Abstract

Mobile charges and lattice polarization interact in ferroelectric materials because of the Coulomb interaction between the mobile free charges and the fixed lattice dipoles. Using SHG microscopy, we have investigated this mutual screening in KTiOPO4, a ferroelectric/superionic single crystal in which the mobile charges are K+ ions. The ionic accumulation close to the crystal surfaces leads to orders of magnitude increase of SHG. This ionic space charge model is supported by the absence of such an effect in non-ionic conductor but ferroelectric BaTiO3, by its temperature dependence in KTiOPO4 and by its broad depletion at domain walls.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  30. M. M. Shvebelman, A. G. Agronin, R. P. Urenski, Y. Rosenwaks, and G. I. Rosenman, “Kelvin probe microscopy of periodic ferroelectric domain structure in KTiOPO4 crystals,” Nano Lett. 2(5), 455–458 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. V. Ievlev, A. N. Morozovska, E. A. Eliseev, V. Y. Shur, and S. V. Kalinin, “Ionic field effect and memristive phenomena in single-point ferroelectric domain switching,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4545 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cremoux, M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, T. Cardinal, D. Talaga, F. Adamietz, and V. Rodriguez, “Trapped molecular and ionic species in poled borosilicate glasses: toward a rationalized description of thermal poling in glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(7), 3716–3723 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

E. Strelcov, Y. Kim, S. Jesse, Y. Cao, I. N. Ivanov, I. I. Kravchenko, C.-H. Wang, Y.-C. Teng, L.-Q. Chen, Y. H. Chu, and S. V. Kalinin, “Probing local ionic dynamics in functional oxides at the nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3455–3462 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

D. Meier, J. Seidel, A. Cano, K. Delaney, Y. Kumagai, M. Mostovoy, N. A. Spaldin, R. Ramesh, and M. Fiebig, “Anisotropic conductance at improper ferroelectric domain walls,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 284–288 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bonhommeau, P. G. Lacroix, D. Talaga, A. Bousseksou, M. Seredyuk, I. O. Fritsky, and V. Rodriguez, “Magnetism and molecular nonlinear optical second-order response met in a spin crossover complex,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(20), 11251–11255 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Anand Theerthan, B. Menaert, B. Boulanger, and M. Maglione, “Linking ionic conductivity and piezoelectric resonance in KTiOPO4,” Phys. Rev. B 85(2), 024103 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Moubah, O. Rousseau, D. Colson, A. Artemenko, M. Maglione, and M. Viret, “Photoelectric Effects in Single Domain BiFeO3 Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(22), 4814–4818 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. L. Wang, B. Vilquin, and N. Barrett, “Screening of ferroelectric domains on BaTiO3(001) surface by ultraviolet photo-induced charge and dissociative water adsorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 092902 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Seidel, W. Luo, S. J. Suresha, P.-K. Nguyen, A. S. Lee, S.-Y. Kim, C.-H. Yang, S. J. Pennycook, S. T. Pantelides, J. F. Scott, and R. Ramesh, “Prominent electrochromism through vacancy-order melting in a complex oxide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Vigouroux, E. Fargin, S. Gomez, B. Le Garrec, G. Mountrichas, E. Kamitsos, F. Adamietz, M. Dussauze, and V. Rodriguez, “Synthesis and multiscale evaluation of LiNbO3-containing silicate glass-ceramics with efficient isotropic SHG response,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(19), 3985–3993 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

P. G. Lacroix, M. C. Munoz, A. B. Gaspar, J. A. Real, S. Bonhommeau, V. Rodriguez, and K. Nakatani, “Synthesis, crystal structures, and solid state quadratic nonlinear optical properties of a series of stilbazolium cations combined with gold cyanide counter-iron,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(40), 15940–15949 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. A. Denev, T. A. Lummen, E. Barnes, A. Kumar, and V. Gopalan, “Probing ferroelectrics using optical second-harmonic generation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(9), 2699–2727 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, A. Lipovskii, M. Petrov, C. Smith, K. Richardson, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and E. I. Kamitsos, “How does thermal poling affect the structure of soda-lime glass?” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12754–12759 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. G. Lacroix, T. Hayashi, T. Sugimoto, K. Nakatani, and V. Rodriguez, “Optical nonlinearity in (EDT-DSD TFVO)2·FeBr4, an intriguing molecular material with metallic conductivity, magnetoresistance effects, and quadratic nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(49), 21762–21769 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

V. Rodriguez, D. Talaga, F. Adamietz, J. L. Bruneel, and M. Couzi, “Hyper-Raman macro- and micro-spectroscopy in materials: Towards high quality signals and good spatial resolution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 431(1–3), 190–194 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2002 (2)

Q. Jiang, M. N. Womersley, P. A. Thomas, J. P. Rourke, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Ferroelectric, conductive, and dielectric properties of KTiOPO4 at low temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 66(9), 094103 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. M. Shvebelman, A. G. Agronin, R. P. Urenski, Y. Rosenwaks, and G. I. Rosenman, “Kelvin probe microscopy of periodic ferroelectric domain structure in KTiOPO4 crystals,” Nano Lett. 2(5), 455–458 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

B. Boulanger, J. P. Fève, P. Delarue, I. Rousseau, and G. Marnier, “Cubic optical nonlinearity of KTiOPO4,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32(2), 475–488 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. F. Scott, “A comparison of Ag- and proton-conducting ferroelectrics,” Solid State Ion. 125(1–4), 141–146 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, Ch. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. Pedersen, T. Skettrup, X. Zhang, and M. Belmonte, “Far- and near-field second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domain walls,” Opt. Commun. 152(4–6), 221–224 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. Kurimura and Y. Uesu, “Application of second harmonic generation microscope to nondestructive observation of periodically poled ferroelectric domains in quasi-phase-matched wavelength converters,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(1), 369–375 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1989 (1)

1954 (1)

W. J. Merz, “Domain formation and domain wall motions in ferroelectric BaTiO3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 95(3), 690–698 (1954).
[Crossref]

Adamietz, F.

T. Cremoux, M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, T. Cardinal, D. Talaga, F. Adamietz, and V. Rodriguez, “Trapped molecular and ionic species in poled borosilicate glasses: toward a rationalized description of thermal poling in glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(7), 3716–3723 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Vigouroux, E. Fargin, S. Gomez, B. Le Garrec, G. Mountrichas, E. Kamitsos, F. Adamietz, M. Dussauze, and V. Rodriguez, “Synthesis and multiscale evaluation of LiNbO3-containing silicate glass-ceramics with efficient isotropic SHG response,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(19), 3985–3993 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Rodriguez, D. Talaga, F. Adamietz, J. L. Bruneel, and M. Couzi, “Hyper-Raman macro- and micro-spectroscopy in materials: Towards high quality signals and good spatial resolution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 431(1–3), 190–194 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ager, J. W.

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agronin, A. G.

M. M. Shvebelman, A. G. Agronin, R. P. Urenski, Y. Rosenwaks, and G. I. Rosenman, “Kelvin probe microscopy of periodic ferroelectric domain structure in KTiOPO4 crystals,” Nano Lett. 2(5), 455–458 (2002).
[Crossref]

Anand Theerthan, R.

R. Anand Theerthan, B. Menaert, B. Boulanger, and M. Maglione, “Linking ionic conductivity and piezoelectric resonance in KTiOPO4,” Phys. Rev. B 85(2), 024103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Artemenko, A.

R. Moubah, O. Rousseau, D. Colson, A. Artemenko, M. Maglione, and M. Viret, “Photoelectric Effects in Single Domain BiFeO3 Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(22), 4814–4818 (2012).
[Crossref]

Assanto, G.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balke, N.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, E.

S. A. Denev, T. A. Lummen, E. Barnes, A. Kumar, and V. Gopalan, “Probing ferroelectrics using optical second-harmonic generation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(9), 2699–2727 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barrett, N.

J. L. Wang, B. Vilquin, and N. Barrett, “Screening of ferroelectric domains on BaTiO3(001) surface by ultraviolet photo-induced charge and dissociative water adsorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 092902 (2012).
[Crossref]

Belmonte, M.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. Pedersen, T. Skettrup, X. Zhang, and M. Belmonte, “Far- and near-field second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domain walls,” Opt. Commun. 152(4–6), 221–224 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bierlein, J. D.

Bonhommeau, S.

S. Bonhommeau, P. G. Lacroix, D. Talaga, A. Bousseksou, M. Seredyuk, I. O. Fritsky, and V. Rodriguez, “Magnetism and molecular nonlinear optical second-order response met in a spin crossover complex,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(20), 11251–11255 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. G. Lacroix, M. C. Munoz, A. B. Gaspar, J. A. Real, S. Bonhommeau, V. Rodriguez, and K. Nakatani, “Synthesis, crystal structures, and solid state quadratic nonlinear optical properties of a series of stilbazolium cations combined with gold cyanide counter-iron,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(40), 15940–15949 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bonnin, C.

Boulanger, B.

R. Anand Theerthan, B. Menaert, B. Boulanger, and M. Maglione, “Linking ionic conductivity and piezoelectric resonance in KTiOPO4,” Phys. Rev. B 85(2), 024103 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Boulanger, J. P. Fève, P. Delarue, I. Rousseau, and G. Marnier, “Cubic optical nonlinearity of KTiOPO4,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32(2), 475–488 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. Boulanger, J. P. Feve, G. Marnier, B. Menaert, X. Cabirol, P. Villeval, and C. Bonnin, “Relative sign and absolute magnitude of d(2) nonlinear coefficients of KTP from second-harmonic-generation measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(5), 750–757 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bousseksou, A.

S. Bonhommeau, P. G. Lacroix, D. Talaga, A. Bousseksou, M. Seredyuk, I. O. Fritsky, and V. Rodriguez, “Magnetism and molecular nonlinear optical second-order response met in a spin crossover complex,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(20), 11251–11255 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. Pedersen, T. Skettrup, X. Zhang, and M. Belmonte, “Far- and near-field second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domain walls,” Opt. Commun. 152(4–6), 221–224 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brillert, Ch.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, Ch. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bruneel, J. L.

V. Rodriguez, D. Talaga, F. Adamietz, J. L. Bruneel, and M. Couzi, “Hyper-Raman macro- and micro-spectroscopy in materials: Towards high quality signals and good spatial resolution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 431(1–3), 190–194 (2006).
[Crossref]

Byrnes, S. J.

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cabirol, X.

Cano, A.

D. Meier, J. Seidel, A. Cano, K. Delaney, Y. Kumagai, M. Mostovoy, N. A. Spaldin, R. Ramesh, and M. Fiebig, “Anisotropic conductance at improper ferroelectric domain walls,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 284–288 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

E. Strelcov, Y. Kim, S. Jesse, Y. Cao, I. N. Ivanov, I. I. Kravchenko, C.-H. Wang, Y.-C. Teng, L.-Q. Chen, Y. H. Chu, and S. V. Kalinin, “Probing local ionic dynamics in functional oxides at the nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3455–3462 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardinal, T.

T. Cremoux, M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, T. Cardinal, D. Talaga, F. Adamietz, and V. Rodriguez, “Trapped molecular and ionic species in poled borosilicate glasses: toward a rationalized description of thermal poling in glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(7), 3716–3723 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, A. Lipovskii, M. Petrov, C. Smith, K. Richardson, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and E. I. Kamitsos, “How does thermal poling affect the structure of soda-lime glass?” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12754–12759 (2010).
[Crossref]

Catalan, G.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-Q.

E. Strelcov, Y. Kim, S. Jesse, Y. Cao, I. N. Ivanov, I. I. Kravchenko, C.-H. Wang, Y.-C. Teng, L.-Q. Chen, Y. H. Chu, and S. V. Kalinin, “Probing local ionic dynamics in functional oxides at the nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3455–3462 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, Y. H.

E. Strelcov, Y. Kim, S. Jesse, Y. Cao, I. N. Ivanov, I. I. Kravchenko, C.-H. Wang, Y.-C. Teng, L.-Q. Chen, Y. H. Chu, and S. V. Kalinin, “Probing local ionic dynamics in functional oxides at the nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3455–3462 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, Y.-H.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colson, D.

R. Moubah, O. Rousseau, D. Colson, A. Artemenko, M. Maglione, and M. Viret, “Photoelectric Effects in Single Domain BiFeO3 Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(22), 4814–4818 (2012).
[Crossref]

Couzi, M.

V. Rodriguez, D. Talaga, F. Adamietz, J. L. Bruneel, and M. Couzi, “Hyper-Raman macro- and micro-spectroscopy in materials: Towards high quality signals and good spatial resolution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 431(1–3), 190–194 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cremoux, T.

T. Cremoux, M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, T. Cardinal, D. Talaga, F. Adamietz, and V. Rodriguez, “Trapped molecular and ionic species in poled borosilicate glasses: toward a rationalized description of thermal poling in glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(7), 3716–3723 (2014).
[Crossref]

Delaney, K.

D. Meier, J. Seidel, A. Cano, K. Delaney, Y. Kumagai, M. Mostovoy, N. A. Spaldin, R. Ramesh, and M. Fiebig, “Anisotropic conductance at improper ferroelectric domain walls,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 284–288 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delarue, P.

B. Boulanger, J. P. Fève, P. Delarue, I. Rousseau, and G. Marnier, “Cubic optical nonlinearity of KTiOPO4,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32(2), 475–488 (1999).
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Denev, S. A.

S. A. Denev, T. A. Lummen, E. Barnes, A. Kumar, and V. Gopalan, “Probing ferroelectrics using optical second-harmonic generation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(9), 2699–2727 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dussauze, M.

T. Cremoux, M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, T. Cardinal, D. Talaga, F. Adamietz, and V. Rodriguez, “Trapped molecular and ionic species in poled borosilicate glasses: toward a rationalized description of thermal poling in glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(7), 3716–3723 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Vigouroux, E. Fargin, S. Gomez, B. Le Garrec, G. Mountrichas, E. Kamitsos, F. Adamietz, M. Dussauze, and V. Rodriguez, “Synthesis and multiscale evaluation of LiNbO3-containing silicate glass-ceramics with efficient isotropic SHG response,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(19), 3985–3993 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, A. Lipovskii, M. Petrov, C. Smith, K. Richardson, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and E. I. Kamitsos, “How does thermal poling affect the structure of soda-lime glass?” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12754–12759 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eliseev, E. A.

A. V. Ievlev, A. N. Morozovska, E. A. Eliseev, V. Y. Shur, and S. V. Kalinin, “Ionic field effect and memristive phenomena in single-point ferroelectric domain switching,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4545 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fargin, E.

T. Cremoux, M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, T. Cardinal, D. Talaga, F. Adamietz, and V. Rodriguez, “Trapped molecular and ionic species in poled borosilicate glasses: toward a rationalized description of thermal poling in glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(7), 3716–3723 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Vigouroux, E. Fargin, S. Gomez, B. Le Garrec, G. Mountrichas, E. Kamitsos, F. Adamietz, M. Dussauze, and V. Rodriguez, “Synthesis and multiscale evaluation of LiNbO3-containing silicate glass-ceramics with efficient isotropic SHG response,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(19), 3985–3993 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, A. Lipovskii, M. Petrov, C. Smith, K. Richardson, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and E. I. Kamitsos, “How does thermal poling affect the structure of soda-lime glass?” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12754–12759 (2010).
[Crossref]

Feve, J. P.

Fève, J. P.

B. Boulanger, J. P. Fève, P. Delarue, I. Rousseau, and G. Marnier, “Cubic optical nonlinearity of KTiOPO4,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32(2), 475–488 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fiebig, M.

D. Meier, J. Seidel, A. Cano, K. Delaney, Y. Kumagai, M. Mostovoy, N. A. Spaldin, R. Ramesh, and M. Fiebig, “Anisotropic conductance at improper ferroelectric domain walls,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 284–288 (2012).
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M. Fiebig, V. V. Pavlov, and R. V. Pisarev, “Second-harmonic generation as a tool for studying electronic and magnetic structures of crystals: review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(1), 96–118 (2005).
[Crossref]

Flörsheimer, M.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, Ch. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fritsky, I. O.

S. Bonhommeau, P. G. Lacroix, D. Talaga, A. Bousseksou, M. Seredyuk, I. O. Fritsky, and V. Rodriguez, “Magnetism and molecular nonlinear optical second-order response met in a spin crossover complex,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(20), 11251–11255 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, H.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, Ch. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gajek, M.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaspar, A. B.

P. G. Lacroix, M. C. Munoz, A. B. Gaspar, J. A. Real, S. Bonhommeau, V. Rodriguez, and K. Nakatani, “Synthesis, crystal structures, and solid state quadratic nonlinear optical properties of a series of stilbazolium cations combined with gold cyanide counter-iron,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(40), 15940–15949 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gemming, S.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gomez, S.

H. Vigouroux, E. Fargin, S. Gomez, B. Le Garrec, G. Mountrichas, E. Kamitsos, F. Adamietz, M. Dussauze, and V. Rodriguez, “Synthesis and multiscale evaluation of LiNbO3-containing silicate glass-ceramics with efficient isotropic SHG response,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(19), 3985–3993 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gopalan, V.

S. A. Denev, T. A. Lummen, E. Barnes, A. Kumar, and V. Gopalan, “Probing ferroelectrics using optical second-harmonic generation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(9), 2699–2727 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hawkridge, M. E.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayashi, T.

P. G. Lacroix, T. Hayashi, T. Sugimoto, K. Nakatani, and V. Rodriguez, “Optical nonlinearity in (EDT-DSD TFVO)2·FeBr4, an intriguing molecular material with metallic conductivity, magnetoresistance effects, and quadratic nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(49), 21762–21769 (2010).
[Crossref]

He, Q.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heuer, L.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, Ch. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, D.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, Ch. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hutton, K. B.

Q. Jiang, M. N. Womersley, P. A. Thomas, J. P. Rourke, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Ferroelectric, conductive, and dielectric properties of KTiOPO4 at low temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 66(9), 094103 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ievlev, A. V.

A. V. Ievlev, A. N. Morozovska, E. A. Eliseev, V. Y. Shur, and S. V. Kalinin, “Ionic field effect and memristive phenomena in single-point ferroelectric domain switching,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4545 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, I. N.

E. Strelcov, Y. Kim, S. Jesse, Y. Cao, I. N. Ivanov, I. I. Kravchenko, C.-H. Wang, Y.-C. Teng, L.-Q. Chen, Y. H. Chu, and S. V. Kalinin, “Probing local ionic dynamics in functional oxides at the nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3455–3462 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jesse, S.

E. Strelcov, Y. Kim, S. Jesse, Y. Cao, I. N. Ivanov, I. I. Kravchenko, C.-H. Wang, Y.-C. Teng, L.-Q. Chen, Y. H. Chu, and S. V. Kalinin, “Probing local ionic dynamics in functional oxides at the nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3455–3462 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, Q.

Q. Jiang, M. N. Womersley, P. A. Thomas, J. P. Rourke, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Ferroelectric, conductive, and dielectric properties of KTiOPO4 at low temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 66(9), 094103 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kalinin, S. V.

A. V. Ievlev, A. N. Morozovska, E. A. Eliseev, V. Y. Shur, and S. V. Kalinin, “Ionic field effect and memristive phenomena in single-point ferroelectric domain switching,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4545 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Strelcov, Y. Kim, S. Jesse, Y. Cao, I. N. Ivanov, I. I. Kravchenko, C.-H. Wang, Y.-C. Teng, L.-Q. Chen, Y. H. Chu, and S. V. Kalinin, “Probing local ionic dynamics in functional oxides at the nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3455–3462 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamitsos, E.

H. Vigouroux, E. Fargin, S. Gomez, B. Le Garrec, G. Mountrichas, E. Kamitsos, F. Adamietz, M. Dussauze, and V. Rodriguez, “Synthesis and multiscale evaluation of LiNbO3-containing silicate glass-ceramics with efficient isotropic SHG response,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(19), 3985–3993 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kamitsos, E. I.

M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, A. Lipovskii, M. Petrov, C. Smith, K. Richardson, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and E. I. Kamitsos, “How does thermal poling affect the structure of soda-lime glass?” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12754–12759 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-Y.

J. Seidel, W. Luo, S. J. Suresha, P.-K. Nguyen, A. S. Lee, S.-Y. Kim, C.-H. Yang, S. J. Pennycook, S. T. Pantelides, J. F. Scott, and R. Ramesh, “Prominent electrochromism through vacancy-order melting in a complex oxide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

E. Strelcov, Y. Kim, S. Jesse, Y. Cao, I. N. Ivanov, I. I. Kravchenko, C.-H. Wang, Y.-C. Teng, L.-Q. Chen, Y. H. Chu, and S. V. Kalinin, “Probing local ionic dynamics in functional oxides at the nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3455–3462 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kravchenko, I. I.

E. Strelcov, Y. Kim, S. Jesse, Y. Cao, I. N. Ivanov, I. I. Kravchenko, C.-H. Wang, Y.-C. Teng, L.-Q. Chen, Y. H. Chu, and S. V. Kalinin, “Probing local ionic dynamics in functional oxides at the nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3455–3462 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubitscheck, U.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, Ch. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kumagai, Y.

D. Meier, J. Seidel, A. Cano, K. Delaney, Y. Kumagai, M. Mostovoy, N. A. Spaldin, R. Ramesh, and M. Fiebig, “Anisotropic conductance at improper ferroelectric domain walls,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 284–288 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, A.

S. A. Denev, T. A. Lummen, E. Barnes, A. Kumar, and V. Gopalan, “Probing ferroelectrics using optical second-harmonic generation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(9), 2699–2727 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kurimura, S.

S. Kurimura and Y. Uesu, “Application of second harmonic generation microscope to nondestructive observation of periodically poled ferroelectric domains in quasi-phase-matched wavelength converters,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(1), 369–375 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lacroix, P. G.

S. Bonhommeau, P. G. Lacroix, D. Talaga, A. Bousseksou, M. Seredyuk, I. O. Fritsky, and V. Rodriguez, “Magnetism and molecular nonlinear optical second-order response met in a spin crossover complex,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(20), 11251–11255 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. G. Lacroix, M. C. Munoz, A. B. Gaspar, J. A. Real, S. Bonhommeau, V. Rodriguez, and K. Nakatani, “Synthesis, crystal structures, and solid state quadratic nonlinear optical properties of a series of stilbazolium cations combined with gold cyanide counter-iron,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(40), 15940–15949 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. G. Lacroix, T. Hayashi, T. Sugimoto, K. Nakatani, and V. Rodriguez, “Optical nonlinearity in (EDT-DSD TFVO)2·FeBr4, an intriguing molecular material with metallic conductivity, magnetoresistance effects, and quadratic nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(49), 21762–21769 (2010).
[Crossref]

Le Garrec, B.

H. Vigouroux, E. Fargin, S. Gomez, B. Le Garrec, G. Mountrichas, E. Kamitsos, F. Adamietz, M. Dussauze, and V. Rodriguez, “Synthesis and multiscale evaluation of LiNbO3-containing silicate glass-ceramics with efficient isotropic SHG response,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(19), 3985–3993 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, A. S.

J. Seidel, W. Luo, S. J. Suresha, P.-K. Nguyen, A. S. Lee, S.-Y. Kim, C.-H. Yang, S. J. Pennycook, S. T. Pantelides, J. F. Scott, and R. Ramesh, “Prominent electrochromism through vacancy-order melting in a complex oxide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lipovskii, A.

M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, A. Lipovskii, M. Petrov, C. Smith, K. Richardson, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and E. I. Kamitsos, “How does thermal poling affect the structure of soda-lime glass?” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12754–12759 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lummen, T. A.

S. A. Denev, T. A. Lummen, E. Barnes, A. Kumar, and V. Gopalan, “Probing ferroelectrics using optical second-harmonic generation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(9), 2699–2727 (2011).
[Crossref]

Luo, W.

J. Seidel, W. Luo, S. J. Suresha, P.-K. Nguyen, A. S. Lee, S.-Y. Kim, C.-H. Yang, S. J. Pennycook, S. T. Pantelides, J. F. Scott, and R. Ramesh, “Prominent electrochromism through vacancy-order melting in a complex oxide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maglione, M.

R. Moubah, O. Rousseau, D. Colson, A. Artemenko, M. Maglione, and M. Viret, “Photoelectric Effects in Single Domain BiFeO3 Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(22), 4814–4818 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Anand Theerthan, B. Menaert, B. Boulanger, and M. Maglione, “Linking ionic conductivity and piezoelectric resonance in KTiOPO4,” Phys. Rev. B 85(2), 024103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Maksymovych, P.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marnier, G.

Martin, L. W.

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meier, D.

D. Meier, J. Seidel, A. Cano, K. Delaney, Y. Kumagai, M. Mostovoy, N. A. Spaldin, R. Ramesh, and M. Fiebig, “Anisotropic conductance at improper ferroelectric domain walls,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 284–288 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menaert, B.

Merz, W. J.

W. J. Merz, “Domain formation and domain wall motions in ferroelectric BaTiO3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 95(3), 690–698 (1954).
[Crossref]

Morozovska, A. N.

A. V. Ievlev, A. N. Morozovska, E. A. Eliseev, V. Y. Shur, and S. V. Kalinin, “Ionic field effect and memristive phenomena in single-point ferroelectric domain switching,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4545 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mostovoy, M.

D. Meier, J. Seidel, A. Cano, K. Delaney, Y. Kumagai, M. Mostovoy, N. A. Spaldin, R. Ramesh, and M. Fiebig, “Anisotropic conductance at improper ferroelectric domain walls,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 284–288 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moubah, R.

R. Moubah, O. Rousseau, D. Colson, A. Artemenko, M. Maglione, and M. Viret, “Photoelectric Effects in Single Domain BiFeO3 Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(22), 4814–4818 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mountrichas, G.

H. Vigouroux, E. Fargin, S. Gomez, B. Le Garrec, G. Mountrichas, E. Kamitsos, F. Adamietz, M. Dussauze, and V. Rodriguez, “Synthesis and multiscale evaluation of LiNbO3-containing silicate glass-ceramics with efficient isotropic SHG response,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(19), 3985–3993 (2012).
[Crossref]

Munoz, M. C.

P. G. Lacroix, M. C. Munoz, A. B. Gaspar, J. A. Real, S. Bonhommeau, V. Rodriguez, and K. Nakatani, “Synthesis, crystal structures, and solid state quadratic nonlinear optical properties of a series of stilbazolium cations combined with gold cyanide counter-iron,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(40), 15940–15949 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nakatani, K.

P. G. Lacroix, M. C. Munoz, A. B. Gaspar, J. A. Real, S. Bonhommeau, V. Rodriguez, and K. Nakatani, “Synthesis, crystal structures, and solid state quadratic nonlinear optical properties of a series of stilbazolium cations combined with gold cyanide counter-iron,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(40), 15940–15949 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. G. Lacroix, T. Hayashi, T. Sugimoto, K. Nakatani, and V. Rodriguez, “Optical nonlinearity in (EDT-DSD TFVO)2·FeBr4, an intriguing molecular material with metallic conductivity, magnetoresistance effects, and quadratic nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(49), 21762–21769 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, P.-K.

J. Seidel, W. Luo, S. J. Suresha, P.-K. Nguyen, A. S. Lee, S.-Y. Kim, C.-H. Yang, S. J. Pennycook, S. T. Pantelides, J. F. Scott, and R. Ramesh, “Prominent electrochromism through vacancy-order melting in a complex oxide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Onherzeele, H. V.

Orenstein, J.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pantelides, S. T.

J. Seidel, W. Luo, S. J. Suresha, P.-K. Nguyen, A. S. Lee, S.-Y. Kim, C.-H. Yang, S. J. Pennycook, S. T. Pantelides, J. F. Scott, and R. Ramesh, “Prominent electrochromism through vacancy-order melting in a complex oxide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paschotta, R.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, Ch. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, Ch. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pavlov, V. V.

Pedersen, K.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. Pedersen, T. Skettrup, X. Zhang, and M. Belmonte, “Far- and near-field second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domain walls,” Opt. Commun. 152(4–6), 221–224 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pennycook, S. J.

J. Seidel, W. Luo, S. J. Suresha, P.-K. Nguyen, A. S. Lee, S.-Y. Kim, C.-H. Yang, S. J. Pennycook, S. T. Pantelides, J. F. Scott, and R. Ramesh, “Prominent electrochromism through vacancy-order melting in a complex oxide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrov, M.

M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, A. Lipovskii, M. Petrov, C. Smith, K. Richardson, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and E. I. Kamitsos, “How does thermal poling affect the structure of soda-lime glass?” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12754–12759 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pisarev, R. V.

Ramesh, R.

D. Meier, J. Seidel, A. Cano, K. Delaney, Y. Kumagai, M. Mostovoy, N. A. Spaldin, R. Ramesh, and M. Fiebig, “Anisotropic conductance at improper ferroelectric domain walls,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 284–288 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seidel, W. Luo, S. J. Suresha, P.-K. Nguyen, A. S. Lee, S.-Y. Kim, C.-H. Yang, S. J. Pennycook, S. T. Pantelides, J. F. Scott, and R. Ramesh, “Prominent electrochromism through vacancy-order melting in a complex oxide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Real, J. A.

P. G. Lacroix, M. C. Munoz, A. B. Gaspar, J. A. Real, S. Bonhommeau, V. Rodriguez, and K. Nakatani, “Synthesis, crystal structures, and solid state quadratic nonlinear optical properties of a series of stilbazolium cations combined with gold cyanide counter-iron,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(40), 15940–15949 (2011).
[Crossref]

Richardson, K.

M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, A. Lipovskii, M. Petrov, C. Smith, K. Richardson, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and E. I. Kamitsos, “How does thermal poling affect the structure of soda-lime glass?” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12754–12759 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, V.

T. Cremoux, M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, T. Cardinal, D. Talaga, F. Adamietz, and V. Rodriguez, “Trapped molecular and ionic species in poled borosilicate glasses: toward a rationalized description of thermal poling in glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(7), 3716–3723 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Vigouroux, E. Fargin, S. Gomez, B. Le Garrec, G. Mountrichas, E. Kamitsos, F. Adamietz, M. Dussauze, and V. Rodriguez, “Synthesis and multiscale evaluation of LiNbO3-containing silicate glass-ceramics with efficient isotropic SHG response,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(19), 3985–3993 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Bonhommeau, P. G. Lacroix, D. Talaga, A. Bousseksou, M. Seredyuk, I. O. Fritsky, and V. Rodriguez, “Magnetism and molecular nonlinear optical second-order response met in a spin crossover complex,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(20), 11251–11255 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. G. Lacroix, M. C. Munoz, A. B. Gaspar, J. A. Real, S. Bonhommeau, V. Rodriguez, and K. Nakatani, “Synthesis, crystal structures, and solid state quadratic nonlinear optical properties of a series of stilbazolium cations combined with gold cyanide counter-iron,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(40), 15940–15949 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. G. Lacroix, T. Hayashi, T. Sugimoto, K. Nakatani, and V. Rodriguez, “Optical nonlinearity in (EDT-DSD TFVO)2·FeBr4, an intriguing molecular material with metallic conductivity, magnetoresistance effects, and quadratic nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(49), 21762–21769 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, A. Lipovskii, M. Petrov, C. Smith, K. Richardson, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and E. I. Kamitsos, “How does thermal poling affect the structure of soda-lime glass?” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12754–12759 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Rodriguez, D. Talaga, F. Adamietz, J. L. Bruneel, and M. Couzi, “Hyper-Raman macro- and micro-spectroscopy in materials: Towards high quality signals and good spatial resolution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 431(1–3), 190–194 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rosenman, G. I.

M. M. Shvebelman, A. G. Agronin, R. P. Urenski, Y. Rosenwaks, and G. I. Rosenman, “Kelvin probe microscopy of periodic ferroelectric domain structure in KTiOPO4 crystals,” Nano Lett. 2(5), 455–458 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rosenwaks, Y.

M. M. Shvebelman, A. G. Agronin, R. P. Urenski, Y. Rosenwaks, and G. I. Rosenman, “Kelvin probe microscopy of periodic ferroelectric domain structure in KTiOPO4 crystals,” Nano Lett. 2(5), 455–458 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rossell, M. D.

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rother, A.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rourke, J. P.

Q. Jiang, M. N. Womersley, P. A. Thomas, J. P. Rourke, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Ferroelectric, conductive, and dielectric properties of KTiOPO4 at low temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 66(9), 094103 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rousseau, I.

B. Boulanger, J. P. Fève, P. Delarue, I. Rousseau, and G. Marnier, “Cubic optical nonlinearity of KTiOPO4,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32(2), 475–488 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rousseau, O.

R. Moubah, O. Rousseau, D. Colson, A. Artemenko, M. Maglione, and M. Viret, “Photoelectric Effects in Single Domain BiFeO3 Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(22), 4814–4818 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schreiber, G.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, Ch. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[Crossref]

Scott, J. F.

J. Seidel, W. Luo, S. J. Suresha, P.-K. Nguyen, A. S. Lee, S.-Y. Kim, C.-H. Yang, S. J. Pennycook, S. T. Pantelides, J. F. Scott, and R. Ramesh, “Prominent electrochromism through vacancy-order melting in a complex oxide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Scott, “A comparison of Ag- and proton-conducting ferroelectrics,” Solid State Ion. 125(1–4), 141–146 (1999).
[Crossref]

Seidel, J.

J. Seidel, W. Luo, S. J. Suresha, P.-K. Nguyen, A. S. Lee, S.-Y. Kim, C.-H. Yang, S. J. Pennycook, S. T. Pantelides, J. F. Scott, and R. Ramesh, “Prominent electrochromism through vacancy-order melting in a complex oxide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Meier, J. Seidel, A. Cano, K. Delaney, Y. Kumagai, M. Mostovoy, N. A. Spaldin, R. Ramesh, and M. Fiebig, “Anisotropic conductance at improper ferroelectric domain walls,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 284–288 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seredyuk, M.

S. Bonhommeau, P. G. Lacroix, D. Talaga, A. Bousseksou, M. Seredyuk, I. O. Fritsky, and V. Rodriguez, “Magnetism and molecular nonlinear optical second-order response met in a spin crossover complex,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(20), 11251–11255 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shafer, P.

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shur, V. Y.

A. V. Ievlev, A. N. Morozovska, E. A. Eliseev, V. Y. Shur, and S. V. Kalinin, “Ionic field effect and memristive phenomena in single-point ferroelectric domain switching,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4545 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shvebelman, M. M.

M. M. Shvebelman, A. G. Agronin, R. P. Urenski, Y. Rosenwaks, and G. I. Rosenman, “Kelvin probe microscopy of periodic ferroelectric domain structure in KTiOPO4 crystals,” Nano Lett. 2(5), 455–458 (2002).
[Crossref]

Skettrup, T.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. Pedersen, T. Skettrup, X. Zhang, and M. Belmonte, “Far- and near-field second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domain walls,” Opt. Commun. 152(4–6), 221–224 (1998).
[Crossref]

Smith, C.

M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, A. Lipovskii, M. Petrov, C. Smith, K. Richardson, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and E. I. Kamitsos, “How does thermal poling affect the structure of soda-lime glass?” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12754–12759 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sohler, W.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, Ch. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[Crossref]

Spaldin, N. A.

D. Meier, J. Seidel, A. Cano, K. Delaney, Y. Kumagai, M. Mostovoy, N. A. Spaldin, R. Ramesh, and M. Fiebig, “Anisotropic conductance at improper ferroelectric domain walls,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 284–288 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strelcov, E.

E. Strelcov, Y. Kim, S. Jesse, Y. Cao, I. N. Ivanov, I. I. Kravchenko, C.-H. Wang, Y.-C. Teng, L.-Q. Chen, Y. H. Chu, and S. V. Kalinin, “Probing local ionic dynamics in functional oxides at the nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3455–3462 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sugimoto, T.

P. G. Lacroix, T. Hayashi, T. Sugimoto, K. Nakatani, and V. Rodriguez, “Optical nonlinearity in (EDT-DSD TFVO)2·FeBr4, an intriguing molecular material with metallic conductivity, magnetoresistance effects, and quadratic nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(49), 21762–21769 (2010).
[Crossref]

Suresha, S. J.

J. Seidel, W. Luo, S. J. Suresha, P.-K. Nguyen, A. S. Lee, S.-Y. Kim, C.-H. Yang, S. J. Pennycook, S. T. Pantelides, J. F. Scott, and R. Ramesh, “Prominent electrochromism through vacancy-order melting in a complex oxide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Talaga, D.

T. Cremoux, M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, T. Cardinal, D. Talaga, F. Adamietz, and V. Rodriguez, “Trapped molecular and ionic species in poled borosilicate glasses: toward a rationalized description of thermal poling in glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(7), 3716–3723 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Bonhommeau, P. G. Lacroix, D. Talaga, A. Bousseksou, M. Seredyuk, I. O. Fritsky, and V. Rodriguez, “Magnetism and molecular nonlinear optical second-order response met in a spin crossover complex,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(20), 11251–11255 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Rodriguez, D. Talaga, F. Adamietz, J. L. Bruneel, and M. Couzi, “Hyper-Raman macro- and micro-spectroscopy in materials: Towards high quality signals and good spatial resolution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 431(1–3), 190–194 (2006).
[Crossref]

Teng, Y.-C.

E. Strelcov, Y. Kim, S. Jesse, Y. Cao, I. N. Ivanov, I. I. Kravchenko, C.-H. Wang, Y.-C. Teng, L.-Q. Chen, Y. H. Chu, and S. V. Kalinin, “Probing local ionic dynamics in functional oxides at the nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3455–3462 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, P. A.

Q. Jiang, M. N. Womersley, P. A. Thomas, J. P. Rourke, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Ferroelectric, conductive, and dielectric properties of KTiOPO4 at low temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 66(9), 094103 (2002).
[Crossref]

Uesu, Y.

S. Kurimura and Y. Uesu, “Application of second harmonic generation microscope to nondestructive observation of periodically poled ferroelectric domains in quasi-phase-matched wavelength converters,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(1), 369–375 (1997).
[Crossref]

Urenski, R. P.

M. M. Shvebelman, A. G. Agronin, R. P. Urenski, Y. Rosenwaks, and G. I. Rosenman, “Kelvin probe microscopy of periodic ferroelectric domain structure in KTiOPO4 crystals,” Nano Lett. 2(5), 455–458 (2002).
[Crossref]

Verbeek, C.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, Ch. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[Crossref]

Vigouroux, H.

H. Vigouroux, E. Fargin, S. Gomez, B. Le Garrec, G. Mountrichas, E. Kamitsos, F. Adamietz, M. Dussauze, and V. Rodriguez, “Synthesis and multiscale evaluation of LiNbO3-containing silicate glass-ceramics with efficient isotropic SHG response,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(19), 3985–3993 (2012).
[Crossref]

Villeval, P.

Vilquin, B.

J. L. Wang, B. Vilquin, and N. Barrett, “Screening of ferroelectric domains on BaTiO3(001) surface by ultraviolet photo-induced charge and dissociative water adsorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 092902 (2012).
[Crossref]

Viret, M.

R. Moubah, O. Rousseau, D. Colson, A. Artemenko, M. Maglione, and M. Viret, “Photoelectric Effects in Single Domain BiFeO3 Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(22), 4814–4818 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-H.

E. Strelcov, Y. Kim, S. Jesse, Y. Cao, I. N. Ivanov, I. I. Kravchenko, C.-H. Wang, Y.-C. Teng, L.-Q. Chen, Y. H. Chu, and S. V. Kalinin, “Probing local ionic dynamics in functional oxides at the nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3455–3462 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J. L.

J. L. Wang, B. Vilquin, and N. Barrett, “Screening of ferroelectric domains on BaTiO3(001) surface by ultraviolet photo-induced charge and dissociative water adsorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 092902 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ward, R. C. C.

Q. Jiang, M. N. Womersley, P. A. Thomas, J. P. Rourke, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Ferroelectric, conductive, and dielectric properties of KTiOPO4 at low temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 66(9), 094103 (2002).
[Crossref]

Womersley, M. N.

Q. Jiang, M. N. Womersley, P. A. Thomas, J. P. Rourke, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Ferroelectric, conductive, and dielectric properties of KTiOPO4 at low temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 66(9), 094103 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.-H.

J. Seidel, W. Luo, S. J. Suresha, P.-K. Nguyen, A. S. Lee, S.-Y. Kim, C.-H. Yang, S. J. Pennycook, S. T. Pantelides, J. F. Scott, and R. Ramesh, “Prominent electrochromism through vacancy-order melting in a complex oxide,” Nat. Commun. 3, 799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S. Y.

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, P.

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhan, Q.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. Pedersen, T. Skettrup, X. Zhang, and M. Belmonte, “Far- and near-field second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domain walls,” Opt. Commun. 152(4–6), 221–224 (1998).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

R. Moubah, O. Rousseau, D. Colson, A. Artemenko, M. Maglione, and M. Viret, “Photoelectric Effects in Single Domain BiFeO3 Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(22), 4814–4818 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Vigouroux, E. Fargin, S. Gomez, B. Le Garrec, G. Mountrichas, E. Kamitsos, F. Adamietz, M. Dussauze, and V. Rodriguez, “Synthesis and multiscale evaluation of LiNbO3-containing silicate glass-ceramics with efficient isotropic SHG response,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(19), 3985–3993 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, Ch. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. L. Wang, B. Vilquin, and N. Barrett, “Screening of ferroelectric domains on BaTiO3(001) surface by ultraviolet photo-induced charge and dissociative water adsorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 092902 (2012).
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Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. Rodriguez, D. Talaga, F. Adamietz, J. L. Bruneel, and M. Couzi, “Hyper-Raman macro- and micro-spectroscopy in materials: Towards high quality signals and good spatial resolution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 431(1–3), 190–194 (2006).
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J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

S. A. Denev, T. A. Lummen, E. Barnes, A. Kumar, and V. Gopalan, “Probing ferroelectrics using optical second-harmonic generation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(9), 2699–2727 (2011).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Kurimura and Y. Uesu, “Application of second harmonic generation microscope to nondestructive observation of periodically poled ferroelectric domains in quasi-phase-matched wavelength converters,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(1), 369–375 (1997).
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J. Mater. Chem. (1)

P. G. Lacroix, M. C. Munoz, A. B. Gaspar, J. A. Real, S. Bonhommeau, V. Rodriguez, and K. Nakatani, “Synthesis, crystal structures, and solid state quadratic nonlinear optical properties of a series of stilbazolium cations combined with gold cyanide counter-iron,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(40), 15940–15949 (2011).
[Crossref]

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B. Boulanger, J. P. Fève, P. Delarue, I. Rousseau, and G. Marnier, “Cubic optical nonlinearity of KTiOPO4,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32(2), 475–488 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (4)

T. Cremoux, M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, T. Cardinal, D. Talaga, F. Adamietz, and V. Rodriguez, “Trapped molecular and ionic species in poled borosilicate glasses: toward a rationalized description of thermal poling in glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(7), 3716–3723 (2014).
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S. Bonhommeau, P. G. Lacroix, D. Talaga, A. Bousseksou, M. Seredyuk, I. O. Fritsky, and V. Rodriguez, “Magnetism and molecular nonlinear optical second-order response met in a spin crossover complex,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(20), 11251–11255 (2012).
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M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, A. Lipovskii, M. Petrov, C. Smith, K. Richardson, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and E. I. Kamitsos, “How does thermal poling affect the structure of soda-lime glass?” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12754–12759 (2010).
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P. G. Lacroix, T. Hayashi, T. Sugimoto, K. Nakatani, and V. Rodriguez, “Optical nonlinearity in (EDT-DSD TFVO)2·FeBr4, an intriguing molecular material with metallic conductivity, magnetoresistance effects, and quadratic nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(49), 21762–21769 (2010).
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Nano Lett. (2)

E. Strelcov, Y. Kim, S. Jesse, Y. Cao, I. N. Ivanov, I. I. Kravchenko, C.-H. Wang, Y.-C. Teng, L.-Q. Chen, Y. H. Chu, and S. V. Kalinin, “Probing local ionic dynamics in functional oxides at the nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3455–3462 (2013).
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A. V. Ievlev, A. N. Morozovska, E. A. Eliseev, V. Y. Shur, and S. V. Kalinin, “Ionic field effect and memristive phenomena in single-point ferroelectric domain switching,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4545 (2014).
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J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, and G. Assanto, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. Pedersen, T. Skettrup, X. Zhang, and M. Belmonte, “Far- and near-field second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domain walls,” Opt. Commun. 152(4–6), 221–224 (1998).
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W. J. Merz, “Domain formation and domain wall motions in ferroelectric BaTiO3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 95(3), 690–698 (1954).
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Q. Jiang, M. N. Womersley, P. A. Thomas, J. P. Rourke, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Ferroelectric, conductive, and dielectric properties of KTiOPO4 at low temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 66(9), 094103 (2002).
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R. Anand Theerthan, B. Menaert, B. Boulanger, and M. Maglione, “Linking ionic conductivity and piezoelectric resonance in KTiOPO4,” Phys. Rev. B 85(2), 024103 (2012).
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Other (2)

T. Verbiest, K. Clays, and V. Rodriguez, Second-order Nonlinear Optical Characterization Techniques (Taylor & Francis Group: Boca Raton, 2009).

This depth value corresponds to the vertical translation of the stage but does not correspond to the real depth inside the material. Because of the Snell-Descartes law, the NA inside the material is less than in air, giving thus a real distance much larger than the translation stage.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Orientation conventions for the backscattered parallel (//) and perpendicular (⊥) polarized light intensity I with respect to the incident light intensity Iω. Note here that the depth of focus (DOF) corresponds to the axial resolution estimated to 2-3 µm using an 100 × objective with NA = 0.50.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 BaTiO3 single crystal surface seen by optical microscopy (a) and by SHG microscope (b) evidencing alternated vertical polarized domains of about 20μm width each (c). The in-depth maps (d) shows that the surface SHG signal (max 2000) is much increased to 15000 at depth of 60μm where the polarization matches the domain orientations with possible corresponding polarization (e).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (b - e) gives the near surface of KTP single crystals probed with μ-SHG at 273 K, 233 K, 200 K and 170 K, respectively for the orientation given in (a). The double head arrow in (a) indicates the incident laser (Eω) and SHG (E) polarization direction. Also note that the SHG signal decreases as the temperature does due to drastic decrease in conductivity.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) in depth mapping of SHG intensity in KTP at 293K and (b) cross sectional intensity at a fixed x versus the depth y. Some thermal variation of these peaks occurs with a sharp minimum close to 230K, in the temperature range where ionic mobility decreases.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Polarized SHG maps of periodically poled KTP crystal at 298K. The surface map (a) clearly evidences the 20μm-periodicity of the alternated domains with a sharp decrease at all domain walls. The in-depth map (b) confirms this periodicity and the large enhancement of SHG at the near surface for each domain. The background intensity in the inner crystal is compatible to the usually reported SHG of KTP.

Equations (1)

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( I 2 ω ) α D O F 2 * ( d e f f ) 2 * ( I ω ) 2

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