. T. Törmä, M. Ali, O. Svensk, S. Suihkonen, M. Sopanen, H. Lipsanen, M. Mulot, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and V. E. Bougrov, “InGaN-based 405 nm near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes on pillar patterned sapphire substrates,” CrystEngComm 12(10), 3152–3156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. C.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Sol. State Light 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen, T. H. Yang, C. H. Hsu, and C. C. Sun, “High-efficiency white LED packaging with reduced phosphor concentration,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett.25(7), 694-696 (2013).
[Crossref]

Svensk, O.

P. T. Törmä, M. Ali, O. Svensk, S. Suihkonen, M. Sopanen, H. Lipsanen, M. Mulot, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and V. E. Bougrov, “InGaN-based 405 nm near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes on pillar patterned sapphire substrates,” CrystEngComm 12(10), 3152–3156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ting, Z. Y.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Sol. State Light 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Törmä, P. T.

P. T. Törmä, M. Ali, O. Svensk, S. Suihkonen, M. Sopanen, H. Lipsanen, M. Mulot, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and V. E. Bougrov, “InGaN-based 405 nm near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes on pillar patterned sapphire substrates,” CrystEngComm 12(10), 3152–3156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. H.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, G. H.

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wei, Y. S.

Y. J. Wu, Y. S. Liu, C. Y. Hsieh, P. M. Lee, Y. S. Wei, Y. H. Chang, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Light extraction enhancement of vertical LED by growing ZnO nano-rods on tips of pyramids,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 25(18), 1774-1777 (2013).

Wu, Y. J.

Y. J. Wu, Y. S. Liu, C. Y. Hsieh, P. M. Lee, Y. S. Wei, Y. H. Chang, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Light extraction enhancement of vertical LED by growing ZnO nano-rods on tips of pyramids,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 25(18), 1774-1777 (2013).

Yan, F. W.

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, T. H.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Sol. State Light 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen, T. H. Yang, C. H. Hsu, and C. C. Sun, “High-efficiency white LED packaging with reduced phosphor concentration,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett.25(7), 694-696 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zavada, J. M.

N. Nepal, P. Frajtag, J. M. Zavada, N. A. El-Masry, and S. M. Bedair, “Light emitting diodes based on sidewall m-plane epitaxy of etched GaN/sapphire templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7–8), 2354–2356 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Y. P.

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. G. Kim, M. G. Na, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, T. V. Cuong, and C. H. Hong, “Effect of periodic deflector embedded in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261117 (2007).
[Crossref]

CrystEngComm (1)

P. T. Törmä, M. Ali, O. Svensk, S. Suihkonen, M. Sopanen, H. Lipsanen, M. Mulot, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and V. E. Bougrov, “InGaN-based 405 nm near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes on pillar patterned sapphire substrates,” CrystEngComm 12(10), 3152–3156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (1)

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-coverage effect on light extraction efficiency of GaN LED on patterned-sapphire substrate,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. (2)

Y. J. Wu, Y. S. Liu, C. Y. Hsieh, P. M. Lee, Y. S. Wei, Y. H. Chang, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Light extraction enhancement of vertical LED by growing ZnO nano-rods on tips of pyramids,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 25(18), 1774-1777 (2013).

Y. C. Lin, W. C. Liu, C. L. Chang, C. C. Chung, Y. H. Chen, T. Y. Chung, and C. Y. Liu, “Internal quantum efficiency enhancement by relieving compressive stress of GaN-based LED,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett. 26(18), 1793–1796 (2014).

J. Appl. (1)

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Su, J. J. Chen, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Pattern-size dependence of characteristics of nitride-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2973–2976 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Sol. State Light (1)

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Sol. State Light 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

N. Nepal, P. Frajtag, J. M. Zavada, N. A. El-Masry, and S. M. Bedair, “Light emitting diodes based on sidewall m-plane epitaxy of etched GaN/sapphire templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7–8), 2354–2356 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

C. Y. Chen, T. H. Yang, C. H. Hsu, and C. C. Sun, “High-efficiency white LED packaging with reduced phosphor concentration,” IEEE Photon. Elec. Lett.25(7), 694-696 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. L. Chang, and X. F. Li, “Characterization study of GaN-based epitaxial layer and light-emitting diode on nature-patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Mater. Res.27(6), 917977(2012).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Pattern morphology on n-PSS and r-PSS wafers.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Output power of LED bare chips on n-PSS, r-PSS, and f-SS wafers.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) the Lambertian distribution and the light emission pattern of LED bare chips on (b) n-PSS (I) (c) n-PSS (II) (d) n-PSS (III) (e) r-PSS (f) f-SS.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The structure of the GaN LED (b). White-light LED package structure.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Light extraction efficiency (LEEGaN/silicone) at the GaN/silicone interface against broadness angle (∆θ).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characters of pattern morphology and GaN epi-layers on n-PSS, r-PSS, and f-SS wafers

Tables Icon

Table 2 light output powers of LED chips on n-PSS, r-PSS and f-SS wafers

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

(P566.5)=3.6 σ GaN ,
LE E GaN Silicone = P insidesilicone / P Bare
P insidesilicone = P outsidesilicone /0.986

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