Abstract

A series of zirconium and dysprosium doped congruent LiNbO3 (Zr:Dy:CLN) single crystals with a fixed concentration of Dy3+(1mol%) and varied concentrations of optical damage resistant ion Zr4+ (0, 1, 2, 3mol%) have been grown successfully by the Czochralski technique. The influence of Zr4+ doping on structure and the spectroscopic characteristics of Dy3+ in Zr:Dy:CLN crystals have been investigated. Detailed Judd-Ofelt theory analysis was carried out to determine the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters and main spectroscopic characteristics, which coincided well with the measured fluorescence performance. The defects, resulting from Li-deficiency or exceeding Zr4+-doping, showed positive influences on the absorbing hypersensitive transition 6H15/26F11/2 + 6F9/2 and the parameter Ω2. The stimulated emission cross sections of transition 4F9/26H13/2 with different Zr4+ concentration were evaluated. Exceeding Zr4+ doping was demonstrated effective for significantly eliminating the negative impact of threshold concentration on emission cross sections. The results showed a negative correlation between yellow fluorescence branching ratio of transition 4F9/26H13/2 and the symmetry of crystal field. Besides, we proposed the Zr:Dy:CLN single crystals as a candidate material for yellow laser operation.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

Y. Z. Zhu, S. P. Lin, Y. Zheng, D. C. Ma, and B. Wang, “Improvement of pyroelectric figures of merit in zirconia-doped congruent lithium niobate single crystals,” J. Mater. Sci. 51(6), 3155–3161 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

T. Zhang, X. Wang, T. Geng, C. G. Tong, and C. Kang, “Enhanced photorefractive properties in Hf, Ce and Cu co-doped LiNbO3 crystals for holographic application,” J. Alloys Compd. 629, 255–259 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. H. Tang, S. P. Lin, D. C. Ma, and B. Wang, “Blue and green upconversion emissions of Zr: Nd: LiNbO3 single crystals,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 29(13), 1550080 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

2013 (1)

L. Dai, C. Xu, Z. Qian, J. Li, D. Y. Li, and Y. H. Xu, “Influence of In3+ ions concentration on the defect structure and light-induced scattering of Ce:Mn:LiNbO3 crystals,” J. Lumin. 134, 255–259 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

P. A. Ryabochkina, S. A. Antoshkina, E. V. Bolshakova, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurihin, A. V. Malov, S. N. Ushakov, N. V. Shchuchkina, and K. N. Nishchev, “Hypersensitive transitions of Tm3+, Ho3+ and Dy3+ rare-earth ions in garnet crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(8), 1900–1905 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. N. Qian, R. Wang, C. Xu, W. Xu, X. H. Wu, and C. H. Yang, “Spectroscopic characteristics of 1.54μm emission in Er/Yb:LiNbO3 crystals tridoped with In3+ ions,” J. Alloys Compd. 527, 152–156 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

C. Xu, C. H. Yang, L. Dai, L. A. Sun, Y. H. Xu, and L. C. Cao, “Influence of Li and Nb ratios on the defect structure and exposure energy in LiNbO3:Fe:Mn:Zr crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(10), 4167–4170 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Nava, P. Minzioni, W. B. Yan, J. Parravicini, D. Grando, E. Musso, I. Cristiani, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, A. Zaltron, C. Sada, and V. Degiorgio, “Zirconium-doped lithium niobate: photorefractive and electro-optical properties as a function of dopant concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 270–277 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, B. J. Chen, B. N. Tian, R. N. Hua, J. S. Sun, L. H. Cheng, H. Y. Zhong, X. P. Li, J. S. Zhang, Y. F. Zheng, T. T. Yu, L. B. Huang, and Q. Y. Meng, “Concentration-dependent luminescence and energy transfer of flower-like Y2 (MoO4)3:Dy3+ phosphor,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(20), 6096–6101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Zheng, B. J. Chen, H. Y. Zhong, J. S. Sun, L. H. Cheng, X. P. Li, J. S. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. L. Lu, J. Wan, T. T. Yu, L. B. Huang, H. Q. Yu, and H. Lin, “Optical Transition, Excitation State Absorption, and Energy Transfer Study of Er3+, Nd3+ Single-Doped, and Er3+/Nd3+ Codoped Tellurite Glasses for Mid-Infrared Laser Applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(6), 1766–1772 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

P. Haro-González, L. L. Martín, I. R. Martín, G. Grazyna Dominiak-Dzik, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Pump and probe measurements of optical amplification at 584nm in dysprosium doped lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 196–199 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

W. Ryba-Romanowski, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, and R. Lisiecki, “Transition intensities and excited state relaxation dynamics of Dy3+ in crystals and glasses: A comparative study,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1547–1554 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, and M. Berkowski, “Dy-doped Lu2SiO5 single crystal: spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 285–297 (2009).

M. Takahashi, K. Iyoda, T. Miyauchi, S. Ohkido, M. Tahashi, K. Wakita, N. Kajitani, M. Kurachi, and K. Hotta, “Preparation and characterization of Eu: Ti codoped LiNbO3 films prepared by the sol-gel method,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(4), 44102 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Zhou, E. Y.-B. Pun, H. Lin, D. Yang, and L. Huang, “Judd–Ofelt analysis, frequency upconversion, and infrared photoluminescence of Ho3+ -doped and Ho3+ /Yb3+ -codoped lead bismuth gallate oxide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103105 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

A. H. Li, Q. Lu, Z. R. Zheng, L. Sun, W. Z. Wu, W. L. Liu, Y. Q. Yang, and T. Q. Lu, “Yellow-green upconversion luminescence of Dy3+ ion in LiNbO3 crystal heavily codoped with ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(11), 113102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Yang, B. Q. Yao, B. J. Chen, C. Wang, G. Z. Ren, and X. J. Wang, “Judd-Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic properties of Tm3+, Ho3+ doped GdVO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 29(9), 1159–1165 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. M. Rodríguez, D. Jaque, E. Cantelar, F. Cussó, G. Lifante, A. C. Busacca, A. Cino, and S. R. Sanseverino, “Time resolved confocal luminescence investigations on Reverse Proton Exchange Nd:LiNbO(3) channel waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8805–8811 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081908 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Fang, Y. J. Qiao, X. H. Zhang, and F. R. Ling, “Increased optical damage resistance in Ce: Cu: LiNbO3 by doping with Sc2O3 for quasi-nonvolatile holographic storage,” Phys. Status Solidi A-Appl. Mat. 204(3), 833–838 (2007).

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. N. Palatnikov, N. V. Sidorov, and V. T. Kalinnikov, “Dysprosium-doped LiNbO3 crystal. Optical properties and effect of temperature on fluorescence dynamics,” J. Mol. Struct. 704(1–3), 139–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

D. L. Zhang and E. Y. B. Pun, “Accurate measurement of 1.5 μm lifetime of Er3+ in LiNbO3 crystals and waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 1339–1346 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

X. H. Zhen, R. Wang, W. S. Xu, Y. H. Xu, and L. C. Zhao, “Study on photodamage of Mg: Ga: LiNbO3 crystal wave-guide substrate,” Opt. Mater. 19(4), 427–431 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

T. Volk, B. Maximov, T. Chernaya, N. Rubinina, M. Wohlecke, and V. Simonov, ““Photorefractive properties of LiNbO3: Zn crystals related to the defect structure,,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 72(6), 647–652 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

I. Baumann, F. Cusso, B. Herreros, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. Schafer, and W. Sohler, “Praseodymium-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(3), 321–324 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Malovichko, V. Grachev, E. Kokanyan, and O. Schirmer, “Axial and low-symmetry centers of trivalent impurities in lithium niobate: Chromium in congruent and stoichiometric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 59(14), 9113–9125 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

K. Polgár, Á. Péter, L. Kovács, G. Corradi, and Z. Szaller, “Growth of stoichiometric LiNbO3 single crystals by top seeded solution growth method,” J. Cryst. Growth 177(3–4), 211–216 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. H. Jundt, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation for the index of refraction, n(e), in congruent lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 22(20), 1553–1555 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Jayasankar and E. Rukmini, “Spectroscopic investigations of Dy3+ ions in borosulphate glasses,” Physica B 240(3), 273–288 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

A. Lorenzo, E. Camarillo, H. S. Murrieta, E. Alvarez, U. G. Caldiño, J. A. Hernandez, M. Voda, F. Jaque, and J. Garcia Solé, “Optical spectroscopy of Dy3+ ions in LiNbO3,” Opt. Mater. 5(4), 251–258 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. A. Turnbull, S. Q. Gu, and S. G. Bishop, “Photoluminescence studies of broadband excitation mechanisms for Dy3+ emission in Dy:As12Ge33Se55 glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(4), 2436–2441 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, J. A. M. Neto, R. I. Laming, and D. N. Payne, “Emission at 1.3μm from dysprosium-doped Ga:La:S glass,” Electron. Lett. 30(12), 968–970 (1994).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, and R. N. Brown, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 27(11), 6635–6648 (1983).
[Crossref]

1975 (2)

S. F. Mason, R. D. Peacock, and B. Stewart, “Ligand-polarization contributions to the intensity of hypersensitive trivalent lanthanide transitions,” Mol. Phys. 30(6), 1829–1841 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. A. Caird, L. G. DeShazer, and J. Nella, “Characteristics of room-temperature 2.3-µm laser emission from tm3+in YAG and YAlO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(11), 874–881 (1975).
[Crossref]

1968 (2)

P. Lerner, C. Legras, and J. P. Dumas, “Stoechiométrie des monocristaux de métaniobate de lithium,” J. Cryst. Growth 3–4, 231–235 (1968).
[Crossref]

W. T. Carnall, “Electronic Energy Levels in the Trivalent Lanthanide Aquo Ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424 (1968).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

B. R. Judd, “Hypersensitive Transitions in Rare‐Earth Ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 44(2), 839–840 (1966).
[Crossref]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical Absorption Intensities of Rare-Earth Ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[Crossref]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of Crystal Spectra of Rare-Earth Ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[Crossref]

Abarkan, M.

Aillerie, M.

Alvarez, E.

A. Lorenzo, E. Camarillo, H. S. Murrieta, E. Alvarez, U. G. Caldiño, J. A. Hernandez, M. Voda, F. Jaque, and J. Garcia Solé, “Optical spectroscopy of Dy3+ ions in LiNbO3,” Opt. Mater. 5(4), 251–258 (1996).
[Crossref]

Antoshkina, S. A.

P. A. Ryabochkina, S. A. Antoshkina, E. V. Bolshakova, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurihin, A. V. Malov, S. N. Ushakov, N. V. Shchuchkina, and K. N. Nishchev, “Hypersensitive transitions of Tm3+, Ho3+ and Dy3+ rare-earth ions in garnet crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(8), 1900–1905 (2012).
[Crossref]

Argiolas, N.

G. Nava, P. Minzioni, W. B. Yan, J. Parravicini, D. Grando, E. Musso, I. Cristiani, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, A. Zaltron, C. Sada, and V. Degiorgio, “Zirconium-doped lithium niobate: photorefractive and electro-optical properties as a function of dopant concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 270–277 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bacci, L.

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baumann, I.

I. Baumann, F. Cusso, B. Herreros, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. Schafer, and W. Sohler, “Praseodymium-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(3), 321–324 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bazzan, M.

G. Nava, P. Minzioni, W. B. Yan, J. Parravicini, D. Grando, E. Musso, I. Cristiani, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, A. Zaltron, C. Sada, and V. Degiorgio, “Zirconium-doped lithium niobate: photorefractive and electro-optical properties as a function of dopant concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 270–277 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[Crossref]

Berkowski, M.

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, and M. Berkowski, “Dy-doped Lu2SiO5 single crystal: spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 285–297 (2009).

Bishop, S. G.

D. A. Turnbull, S. Q. Gu, and S. G. Bishop, “Photoluminescence studies of broadband excitation mechanisms for Dy3+ emission in Dy:As12Ge33Se55 glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(4), 2436–2441 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bolognesi, G.

Bolshakova, E. V.

P. A. Ryabochkina, S. A. Antoshkina, E. V. Bolshakova, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurihin, A. V. Malov, S. N. Ushakov, N. V. Shchuchkina, and K. N. Nishchev, “Hypersensitive transitions of Tm3+, Ho3+ and Dy3+ rare-earth ions in garnet crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(8), 1900–1905 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brown, R. N.

M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, and R. N. Brown, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 27(11), 6635–6648 (1983).
[Crossref]

Busacca, A. C.

Caird, J. A.

J. A. Caird, L. G. DeShazer, and J. Nella, “Characteristics of room-temperature 2.3-µm laser emission from tm3+in YAG and YAlO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(11), 874–881 (1975).
[Crossref]

Caldiño, U. G.

A. Lorenzo, E. Camarillo, H. S. Murrieta, E. Alvarez, U. G. Caldiño, J. A. Hernandez, M. Voda, F. Jaque, and J. Garcia Solé, “Optical spectroscopy of Dy3+ ions in LiNbO3,” Opt. Mater. 5(4), 251–258 (1996).
[Crossref]

Calonico, D.

Camarillo, E.

A. Lorenzo, E. Camarillo, H. S. Murrieta, E. Alvarez, U. G. Caldiño, J. A. Hernandez, M. Voda, F. Jaque, and J. Garcia Solé, “Optical spectroscopy of Dy3+ ions in LiNbO3,” Opt. Mater. 5(4), 251–258 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cantelar, E.

Cao, L. C.

C. Xu, C. H. Yang, L. Dai, L. A. Sun, Y. H. Xu, and L. C. Cao, “Influence of Li and Nb ratios on the defect structure and exposure energy in LiNbO3:Fe:Mn:Zr crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(10), 4167–4170 (2011).
[Crossref]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, “Electronic Energy Levels in the Trivalent Lanthanide Aquo Ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424 (1968).
[Crossref]

Chen, B. J.

Y. F. Zheng, B. J. Chen, H. Y. Zhong, J. S. Sun, L. H. Cheng, X. P. Li, J. S. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. L. Lu, J. Wan, T. T. Yu, L. B. Huang, H. Q. Yu, and H. Lin, “Optical Transition, Excitation State Absorption, and Energy Transfer Study of Er3+, Nd3+ Single-Doped, and Er3+/Nd3+ Codoped Tellurite Glasses for Mid-Infrared Laser Applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(6), 1766–1772 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, B. J. Chen, B. N. Tian, R. N. Hua, J. S. Sun, L. H. Cheng, H. Y. Zhong, X. P. Li, J. S. Zhang, Y. F. Zheng, T. T. Yu, L. B. Huang, and Q. Y. Meng, “Concentration-dependent luminescence and energy transfer of flower-like Y2 (MoO4)3:Dy3+ phosphor,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(20), 6096–6101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Yang, B. Q. Yao, B. J. Chen, C. Wang, G. Z. Ren, and X. J. Wang, “Judd-Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic properties of Tm3+, Ho3+ doped GdVO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 29(9), 1159–1165 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081908 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cheng, L. H.

Y. Tian, B. J. Chen, B. N. Tian, R. N. Hua, J. S. Sun, L. H. Cheng, H. Y. Zhong, X. P. Li, J. S. Zhang, Y. F. Zheng, T. T. Yu, L. B. Huang, and Q. Y. Meng, “Concentration-dependent luminescence and energy transfer of flower-like Y2 (MoO4)3:Dy3+ phosphor,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(20), 6096–6101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Zheng, B. J. Chen, H. Y. Zhong, J. S. Sun, L. H. Cheng, X. P. Li, J. S. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. L. Lu, J. Wan, T. T. Yu, L. B. Huang, H. Q. Yu, and H. Lin, “Optical Transition, Excitation State Absorption, and Energy Transfer Study of Er3+, Nd3+ Single-Doped, and Er3+/Nd3+ Codoped Tellurite Glasses for Mid-Infrared Laser Applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(6), 1766–1772 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chernaya, T.

T. Volk, B. Maximov, T. Chernaya, N. Rubinina, M. Wohlecke, and V. Simonov, ““Photorefractive properties of LiNbO3: Zn crystals related to the defect structure,,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 72(6), 647–652 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ciampolillo, M. V.

G. Nava, P. Minzioni, W. B. Yan, J. Parravicini, D. Grando, E. Musso, I. Cristiani, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, A. Zaltron, C. Sada, and V. Degiorgio, “Zirconium-doped lithium niobate: photorefractive and electro-optical properties as a function of dopant concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 270–277 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cino, A.

Corradi, G.

K. Polgár, Á. Péter, L. Kovács, G. Corradi, and Z. Szaller, “Growth of stoichiometric LiNbO3 single crystals by top seeded solution growth method,” J. Cryst. Growth 177(3–4), 211–216 (1997).
[Crossref]

Costanzo, G. A.

Cristiani, I.

G. Nava, P. Minzioni, W. B. Yan, J. Parravicini, D. Grando, E. Musso, I. Cristiani, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, A. Zaltron, C. Sada, and V. Degiorgio, “Zirconium-doped lithium niobate: photorefractive and electro-optical properties as a function of dopant concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 270–277 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cusso, F.

I. Baumann, F. Cusso, B. Herreros, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. Schafer, and W. Sohler, “Praseodymium-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(3), 321–324 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cussó, F.

Dai, L.

L. Dai, C. Xu, Z. Qian, J. Li, D. Y. Li, and Y. H. Xu, “Influence of In3+ ions concentration on the defect structure and light-induced scattering of Ce:Mn:LiNbO3 crystals,” J. Lumin. 134, 255–259 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Xu, C. H. Yang, L. Dai, L. A. Sun, Y. H. Xu, and L. C. Cao, “Influence of Li and Nb ratios on the defect structure and exposure energy in LiNbO3:Fe:Mn:Zr crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(10), 4167–4170 (2011).
[Crossref]

Degiorgio, V.

G. Nava, P. Minzioni, W. B. Yan, J. Parravicini, D. Grando, E. Musso, I. Cristiani, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, A. Zaltron, C. Sada, and V. Degiorgio, “Zirconium-doped lithium niobate: photorefractive and electro-optical properties as a function of dopant concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 270–277 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[Crossref]

DeShazer, L. G.

J. A. Caird, L. G. DeShazer, and J. Nella, “Characteristics of room-temperature 2.3-µm laser emission from tm3+in YAG and YAlO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(11), 874–881 (1975).
[Crossref]

Dominiak-Dzik, G.

W. Ryba-Romanowski, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, and R. Lisiecki, “Transition intensities and excited state relaxation dynamics of Dy3+ in crystals and glasses: A comparative study,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1547–1554 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, and M. Berkowski, “Dy-doped Lu2SiO5 single crystal: spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 285–297 (2009).

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. N. Palatnikov, N. V. Sidorov, and V. T. Kalinnikov, “Dysprosium-doped LiNbO3 crystal. Optical properties and effect of temperature on fluorescence dynamics,” J. Mol. Struct. 704(1–3), 139–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

Drexhage, M. G.

M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, and R. N. Brown, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 27(11), 6635–6648 (1983).
[Crossref]

Dumas, J. P.

P. Lerner, C. Legras, and J. P. Dumas, “Stoechiométrie des monocristaux de métaniobate de lithium,” J. Cryst. Growth 3–4, 231–235 (1968).
[Crossref]

Fang, S. Q.

S. Q. Fang, Y. J. Qiao, X. H. Zhang, and F. R. Ling, “Increased optical damage resistance in Ce: Cu: LiNbO3 by doping with Sc2O3 for quasi-nonvolatile holographic storage,” Phys. Status Solidi A-Appl. Mat. 204(3), 833–838 (2007).

Garcia Solé, J.

A. Lorenzo, E. Camarillo, H. S. Murrieta, E. Alvarez, U. G. Caldiño, J. A. Hernandez, M. Voda, F. Jaque, and J. Garcia Solé, “Optical spectroscopy of Dy3+ ions in LiNbO3,” Opt. Mater. 5(4), 251–258 (1996).
[Crossref]

Geng, T.

T. Zhang, X. Wang, T. Geng, C. G. Tong, and C. Kang, “Enhanced photorefractive properties in Hf, Ce and Cu co-doped LiNbO3 crystals for holographic application,” J. Alloys Compd. 629, 255–259 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grachev, V.

G. Malovichko, V. Grachev, E. Kokanyan, and O. Schirmer, “Axial and low-symmetry centers of trivalent impurities in lithium niobate: Chromium in congruent and stoichiometric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 59(14), 9113–9125 (1999).
[Crossref]

Grando, D.

Grazyna Dominiak-Dzik, G.

P. Haro-González, L. L. Martín, I. R. Martín, G. Grazyna Dominiak-Dzik, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Pump and probe measurements of optical amplification at 584nm in dysprosium doped lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 196–199 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gu, S. Q.

D. A. Turnbull, S. Q. Gu, and S. G. Bishop, “Photoluminescence studies of broadband excitation mechanisms for Dy3+ emission in Dy:As12Ge33Se55 glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(4), 2436–2441 (1996).
[Crossref]

Haro-González, P.

P. Haro-González, L. L. Martín, I. R. Martín, G. Grazyna Dominiak-Dzik, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Pump and probe measurements of optical amplification at 584nm in dysprosium doped lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 196–199 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hernandez, J. A.

A. Lorenzo, E. Camarillo, H. S. Murrieta, E. Alvarez, U. G. Caldiño, J. A. Hernandez, M. Voda, F. Jaque, and J. Garcia Solé, “Optical spectroscopy of Dy3+ ions in LiNbO3,” Opt. Mater. 5(4), 251–258 (1996).
[Crossref]

Herreros, B.

I. Baumann, F. Cusso, B. Herreros, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. Schafer, and W. Sohler, “Praseodymium-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(3), 321–324 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hewak, D. W.

D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, J. A. M. Neto, R. I. Laming, and D. N. Payne, “Emission at 1.3μm from dysprosium-doped Ga:La:S glass,” Electron. Lett. 30(12), 968–970 (1994).
[Crossref]

Holzbrecher, H.

I. Baumann, F. Cusso, B. Herreros, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. Schafer, and W. Sohler, “Praseodymium-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(3), 321–324 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hotta, K.

M. Takahashi, K. Iyoda, T. Miyauchi, S. Ohkido, M. Tahashi, K. Wakita, N. Kajitani, M. Kurachi, and K. Hotta, “Preparation and characterization of Eu: Ti codoped LiNbO3 films prepared by the sol-gel method,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(4), 44102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hua, R. N.

Y. Tian, B. J. Chen, B. N. Tian, R. N. Hua, J. S. Sun, L. H. Cheng, H. Y. Zhong, X. P. Li, J. S. Zhang, Y. F. Zheng, T. T. Yu, L. B. Huang, and Q. Y. Meng, “Concentration-dependent luminescence and energy transfer of flower-like Y2 (MoO4)3:Dy3+ phosphor,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(20), 6096–6101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

B. Zhou, E. Y.-B. Pun, H. Lin, D. Yang, and L. Huang, “Judd–Ofelt analysis, frequency upconversion, and infrared photoluminescence of Ho3+ -doped and Ho3+ /Yb3+ -codoped lead bismuth gallate oxide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, L. B.

Y. F. Zheng, B. J. Chen, H. Y. Zhong, J. S. Sun, L. H. Cheng, X. P. Li, J. S. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. L. Lu, J. Wan, T. T. Yu, L. B. Huang, H. Q. Yu, and H. Lin, “Optical Transition, Excitation State Absorption, and Energy Transfer Study of Er3+, Nd3+ Single-Doped, and Er3+/Nd3+ Codoped Tellurite Glasses for Mid-Infrared Laser Applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(6), 1766–1772 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, B. J. Chen, B. N. Tian, R. N. Hua, J. S. Sun, L. H. Cheng, H. Y. Zhong, X. P. Li, J. S. Zhang, Y. F. Zheng, T. T. Yu, L. B. Huang, and Q. Y. Meng, “Concentration-dependent luminescence and energy transfer of flower-like Y2 (MoO4)3:Dy3+ phosphor,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(20), 6096–6101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.

T. Tsuboi, S. M. Kaczmarek, Y. Nakai, and W. Huang, “The effect of Mg2+ ions in Er3+,Tm3+-codoped LiNbO3 single crystal,” J. Lumin. 149, 99–102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huber, G.

Ivanov, M. A.

P. A. Ryabochkina, S. A. Antoshkina, E. V. Bolshakova, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurihin, A. V. Malov, S. N. Ushakov, N. V. Shchuchkina, and K. N. Nishchev, “Hypersensitive transitions of Tm3+, Ho3+ and Dy3+ rare-earth ions in garnet crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(8), 1900–1905 (2012).
[Crossref]

Iyoda, K.

M. Takahashi, K. Iyoda, T. Miyauchi, S. Ohkido, M. Tahashi, K. Wakita, N. Kajitani, M. Kurachi, and K. Hotta, “Preparation and characterization of Eu: Ti codoped LiNbO3 films prepared by the sol-gel method,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(4), 44102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Izutsu, M.

Jaque, D.

Jaque, F.

A. Lorenzo, E. Camarillo, H. S. Murrieta, E. Alvarez, U. G. Caldiño, J. A. Hernandez, M. Voda, F. Jaque, and J. Garcia Solé, “Optical spectroscopy of Dy3+ ions in LiNbO3,” Opt. Mater. 5(4), 251–258 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jayasankar, C. K.

C. K. Jayasankar and E. Rukmini, “Spectroscopic investigations of Dy3+ ions in borosulphate glasses,” Physica B 240(3), 273–288 (1997).
[Crossref]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, “Hypersensitive Transitions in Rare‐Earth Ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 44(2), 839–840 (1966).
[Crossref]

B. R. Judd, “Optical Absorption Intensities of Rare-Earth Ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[Crossref]

Jundt, D. H.

Kaczmarek, S. M.

T. Tsuboi, S. M. Kaczmarek, Y. Nakai, and W. Huang, “The effect of Mg2+ ions in Er3+,Tm3+-codoped LiNbO3 single crystal,” J. Lumin. 149, 99–102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kajitani, N.

M. Takahashi, K. Iyoda, T. Miyauchi, S. Ohkido, M. Tahashi, K. Wakita, N. Kajitani, M. Kurachi, and K. Hotta, “Preparation and characterization of Eu: Ti codoped LiNbO3 films prepared by the sol-gel method,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(4), 44102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kalinnikov, V. T.

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. N. Palatnikov, N. V. Sidorov, and V. T. Kalinnikov, “Dysprosium-doped LiNbO3 crystal. Optical properties and effect of temperature on fluorescence dynamics,” J. Mol. Struct. 704(1–3), 139–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kang, C.

T. Zhang, X. Wang, T. Geng, C. G. Tong, and C. Kang, “Enhanced photorefractive properties in Hf, Ce and Cu co-doped LiNbO3 crystals for holographic application,” J. Alloys Compd. 629, 255–259 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kawanishi, T.

Kochurihin, V. V.

P. A. Ryabochkina, S. A. Antoshkina, E. V. Bolshakova, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurihin, A. V. Malov, S. N. Ushakov, N. V. Shchuchkina, and K. N. Nishchev, “Hypersensitive transitions of Tm3+, Ho3+ and Dy3+ rare-earth ions in garnet crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(8), 1900–1905 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kokanyan, E.

M. Abarkan, M. Aillerie, N. Kokanyan, C. Teyssandier, and E. Kokanyan, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of Zirconium-doped congruent lithium-niobate crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 179–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Malovichko, V. Grachev, E. Kokanyan, and O. Schirmer, “Axial and low-symmetry centers of trivalent impurities in lithium niobate: Chromium in congruent and stoichiometric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 59(14), 9113–9125 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kokanyan, N.

Kong, Y.

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081908 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kovács, L.

K. Polgár, Á. Péter, L. Kovács, G. Corradi, and Z. Szaller, “Growth of stoichiometric LiNbO3 single crystals by top seeded solution growth method,” J. Cryst. Growth 177(3–4), 211–216 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kränkel, C.

Kurachi, M.

M. Takahashi, K. Iyoda, T. Miyauchi, S. Ohkido, M. Tahashi, K. Wakita, N. Kajitani, M. Kurachi, and K. Hotta, “Preparation and characterization of Eu: Ti codoped LiNbO3 films prepared by the sol-gel method,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(4), 44102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Laming, R. I.

D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, J. A. M. Neto, R. I. Laming, and D. N. Payne, “Emission at 1.3μm from dysprosium-doped Ga:La:S glass,” Electron. Lett. 30(12), 968–970 (1994).
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Li, A. H.

A. H. Li, Q. Lu, Z. R. Zheng, L. Sun, W. Z. Wu, W. L. Liu, Y. Q. Yang, and T. Q. Lu, “Yellow-green upconversion luminescence of Dy3+ ion in LiNbO3 crystal heavily codoped with ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(11), 113102 (2007).
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Li, D. Y.

L. Dai, C. Xu, Z. Qian, J. Li, D. Y. Li, and Y. H. Xu, “Influence of In3+ ions concentration on the defect structure and light-induced scattering of Ce:Mn:LiNbO3 crystals,” J. Lumin. 134, 255–259 (2013).
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Li, J.

L. Dai, C. Xu, Z. Qian, J. Li, D. Y. Li, and Y. H. Xu, “Influence of In3+ ions concentration on the defect structure and light-induced scattering of Ce:Mn:LiNbO3 crystals,” J. Lumin. 134, 255–259 (2013).
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Li, J. F.

Li, X. P.

Y. Tian, B. J. Chen, B. N. Tian, R. N. Hua, J. S. Sun, L. H. Cheng, H. Y. Zhong, X. P. Li, J. S. Zhang, Y. F. Zheng, T. T. Yu, L. B. Huang, and Q. Y. Meng, “Concentration-dependent luminescence and energy transfer of flower-like Y2 (MoO4)3:Dy3+ phosphor,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(20), 6096–6101 (2011).
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Lin, H.

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Lin, S. P.

Y. Z. Zhu, S. P. Lin, Y. Zheng, D. C. Ma, and B. Wang, “Improvement of pyroelectric figures of merit in zirconia-doped congruent lithium niobate single crystals,” J. Mater. Sci. 51(6), 3155–3161 (2016).
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Z. H. Tang, S. P. Lin, D. C. Ma, and B. Wang, “Blue and green upconversion emissions of Zr: Nd: LiNbO3 single crystals,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 29(13), 1550080 (2015).
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Ling, F. R.

S. Q. Fang, Y. J. Qiao, X. H. Zhang, and F. R. Ling, “Increased optical damage resistance in Ce: Cu: LiNbO3 by doping with Sc2O3 for quasi-nonvolatile holographic storage,” Phys. Status Solidi A-Appl. Mat. 204(3), 833–838 (2007).

Lisiecki, R.

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, and M. Berkowski, “Dy-doped Lu2SiO5 single crystal: spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 285–297 (2009).

W. Ryba-Romanowski, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, and R. Lisiecki, “Transition intensities and excited state relaxation dynamics of Dy3+ in crystals and glasses: A comparative study,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1547–1554 (2009).
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Liu, S.

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081908 (2007).
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A. H. Li, Q. Lu, Z. R. Zheng, L. Sun, W. Z. Wu, W. L. Liu, Y. Q. Yang, and T. Q. Lu, “Yellow-green upconversion luminescence of Dy3+ ion in LiNbO3 crystal heavily codoped with ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(11), 113102 (2007).
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Liu, Y.

Lorenzo, A.

A. Lorenzo, E. Camarillo, H. S. Murrieta, E. Alvarez, U. G. Caldiño, J. A. Hernandez, M. Voda, F. Jaque, and J. Garcia Solé, “Optical spectroscopy of Dy3+ ions in LiNbO3,” Opt. Mater. 5(4), 251–258 (1996).
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Lu, Q.

A. H. Li, Q. Lu, Z. R. Zheng, L. Sun, W. Z. Wu, W. L. Liu, Y. Q. Yang, and T. Q. Lu, “Yellow-green upconversion luminescence of Dy3+ ion in LiNbO3 crystal heavily codoped with ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(11), 113102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lu, T. Q.

A. H. Li, Q. Lu, Z. R. Zheng, L. Sun, W. Z. Wu, W. L. Liu, Y. Q. Yang, and T. Q. Lu, “Yellow-green upconversion luminescence of Dy3+ ion in LiNbO3 crystal heavily codoped with ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(11), 113102 (2007).
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Lu, W. L.

Y. F. Zheng, B. J. Chen, H. Y. Zhong, J. S. Sun, L. H. Cheng, X. P. Li, J. S. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. L. Lu, J. Wan, T. T. Yu, L. B. Huang, H. Q. Yu, and H. Lin, “Optical Transition, Excitation State Absorption, and Energy Transfer Study of Er3+, Nd3+ Single-Doped, and Er3+/Nd3+ Codoped Tellurite Glasses for Mid-Infrared Laser Applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(6), 1766–1772 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ma, D. C.

Y. Z. Zhu, S. P. Lin, Y. Zheng, D. C. Ma, and B. Wang, “Improvement of pyroelectric figures of merit in zirconia-doped congruent lithium niobate single crystals,” J. Mater. Sci. 51(6), 3155–3161 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. H. Tang, S. P. Lin, D. C. Ma, and B. Wang, “Blue and green upconversion emissions of Zr: Nd: LiNbO3 single crystals,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 29(13), 1550080 (2015).
[Crossref]

Malov, A. V.

P. A. Ryabochkina, S. A. Antoshkina, E. V. Bolshakova, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurihin, A. V. Malov, S. N. Ushakov, N. V. Shchuchkina, and K. N. Nishchev, “Hypersensitive transitions of Tm3+, Ho3+ and Dy3+ rare-earth ions in garnet crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(8), 1900–1905 (2012).
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Malovichko, G.

G. Malovichko, V. Grachev, E. Kokanyan, and O. Schirmer, “Axial and low-symmetry centers of trivalent impurities in lithium niobate: Chromium in congruent and stoichiometric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 59(14), 9113–9125 (1999).
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Martín, I. R.

P. Haro-González, L. L. Martín, I. R. Martín, G. Grazyna Dominiak-Dzik, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Pump and probe measurements of optical amplification at 584nm in dysprosium doped lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 196–199 (2010).
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Martín, L. L.

P. Haro-González, L. L. Martín, I. R. Martín, G. Grazyna Dominiak-Dzik, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Pump and probe measurements of optical amplification at 584nm in dysprosium doped lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 196–199 (2010).
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Mason, S. F.

S. F. Mason, R. D. Peacock, and B. Stewart, “Ligand-polarization contributions to the intensity of hypersensitive trivalent lanthanide transitions,” Mol. Phys. 30(6), 1829–1841 (1975).
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Maximov, B.

T. Volk, B. Maximov, T. Chernaya, N. Rubinina, M. Wohlecke, and V. Simonov, ““Photorefractive properties of LiNbO3: Zn crystals related to the defect structure,,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 72(6), 647–652 (2001).
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Meng, Q. Y.

Y. Tian, B. J. Chen, B. N. Tian, R. N. Hua, J. S. Sun, L. H. Cheng, H. Y. Zhong, X. P. Li, J. S. Zhang, Y. F. Zheng, T. T. Yu, L. B. Huang, and Q. Y. Meng, “Concentration-dependent luminescence and energy transfer of flower-like Y2 (MoO4)3:Dy3+ phosphor,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(20), 6096–6101 (2011).
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Metz, P. W.

Minzioni, P.

G. Nava, P. Minzioni, W. B. Yan, J. Parravicini, D. Grando, E. Musso, I. Cristiani, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, A. Zaltron, C. Sada, and V. Degiorgio, “Zirconium-doped lithium niobate: photorefractive and electro-optical properties as a function of dopant concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 270–277 (2011).
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N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
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Miyauchi, T.

M. Takahashi, K. Iyoda, T. Miyauchi, S. Ohkido, M. Tahashi, K. Wakita, N. Kajitani, M. Kurachi, and K. Hotta, “Preparation and characterization of Eu: Ti codoped LiNbO3 films prepared by the sol-gel method,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(4), 44102 (2009).
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Murrieta, H. S.

A. Lorenzo, E. Camarillo, H. S. Murrieta, E. Alvarez, U. G. Caldiño, J. A. Hernandez, M. Voda, F. Jaque, and J. Garcia Solé, “Optical spectroscopy of Dy3+ ions in LiNbO3,” Opt. Mater. 5(4), 251–258 (1996).
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Musso, E.

Nakai, Y.

T. Tsuboi, S. M. Kaczmarek, Y. Nakai, and W. Huang, “The effect of Mg2+ ions in Er3+,Tm3+-codoped LiNbO3 single crystal,” J. Lumin. 149, 99–102 (2014).
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Nava, G.

G. Nava, P. Minzioni, W. B. Yan, J. Parravicini, D. Grando, E. Musso, I. Cristiani, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, A. Zaltron, C. Sada, and V. Degiorgio, “Zirconium-doped lithium niobate: photorefractive and electro-optical properties as a function of dopant concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 270–277 (2011).
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N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
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Nella, J.

J. A. Caird, L. G. DeShazer, and J. Nella, “Characteristics of room-temperature 2.3-µm laser emission from tm3+in YAG and YAlO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(11), 874–881 (1975).
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Neto, J. A. M.

D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, J. A. M. Neto, R. I. Laming, and D. N. Payne, “Emission at 1.3μm from dysprosium-doped Ga:La:S glass,” Electron. Lett. 30(12), 968–970 (1994).
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Nishchev, K. N.

P. A. Ryabochkina, S. A. Antoshkina, E. V. Bolshakova, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurihin, A. V. Malov, S. N. Ushakov, N. V. Shchuchkina, and K. N. Nishchev, “Hypersensitive transitions of Tm3+, Ho3+ and Dy3+ rare-earth ions in garnet crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(8), 1900–1905 (2012).
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M. Takahashi, K. Iyoda, T. Miyauchi, S. Ohkido, M. Tahashi, K. Wakita, N. Kajitani, M. Kurachi, and K. Hotta, “Preparation and characterization of Eu: Ti codoped LiNbO3 films prepared by the sol-gel method,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(4), 44102 (2009).
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Palatnikov, M. N.

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. N. Palatnikov, N. V. Sidorov, and V. T. Kalinnikov, “Dysprosium-doped LiNbO3 crystal. Optical properties and effect of temperature on fluorescence dynamics,” J. Mol. Struct. 704(1–3), 139–144 (2004).
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Parisi, D.

Parravicini, J.

G. Nava, P. Minzioni, W. B. Yan, J. Parravicini, D. Grando, E. Musso, I. Cristiani, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, A. Zaltron, C. Sada, and V. Degiorgio, “Zirconium-doped lithium niobate: photorefractive and electro-optical properties as a function of dopant concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 270–277 (2011).
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N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
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Paulus, H.

I. Baumann, F. Cusso, B. Herreros, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. Schafer, and W. Sohler, “Praseodymium-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(3), 321–324 (1999).
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Payne, D. N.

D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, J. A. M. Neto, R. I. Laming, and D. N. Payne, “Emission at 1.3μm from dysprosium-doped Ga:La:S glass,” Electron. Lett. 30(12), 968–970 (1994).
[Crossref]

Peacock, R. D.

S. F. Mason, R. D. Peacock, and B. Stewart, “Ligand-polarization contributions to the intensity of hypersensitive trivalent lanthanide transitions,” Mol. Phys. 30(6), 1829–1841 (1975).
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Péter, Á.

K. Polgár, Á. Péter, L. Kovács, G. Corradi, and Z. Szaller, “Growth of stoichiometric LiNbO3 single crystals by top seeded solution growth method,” J. Cryst. Growth 177(3–4), 211–216 (1997).
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Polgár, K.

K. Polgár, Á. Péter, L. Kovács, G. Corradi, and Z. Szaller, “Growth of stoichiometric LiNbO3 single crystals by top seeded solution growth method,” J. Cryst. Growth 177(3–4), 211–216 (1997).
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Pozzobon, P.

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
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Pun, E. Y. B.

D. L. Zhang and E. Y. B. Pun, “Accurate measurement of 1.5 μm lifetime of Er3+ in LiNbO3 crystals and waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 1339–1346 (2003).
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Pun, E. Y.-B.

B. Zhou, E. Y.-B. Pun, H. Lin, D. Yang, and L. Huang, “Judd–Ofelt analysis, frequency upconversion, and infrared photoluminescence of Ho3+ -doped and Ho3+ /Yb3+ -codoped lead bismuth gallate oxide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103105 (2009).
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Qian, Y. N.

Y. N. Qian, R. Wang, C. Xu, W. Xu, X. H. Wu, and C. H. Yang, “Spectroscopic characteristics of 1.54μm emission in Er/Yb:LiNbO3 crystals tridoped with In3+ ions,” J. Alloys Compd. 527, 152–156 (2012).
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Qian, Z.

L. Dai, C. Xu, Z. Qian, J. Li, D. Y. Li, and Y. H. Xu, “Influence of In3+ ions concentration on the defect structure and light-induced scattering of Ce:Mn:LiNbO3 crystals,” J. Lumin. 134, 255–259 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qiao, Y. J.

S. Q. Fang, Y. J. Qiao, X. H. Zhang, and F. R. Ling, “Increased optical damage resistance in Ce: Cu: LiNbO3 by doping with Sc2O3 for quasi-nonvolatile holographic storage,” Phys. Status Solidi A-Appl. Mat. 204(3), 833–838 (2007).

Ren, G. Z.

Y. M. Yang, B. Q. Yao, B. J. Chen, C. Wang, G. Z. Ren, and X. J. Wang, “Judd-Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic properties of Tm3+, Ho3+ doped GdVO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 29(9), 1159–1165 (2007).
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Rodríguez, E. M.

Rubinina, N.

T. Volk, B. Maximov, T. Chernaya, N. Rubinina, M. Wohlecke, and V. Simonov, ““Photorefractive properties of LiNbO3: Zn crystals related to the defect structure,,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 72(6), 647–652 (2001).
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Rukmini, E.

C. K. Jayasankar and E. Rukmini, “Spectroscopic investigations of Dy3+ ions in borosulphate glasses,” Physica B 240(3), 273–288 (1997).
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Ryabochkina, P. A.

P. A. Ryabochkina, S. A. Antoshkina, E. V. Bolshakova, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurihin, A. V. Malov, S. N. Ushakov, N. V. Shchuchkina, and K. N. Nishchev, “Hypersensitive transitions of Tm3+, Ho3+ and Dy3+ rare-earth ions in garnet crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(8), 1900–1905 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

P. Haro-González, L. L. Martín, I. R. Martín, G. Grazyna Dominiak-Dzik, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Pump and probe measurements of optical amplification at 584nm in dysprosium doped lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 196–199 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, and M. Berkowski, “Dy-doped Lu2SiO5 single crystal: spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 285–297 (2009).

W. Ryba-Romanowski, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, and R. Lisiecki, “Transition intensities and excited state relaxation dynamics of Dy3+ in crystals and glasses: A comparative study,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1547–1554 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. N. Palatnikov, N. V. Sidorov, and V. T. Kalinnikov, “Dysprosium-doped LiNbO3 crystal. Optical properties and effect of temperature on fluorescence dynamics,” J. Mol. Struct. 704(1–3), 139–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sada, C.

G. Nava, P. Minzioni, W. B. Yan, J. Parravicini, D. Grando, E. Musso, I. Cristiani, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, A. Zaltron, C. Sada, and V. Degiorgio, “Zirconium-doped lithium niobate: photorefractive and electro-optical properties as a function of dopant concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 270–277 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sakamoto, T.

Samson, B. N.

D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, J. A. M. Neto, R. I. Laming, and D. N. Payne, “Emission at 1.3μm from dysprosium-doped Ga:La:S glass,” Electron. Lett. 30(12), 968–970 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sanseverino, S. R.

Saoner, L.

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schafer, K.

I. Baumann, F. Cusso, B. Herreros, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. Schafer, and W. Sohler, “Praseodymium-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(3), 321–324 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schirmer, O.

G. Malovichko, V. Grachev, E. Kokanyan, and O. Schirmer, “Axial and low-symmetry centers of trivalent impurities in lithium niobate: Chromium in congruent and stoichiometric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 59(14), 9113–9125 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shchuchkina, N. V.

P. A. Ryabochkina, S. A. Antoshkina, E. V. Bolshakova, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurihin, A. V. Malov, S. N. Ushakov, N. V. Shchuchkina, and K. N. Nishchev, “Hypersensitive transitions of Tm3+, Ho3+ and Dy3+ rare-earth ions in garnet crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(8), 1900–1905 (2012).
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Shinn, M. D.

M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, and R. N. Brown, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 27(11), 6635–6648 (1983).
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Sibley, W. A.

M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, and R. N. Brown, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 27(11), 6635–6648 (1983).
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Sidorov, N. V.

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. N. Palatnikov, N. V. Sidorov, and V. T. Kalinnikov, “Dysprosium-doped LiNbO3 crystal. Optical properties and effect of temperature on fluorescence dynamics,” J. Mol. Struct. 704(1–3), 139–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

Simonov, V.

T. Volk, B. Maximov, T. Chernaya, N. Rubinina, M. Wohlecke, and V. Simonov, ““Photorefractive properties of LiNbO3: Zn crystals related to the defect structure,,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 72(6), 647–652 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sohler, W.

I. Baumann, F. Cusso, B. Herreros, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. Schafer, and W. Sohler, “Praseodymium-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(3), 321–324 (1999).
[Crossref]

Solarz, P.

W. Ryba-Romanowski, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, and R. Lisiecki, “Transition intensities and excited state relaxation dynamics of Dy3+ in crystals and glasses: A comparative study,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1547–1554 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Y. Z. Zhu, S. P. Lin, Y. Zheng, D. C. Ma, and B. Wang, “Improvement of pyroelectric figures of merit in zirconia-doped congruent lithium niobate single crystals,” J. Mater. Sci. 51(6), 3155–3161 (2016).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The as-grown single crystal of Zr(1mol%):Dy(1mol%):CLN with a diameter of 25 mm approximately, displaying the typical appearance of Zr:Dy:CLN crystals. (b) The polished Zr:Dy:CLN wafers oriented perpendicular to c axis with different Zr4+ concentration from 0mol% to 3mol%.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) X-ray powder diffraction patterns of CLN (JCPDS 78-0251) and Zr:Dy:CLN polycrystalline powders which were obtained from the as-grown Zr:Dy:CLN crystals. (b) The cell volumes of Zr:Dy:CLN crystals with fixed concentrations of Dy3+ (1mol%) and different concentrations of Zr4+.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Ultraviolet absorption spectra of Zr:Dy:CLN crystals from 310nm to 350nm at room temperature. The inset is the partial enlarged figure, showing the absorption edge positions.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The polarized absorption spectra of Zr:Dy:CLN crystals from 350nm to 2000nm at room temperature.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Fluorescence spectra of Zr:Dy:CLN wafers at room temperature under 450nm excitation. (b) The experimental and calculated fluorescence branching ratios of the transition 4F9/2→6H13/2. (c) The maximum stimulated emission cross sections σem corresponding to the transition 4F9/2→6H13/2 of Zr:Dy:CLN crystals.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The fluorescence decay curves of the 4F9/26H13/2 transition in Zr:Dy:CLN crystals.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Measured and calculated oscillator strengths, root mean square deviation of Zr:Dy:CLN crystals.

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Table 2 The oscillator strength parameters Ωδ and quality factors X of Zr:Dy:CLN crystals.

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Table 3 Transition probabilities, fluorescence branching ratios and radiant lifetimes of the excited level 4F9/2 in Zr:Dy:CLN crystals.

Equations (8)

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f exp = m c 2 Nπ λ ¯ 2 e 2 α(λ)dλ ;
f ed = 8 π 2 mc 3h(2J+1) λ ¯ ( n 2 +2) 2 9n δ=2,4,6 Ω δ 4 f N φJ|| U δ ||4 f N φ ' J ' 2 ;
f md = nh 6mc(2J+1) λ ¯ 4 f N φJ L+2S 4 f N φ ' J ' 2 ;
f cal f exp = f md + f ed ;
Δ f rms = i=1 Num ( f cal f exp ) 2 Num3 ;
A= A ed + A md = 8 π 2 e 2 n 2 mc λ ¯ 2 f ed + 8 π 2 e 2 n 2 mc λ ¯ 2 f ; md
τ i = 1 k A ik ( i>k );
β ik = A ik τ i ( i>k );

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