Abstract

We report on the growth, fabrication and electroluminescence (EL) characteristics of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on Er-doped GaN (GaN:Er) and GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well (MQW:Er) active layers. The LED structures were grown using metal organic chemical vapor deposition and processed into 300x300 µm2 mesa devices. The LEDs exhibit emission at 1.54 µm, due to Er intra-4f transitions, under forward bias conditions. The 1.54 µm emission properties from LEDs with MQWs:Er and GaN:Er active layers were probed. The LEDs fabricated using MQWs:Er exhibited improved performance as evidenced by a factor of 4 enhancement in the optical power output as compared to conventional GaN:Er based LEDs. The results demonstrate a significant advance in the development of current injected, chip-scale emitters and waveguide amplifiers based on Er doped semiconductors.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54‐μm luminescence of erbium‐implanted III‐V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(10), 943 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. N. Favennec, H. L’Halidon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. G. Kik and A. Polman, “Erbium-Doped Optical-Waveguide Amplifiers on Silicon,” MRS Bull. 23(04), 48–54 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. M. Al tahtamouni, X. Du, J. Li, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Erbium-doped a-plane GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(2), 274 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN optical amplifiers operating at 1.54 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111109 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54 μm emitters based on erbium doped InGaN p-i-n junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141109 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, D. Moutonnet, M. Salvi, and M. Gauneau, “Optical Activation of Er3+ Implanted in Silicon by Oxygen Impurities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 2), L524–L526 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. H. Qiu, M. W. Leksono, J. I. Pankove, J. T. Torvik, R. J. Feurstein, and F. Namavar, “Cathodoluminescence study of erbium and oxygen coimplanted gallium nitride thin films on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(5), 562 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, D. A. Turnbull, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Trap-mediated excitation of Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2662–2664 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. T. Torvik, C. H. Qiu, R. J. Feurstein, J. I. Pankove, and F. Namavar, “Photo-, cathodo-, and electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen co-implanted GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6343 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. M. Hansen, R. Zhang, N. R. Perkins, S. Safvi, L. Zhang, K. L. Bray, and T. F. Kuech, “Photoluminescence of erbium-implanted GaN and in situ-doped GaN:Er,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(10), 1244 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and I. Brown, “Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence of GaN doped with Pr,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 210 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of GaN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2710–2712 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and J. Scofield, “Green electroluminescence from Er-doped GaN Schottky barrier diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(17), 2450 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. H. Birkhahn, R. Hudgins, D. S. Lee, B. K. Lee, A. J. Steckl, A. Saleh, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and structural properties of Er3+-doped GaN grown by MBE,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1,  537, 80 (1999).
  18. A. J. Steckl, J. Heikenfeld, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and D. S. Lee, “Rare earth doped gallium nitride — light emission from ultraviolet to infrared,” Compd. Semicond. 6(1), 48–52 (2000).
  19. S. Son, S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, I. K. Han, Y. T. Kim, A. Wakahara, I. H. Choi, and H. C. Lopez, “Photoluminescence of Er-implanted GaN,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 45, 955 (2004).
  20. X. Wu, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Direct and indirect excitation of Er3+ ions in Er: AIN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(16), 2126 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151903 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  22. T. M. Al tahtamouni, X. Du, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Erbium-doped AlN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 648 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. M. Zavada, S. X. Jin, N. Nepal, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Electroluminescent properties of erbium-doped III–N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1061–1063 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  24. I. W. Feng, J. Li, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Enhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031908 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  25. T. Ishiyama, S. Yoneyama, Y. Yamashita, Y. Kamiura, T. Date, T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Okuno, “Enhancement of photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from Er in strained Si and SiGe,” Physica B 376-377, 122–125 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  26. T. M. Al tahtamouni, M. Stachowicz, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Dramatic enhancement of 1.54 μm emission in Er doped GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121106 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  27. K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Laser diode of 350.9 nm wavelength grown on sapphire substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 270–273 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  28. T. Arai, D. Timmerman, R. Wakamatsu, D. Lee, A. Koizumi, and Y. Fujiwara, “Enhanced excitation efficiency of Eu ions in Eu-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Lumin. 158, 70–74 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2015 (4)

T. M. Al tahtamouni, M. Stachowicz, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Dramatic enhancement of 1.54 μm emission in Er doped GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121106 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Arai, D. Timmerman, R. Wakamatsu, D. Lee, A. Koizumi, and Y. Fujiwara, “Enhanced excitation efficiency of Eu ions in Eu-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Lumin. 158, 70–74 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. M. Al tahtamouni, X. Du, J. Li, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Erbium-doped a-plane GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(2), 274 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. M. Al tahtamouni, X. Du, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Erbium-doped AlN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 648 (2015).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

I. W. Feng, J. Li, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Enhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031908 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54 μm emitters based on erbium doped InGaN p-i-n junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141109 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN optical amplifiers operating at 1.54 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111109 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151903 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Ishiyama, S. Yoneyama, Y. Yamashita, Y. Kamiura, T. Date, T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Okuno, “Enhancement of photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from Er in strained Si and SiGe,” Physica B 376-377, 122–125 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Laser diode of 350.9 nm wavelength grown on sapphire substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 270–273 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. M. Zavada, S. X. Jin, N. Nepal, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Electroluminescent properties of erbium-doped III–N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1061–1063 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Son, S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, I. K. Han, Y. T. Kim, A. Wakahara, I. H. Choi, and H. C. Lopez, “Photoluminescence of Er-implanted GaN,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 45, 955 (2004).

2000 (2)

H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and I. Brown, “Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence of GaN doped with Pr,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 210 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. J. Steckl, J. Heikenfeld, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and D. S. Lee, “Rare earth doped gallium nitride — light emission from ultraviolet to infrared,” Compd. Semicond. 6(1), 48–52 (2000).

1999 (2)

M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. H. Birkhahn, R. Hudgins, D. S. Lee, B. K. Lee, A. J. Steckl, A. Saleh, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and structural properties of Er3+-doped GaN grown by MBE,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1,  537, 80 (1999).

1998 (4)

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of GaN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2710–2712 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and J. Scofield, “Green electroluminescence from Er-doped GaN Schottky barrier diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(17), 2450 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. M. Hansen, R. Zhang, N. R. Perkins, S. Safvi, L. Zhang, K. L. Bray, and T. F. Kuech, “Photoluminescence of erbium-implanted GaN and in situ-doped GaN:Er,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(10), 1244 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, “Erbium-Doped Optical-Waveguide Amplifiers on Silicon,” MRS Bull. 23(04), 48–54 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, D. A. Turnbull, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Trap-mediated excitation of Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2662–2664 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. T. Torvik, C. H. Qiu, R. J. Feurstein, J. I. Pankove, and F. Namavar, “Photo-, cathodo-, and electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen co-implanted GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6343 (1997).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Direct and indirect excitation of Er3+ ions in Er: AIN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(16), 2126 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

C. H. Qiu, M. W. Leksono, J. I. Pankove, J. T. Torvik, R. J. Feurstein, and F. Namavar, “Cathodoluminescence study of erbium and oxygen coimplanted gallium nitride thin films on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(5), 562 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992 (1994).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, D. Moutonnet, M. Salvi, and M. Gauneau, “Optical Activation of Er3+ Implanted in Silicon by Oxygen Impurities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 2), L524–L526 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Halidon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54‐μm luminescence of erbium‐implanted III‐V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(10), 943 (1983).
[Crossref]

Abernathy, C. R.

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of GaN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2710–2712 (1998).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Direct and indirect excitation of Er3+ ions in Er: AIN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(16), 2126 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992 (1994).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Laser diode of 350.9 nm wavelength grown on sapphire substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 270–273 (2004).
[Crossref]

Al tahtamouni, T. M.

Amano, H.

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Laser diode of 350.9 nm wavelength grown on sapphire substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 270–273 (2004).
[Crossref]

Arai, T.

T. Arai, D. Timmerman, R. Wakamatsu, D. Lee, A. Koizumi, and Y. Fujiwara, “Enhanced excitation efficiency of Eu ions in Eu-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Lumin. 158, 70–74 (2015).
[Crossref]

Axmann, A.

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54‐μm luminescence of erbium‐implanted III‐V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(10), 943 (1983).
[Crossref]

Birkhahn, R.

A. J. Steckl, J. Heikenfeld, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and D. S. Lee, “Rare earth doped gallium nitride — light emission from ultraviolet to infrared,” Compd. Semicond. 6(1), 48–52 (2000).

M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and J. Scofield, “Green electroluminescence from Er-doped GaN Schottky barrier diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(17), 2450 (1998).
[Crossref]

Birkhahn, R. H.

R. H. Birkhahn, R. Hudgins, D. S. Lee, B. K. Lee, A. J. Steckl, A. Saleh, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and structural properties of Er3+-doped GaN grown by MBE,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1,  537, 80 (1999).

Bishop, S. G.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, D. A. Turnbull, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Trap-mediated excitation of Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2662–2664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bray, K. L.

D. M. Hansen, R. Zhang, N. R. Perkins, S. Safvi, L. Zhang, K. L. Bray, and T. F. Kuech, “Photoluminescence of erbium-implanted GaN and in situ-doped GaN:Er,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(10), 1244 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brown, I.

H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and I. Brown, “Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence of GaN doped with Pr,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 210 (2000).
[Crossref]

Choi, I. H.

S. Son, S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, I. K. Han, Y. T. Kim, A. Wakahara, I. H. Choi, and H. C. Lopez, “Photoluminescence of Er-implanted GaN,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 45, 955 (2004).

Chow, P.

J. M. Zavada, S. X. Jin, N. Nepal, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Electroluminescent properties of erbium-doped III–N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1061–1063 (2004).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. J.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, D. A. Turnbull, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Trap-mediated excitation of Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2662–2664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dahal, R.

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54 μm emitters based on erbium doped InGaN p-i-n junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141109 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN optical amplifiers operating at 1.54 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Date, T.

T. Ishiyama, S. Yoneyama, Y. Yamashita, Y. Kamiura, T. Date, T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Okuno, “Enhancement of photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from Er in strained Si and SiGe,” Physica B 376-377, 122–125 (2006).
[Crossref]

Du, X.

Ennen, H.

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54‐μm luminescence of erbium‐implanted III‐V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(10), 943 (1983).
[Crossref]

Favennec, P. N.

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, D. Moutonnet, M. Salvi, and M. Gauneau, “Optical Activation of Er3+ Implanted in Silicon by Oxygen Impurities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 2), L524–L526 (1990).
[Crossref]

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Halidon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
[Crossref]

Feng, I. W.

I. W. Feng, J. Li, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Enhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031908 (2010).
[Crossref]

Feurstein, R. J.

J. T. Torvik, C. H. Qiu, R. J. Feurstein, J. I. Pankove, and F. Namavar, “Photo-, cathodo-, and electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen co-implanted GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6343 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. H. Qiu, M. W. Leksono, J. I. Pankove, J. T. Torvik, R. J. Feurstein, and F. Namavar, “Cathodoluminescence study of erbium and oxygen coimplanted gallium nitride thin films on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(5), 562 (1995).
[Crossref]

Fu, T.

R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992 (1994).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, Y.

T. Arai, D. Timmerman, R. Wakamatsu, D. Lee, A. Koizumi, and Y. Fujiwara, “Enhanced excitation efficiency of Eu ions in Eu-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Lumin. 158, 70–74 (2015).
[Crossref]

Garter, M.

A. J. Steckl, J. Heikenfeld, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and D. S. Lee, “Rare earth doped gallium nitride — light emission from ultraviolet to infrared,” Compd. Semicond. 6(1), 48–52 (2000).

M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and J. Scofield, “Green electroluminescence from Er-doped GaN Schottky barrier diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(17), 2450 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gauneau, M.

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, D. Moutonnet, M. Salvi, and M. Gauneau, “Optical Activation of Er3+ Implanted in Silicon by Oxygen Impurities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 2), L524–L526 (1990).
[Crossref]

Han, I. K.

S. Son, S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, I. K. Han, Y. T. Kim, A. Wakahara, I. H. Choi, and H. C. Lopez, “Photoluminescence of Er-implanted GaN,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 45, 955 (2004).

Hansen, D. M.

D. M. Hansen, R. Zhang, N. R. Perkins, S. Safvi, L. Zhang, K. L. Bray, and T. F. Kuech, “Photoluminescence of erbium-implanted GaN and in situ-doped GaN:Er,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(10), 1244 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, T.

T. Ishiyama, S. Yoneyama, Y. Yamashita, Y. Kamiura, T. Date, T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Okuno, “Enhancement of photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from Er in strained Si and SiGe,” Physica B 376-377, 122–125 (2006).
[Crossref]

Heikenfeld, J.

A. J. Steckl, J. Heikenfeld, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and D. S. Lee, “Rare earth doped gallium nitride — light emission from ultraviolet to infrared,” Compd. Semicond. 6(1), 48–52 (2000).

Hertog, B.

J. M. Zavada, S. X. Jin, N. Nepal, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Electroluminescent properties of erbium-doped III–N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1061–1063 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hommerich, U.

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of GaN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2710–2712 (1998).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Direct and indirect excitation of Er3+ ions in Er: AIN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(16), 2126 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hudgins, R.

R. H. Birkhahn, R. Hudgins, D. S. Lee, B. K. Lee, A. J. Steckl, A. Saleh, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and structural properties of Er3+-doped GaN grown by MBE,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1,  537, 80 (1999).

Iida, K.

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Laser diode of 350.9 nm wavelength grown on sapphire substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 270–273 (2004).
[Crossref]

Inoue, K.

T. Ishiyama, S. Yoneyama, Y. Yamashita, Y. Kamiura, T. Date, T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Okuno, “Enhancement of photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from Er in strained Si and SiGe,” Physica B 376-377, 122–125 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ishiyama, T.

T. Ishiyama, S. Yoneyama, Y. Yamashita, Y. Kamiura, T. Date, T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Okuno, “Enhancement of photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from Er in strained Si and SiGe,” Physica B 376-377, 122–125 (2006).
[Crossref]

Iwaya, M.

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Laser diode of 350.9 nm wavelength grown on sapphire substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 270–273 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jadwisienczak, W. M.

H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and I. Brown, “Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence of GaN doped with Pr,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 210 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

Jiang, H. X.

T. M. Al tahtamouni, M. Stachowicz, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Dramatic enhancement of 1.54 μm emission in Er doped GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121106 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. W. Feng, J. Li, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Enhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031908 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54 μm emitters based on erbium doped InGaN p-i-n junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141109 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN optical amplifiers operating at 1.54 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111109 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151903 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Zavada, S. X. Jin, N. Nepal, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Electroluminescent properties of erbium-doped III–N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1061–1063 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jin, S. X.

J. M. Zavada, S. X. Jin, N. Nepal, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Electroluminescent properties of erbium-doped III–N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1061–1063 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kamiura, Y.

T. Ishiyama, S. Yoneyama, Y. Yamashita, Y. Kamiura, T. Date, T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Okuno, “Enhancement of photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from Er in strained Si and SiGe,” Physica B 376-377, 122–125 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kamiyama, S.

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Laser diode of 350.9 nm wavelength grown on sapphire substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 270–273 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kawashima, T.

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Laser diode of 350.9 nm wavelength grown on sapphire substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 270–273 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kik, P. G.

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, “Erbium-Doped Optical-Waveguide Amplifiers on Silicon,” MRS Bull. 23(04), 48–54 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

S. Son, S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, I. K. Han, Y. T. Kim, A. Wakahara, I. H. Choi, and H. C. Lopez, “Photoluminescence of Er-implanted GaN,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 45, 955 (2004).

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, D. A. Turnbull, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Trap-mediated excitation of Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2662–2664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. H.

S. Son, S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, I. K. Han, Y. T. Kim, A. Wakahara, I. H. Choi, and H. C. Lopez, “Photoluminescence of Er-implanted GaN,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 45, 955 (2004).

Kim, Y. T.

S. Son, S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, I. K. Han, Y. T. Kim, A. Wakahara, I. H. Choi, and H. C. Lopez, “Photoluminescence of Er-implanted GaN,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 45, 955 (2004).

Klein, P. B.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, D. A. Turnbull, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Trap-mediated excitation of Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2662–2664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Koizumi, A.

T. Arai, D. Timmerman, R. Wakamatsu, D. Lee, A. Koizumi, and Y. Fujiwara, “Enhanced excitation efficiency of Eu ions in Eu-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Lumin. 158, 70–74 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kuech, T. F.

D. M. Hansen, R. Zhang, N. R. Perkins, S. Safvi, L. Zhang, K. L. Bray, and T. F. Kuech, “Photoluminescence of erbium-implanted GaN and in situ-doped GaN:Er,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(10), 1244 (1998).
[Crossref]

L’Halidon, H.

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Halidon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
[Crossref]

L’Haridon, H.

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, D. Moutonnet, M. Salvi, and M. Gauneau, “Optical Activation of Er3+ Implanted in Silicon by Oxygen Impurities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 2), L524–L526 (1990).
[Crossref]

Le Guillou, Y.

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Halidon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. K.

R. H. Birkhahn, R. Hudgins, D. S. Lee, B. K. Lee, A. J. Steckl, A. Saleh, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and structural properties of Er3+-doped GaN grown by MBE,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1,  537, 80 (1999).

Lee, D.

T. Arai, D. Timmerman, R. Wakamatsu, D. Lee, A. Koizumi, and Y. Fujiwara, “Enhanced excitation efficiency of Eu ions in Eu-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Lumin. 158, 70–74 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, D. S.

A. J. Steckl, J. Heikenfeld, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and D. S. Lee, “Rare earth doped gallium nitride — light emission from ultraviolet to infrared,” Compd. Semicond. 6(1), 48–52 (2000).

R. H. Birkhahn, R. Hudgins, D. S. Lee, B. K. Lee, A. J. Steckl, A. Saleh, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and structural properties of Er3+-doped GaN grown by MBE,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1,  537, 80 (1999).

Leksono, M. W.

C. H. Qiu, M. W. Leksono, J. I. Pankove, J. T. Torvik, R. J. Feurstein, and F. Namavar, “Cathodoluminescence study of erbium and oxygen coimplanted gallium nitride thin films on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(5), 562 (1995).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

T. M. Al tahtamouni, M. Stachowicz, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Dramatic enhancement of 1.54 μm emission in Er doped GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121106 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. M. Al tahtamouni, X. Du, J. Li, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Erbium-doped a-plane GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(2), 274 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. W. Feng, J. Li, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Enhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031908 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, D. A. Turnbull, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Trap-mediated excitation of Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2662–2664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

Lin, J. Y.

T. M. Al tahtamouni, M. Stachowicz, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Dramatic enhancement of 1.54 μm emission in Er doped GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121106 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. W. Feng, J. Li, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Enhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031908 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54 μm emitters based on erbium doped InGaN p-i-n junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141109 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN optical amplifiers operating at 1.54 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111109 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151903 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Zavada, S. X. Jin, N. Nepal, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Electroluminescent properties of erbium-doped III–N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1061–1063 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lopez, H. C.

S. Son, S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, I. K. Han, Y. T. Kim, A. Wakahara, I. H. Choi, and H. C. Lopez, “Photoluminescence of Er-implanted GaN,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 45, 955 (2004).

Lozykowski, H. J.

H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and I. Brown, “Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence of GaN doped with Pr,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 210 (2000).
[Crossref]

MacKenzie, J. D.

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of GaN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2710–2712 (1998).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Direct and indirect excitation of Er3+ ions in Er: AIN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(16), 2126 (1997).
[Crossref]

Miyake, A.

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Laser diode of 350.9 nm wavelength grown on sapphire substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 270–273 (2004).
[Crossref]

Moutonnet, D.

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, D. Moutonnet, M. Salvi, and M. Gauneau, “Optical Activation of Er3+ Implanted in Silicon by Oxygen Impurities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 2), L524–L526 (1990).
[Crossref]

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Halidon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
[Crossref]

Namavar, F.

J. T. Torvik, C. H. Qiu, R. J. Feurstein, J. I. Pankove, and F. Namavar, “Photo-, cathodo-, and electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen co-implanted GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6343 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. H. Qiu, M. W. Leksono, J. I. Pankove, J. T. Torvik, R. J. Feurstein, and F. Namavar, “Cathodoluminescence study of erbium and oxygen coimplanted gallium nitride thin films on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(5), 562 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nepal, N.

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151903 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Zavada, S. X. Jin, N. Nepal, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Electroluminescent properties of erbium-doped III–N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1061–1063 (2004).
[Crossref]

Newman, N.

R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992 (1994).
[Crossref]

Okuno, K.

T. Ishiyama, S. Yoneyama, Y. Yamashita, Y. Kamiura, T. Date, T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Okuno, “Enhancement of photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from Er in strained Si and SiGe,” Physica B 376-377, 122–125 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pankove, J. I.

J. T. Torvik, C. H. Qiu, R. J. Feurstein, J. I. Pankove, and F. Namavar, “Photo-, cathodo-, and electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen co-implanted GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6343 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. H. Qiu, M. W. Leksono, J. I. Pankove, J. T. Torvik, R. J. Feurstein, and F. Namavar, “Cathodoluminescence study of erbium and oxygen coimplanted gallium nitride thin films on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(5), 562 (1995).
[Crossref]

Pearton, S. J.

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of GaN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2710–2712 (1998).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Direct and indirect excitation of Er3+ ions in Er: AIN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(16), 2126 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992 (1994).
[Crossref]

Perkins, N. R.

D. M. Hansen, R. Zhang, N. R. Perkins, S. Safvi, L. Zhang, K. L. Bray, and T. F. Kuech, “Photoluminescence of erbium-implanted GaN and in situ-doped GaN:Er,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(10), 1244 (1998).
[Crossref]

Polman, A.

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, “Erbium-Doped Optical-Waveguide Amplifiers on Silicon,” MRS Bull. 23(04), 48–54 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pomrenke, G.

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54‐μm luminescence of erbium‐implanted III‐V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(10), 943 (1983).
[Crossref]

Qiu, C. H.

J. T. Torvik, C. H. Qiu, R. J. Feurstein, J. I. Pankove, and F. Namavar, “Photo-, cathodo-, and electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen co-implanted GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6343 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. H. Qiu, M. W. Leksono, J. I. Pankove, J. T. Torvik, R. J. Feurstein, and F. Namavar, “Cathodoluminescence study of erbium and oxygen coimplanted gallium nitride thin films on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(5), 562 (1995).
[Crossref]

Rhee, S. J.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, D. A. Turnbull, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Trap-mediated excitation of Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2662–2664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rubin, M.

R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992 (1994).
[Crossref]

Safvi, S.

D. M. Hansen, R. Zhang, N. R. Perkins, S. Safvi, L. Zhang, K. L. Bray, and T. F. Kuech, “Photoluminescence of erbium-implanted GaN and in situ-doped GaN:Er,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(10), 1244 (1998).
[Crossref]

Saleh, A.

R. H. Birkhahn, R. Hudgins, D. S. Lee, B. K. Lee, A. J. Steckl, A. Saleh, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and structural properties of Er3+-doped GaN grown by MBE,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1,  537, 80 (1999).

Salvi, M.

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, D. Moutonnet, M. Salvi, and M. Gauneau, “Optical Activation of Er3+ Implanted in Silicon by Oxygen Impurities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 2), L524–L526 (1990).
[Crossref]

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Halidon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
[Crossref]

Schneider, J.

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54‐μm luminescence of erbium‐implanted III‐V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(10), 943 (1983).
[Crossref]

Schwartz, R.

X. Wu, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Direct and indirect excitation of Er3+ ions in Er: AIN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(16), 2126 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schwartz, R. N.

R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992 (1994).
[Crossref]

Scofield, J.

M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and J. Scofield, “Green electroluminescence from Er-doped GaN Schottky barrier diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(17), 2450 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sedhain, A.

I. W. Feng, J. Li, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Enhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031908 (2010).
[Crossref]

Seo, J. T.

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of GaN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2710–2712 (1998).
[Crossref]

Son, S.

S. Son, S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, I. K. Han, Y. T. Kim, A. Wakahara, I. H. Choi, and H. C. Lopez, “Photoluminescence of Er-implanted GaN,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 45, 955 (2004).

Stachowicz, M.

T. M. Al tahtamouni, M. Stachowicz, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Dramatic enhancement of 1.54 μm emission in Er doped GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Steckl, A. J.

A. J. Steckl, J. Heikenfeld, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and D. S. Lee, “Rare earth doped gallium nitride — light emission from ultraviolet to infrared,” Compd. Semicond. 6(1), 48–52 (2000).

M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. H. Birkhahn, R. Hudgins, D. S. Lee, B. K. Lee, A. J. Steckl, A. Saleh, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and structural properties of Er3+-doped GaN grown by MBE,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1,  537, 80 (1999).

A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and J. Scofield, “Green electroluminescence from Er-doped GaN Schottky barrier diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(17), 2450 (1998).
[Crossref]

Timmerman, D.

T. Arai, D. Timmerman, R. Wakamatsu, D. Lee, A. Koizumi, and Y. Fujiwara, “Enhanced excitation efficiency of Eu ions in Eu-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Lumin. 158, 70–74 (2015).
[Crossref]

Torvik, J. T.

J. T. Torvik, C. H. Qiu, R. J. Feurstein, J. I. Pankove, and F. Namavar, “Photo-, cathodo-, and electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen co-implanted GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6343 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. H. Qiu, M. W. Leksono, J. I. Pankove, J. T. Torvik, R. J. Feurstein, and F. Namavar, “Cathodoluminescence study of erbium and oxygen coimplanted gallium nitride thin films on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(5), 562 (1995).
[Crossref]

Turnbull, D. A.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, D. A. Turnbull, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Trap-mediated excitation of Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2662–2664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ugolini, C.

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54 μm emitters based on erbium doped InGaN p-i-n junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141109 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN optical amplifiers operating at 1.54 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111109 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151903 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wakahara, A.

S. Son, S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, I. K. Han, Y. T. Kim, A. Wakahara, I. H. Choi, and H. C. Lopez, “Photoluminescence of Er-implanted GaN,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 45, 955 (2004).

Wakamatsu, R.

T. Arai, D. Timmerman, R. Wakamatsu, D. Lee, A. Koizumi, and Y. Fujiwara, “Enhanced excitation efficiency of Eu ions in Eu-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Lumin. 158, 70–74 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wilson, R. G.

R. H. Birkhahn, R. Hudgins, D. S. Lee, B. K. Lee, A. J. Steckl, A. Saleh, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and structural properties of Er3+-doped GaN grown by MBE,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1,  537, 80 (1999).

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of GaN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2710–2712 (1998).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Direct and indirect excitation of Er3+ ions in Er: AIN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(16), 2126 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Direct and indirect excitation of Er3+ ions in Er: AIN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(16), 2126 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, Y.

T. Ishiyama, S. Yoneyama, Y. Yamashita, Y. Kamiura, T. Date, T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Okuno, “Enhancement of photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from Er in strained Si and SiGe,” Physica B 376-377, 122–125 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yoneyama, S.

T. Ishiyama, S. Yoneyama, Y. Yamashita, Y. Kamiura, T. Date, T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Okuno, “Enhancement of photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from Er in strained Si and SiGe,” Physica B 376-377, 122–125 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zavada, J.

I. W. Feng, J. Li, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Enhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031908 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zavada, J. M.

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54 μm emitters based on erbium doped InGaN p-i-n junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141109 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN optical amplifiers operating at 1.54 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111109 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151903 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Zavada, S. X. Jin, N. Nepal, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Electroluminescent properties of erbium-doped III–N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1061–1063 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. H. Birkhahn, R. Hudgins, D. S. Lee, B. K. Lee, A. J. Steckl, A. Saleh, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and structural properties of Er3+-doped GaN grown by MBE,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1,  537, 80 (1999).

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of GaN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2710–2712 (1998).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Direct and indirect excitation of Er3+ ions in Er: AIN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(16), 2126 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992 (1994).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

D. M. Hansen, R. Zhang, N. R. Perkins, S. Safvi, L. Zhang, K. L. Bray, and T. F. Kuech, “Photoluminescence of erbium-implanted GaN and in situ-doped GaN:Er,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(10), 1244 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

D. M. Hansen, R. Zhang, N. R. Perkins, S. Safvi, L. Zhang, K. L. Bray, and T. F. Kuech, “Photoluminescence of erbium-implanted GaN and in situ-doped GaN:Er,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(10), 1244 (1998).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (15)

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54‐μm luminescence of erbium‐implanted III‐V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(10), 943 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. H. Qiu, M. W. Leksono, J. I. Pankove, J. T. Torvik, R. J. Feurstein, and F. Namavar, “Cathodoluminescence study of erbium and oxygen coimplanted gallium nitride thin films on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(5), 562 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, D. A. Turnbull, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Trap-mediated excitation of Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2662–2664 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN optical amplifiers operating at 1.54 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111109 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54 μm emitters based on erbium doped InGaN p-i-n junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141109 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. M. Hansen, R. Zhang, N. R. Perkins, S. Safvi, L. Zhang, K. L. Bray, and T. F. Kuech, “Photoluminescence of erbium-implanted GaN and in situ-doped GaN:Er,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(10), 1244 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of GaN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2710–2712 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and J. Scofield, “Green electroluminescence from Er-doped GaN Schottky barrier diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(17), 2450 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182 (1999).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Direct and indirect excitation of Er3+ ions in Er: AIN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(16), 2126 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151903 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Zavada, S. X. Jin, N. Nepal, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Electroluminescent properties of erbium-doped III–N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1061–1063 (2004).
[Crossref]

I. W. Feng, J. Li, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Enhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031908 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. M. Al tahtamouni, M. Stachowicz, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Dramatic enhancement of 1.54 μm emission in Er doped GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Compd. Semicond. (1)

A. J. Steckl, J. Heikenfeld, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and D. S. Lee, “Rare earth doped gallium nitride — light emission from ultraviolet to infrared,” Compd. Semicond. 6(1), 48–52 (2000).

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Halidon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. T. Torvik, C. H. Qiu, R. J. Feurstein, J. I. Pankove, and F. Namavar, “Photo-, cathodo-, and electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen co-implanted GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6343 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and I. Brown, “Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence of GaN doped with Pr,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 210 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Laser diode of 350.9 nm wavelength grown on sapphire substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 270–273 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

S. Son, S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, I. K. Han, Y. T. Kim, A. Wakahara, I. H. Choi, and H. C. Lopez, “Photoluminescence of Er-implanted GaN,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 45, 955 (2004).

J. Lumin. (1)

T. Arai, D. Timmerman, R. Wakamatsu, D. Lee, A. Koizumi, and Y. Fujiwara, “Enhanced excitation efficiency of Eu ions in Eu-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Lumin. 158, 70–74 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, D. Moutonnet, M. Salvi, and M. Gauneau, “Optical Activation of Er3+ Implanted in Silicon by Oxygen Impurities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 2), L524–L526 (1990).
[Crossref]

MRS Bull. (1)

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, “Erbium-Doped Optical-Waveguide Amplifiers on Silicon,” MRS Bull. 23(04), 48–54 (1998).
[Crossref]

MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1 (1)

R. H. Birkhahn, R. Hudgins, D. S. Lee, B. K. Lee, A. J. Steckl, A. Saleh, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and structural properties of Er3+-doped GaN grown by MBE,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1,  537, 80 (1999).

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Physica B (1)

T. Ishiyama, S. Yoneyama, Y. Yamashita, Y. Kamiura, T. Date, T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Okuno, “Enhancement of photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from Er in strained Si and SiGe,” Physica B 376-377, 122–125 (2006).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The growth temperature sequence and (b) In situ optical reflection curve in the whole growth process of 1.54 µm LED structure incorporating MQWs:Er as active layer. Inset: Schematic layer structure of 1.54 µm LED.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Device layer structure employed in this study and (b) the optical microscopy image of a fabricated device of size 300 x 300 µm2.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 EL spectra from MQW:Er and GaN:Er based LED structures in near Infrared region under a current injection of 20 mA.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Light output vs current (L-I) characteristics of 1.54 µm LEDs with MQWs:Er active layer and GaN:Er active layer under wafer probe.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Current-voltage (I – V) characteristics for 1.54 µm LEDs with MQWs:Er active layer and GaN:Er active layer under wafer probe.

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