Abstract

Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG), Y3Al5O12 is one of the most important optical materials with many applications such as optical windows, laser host materials, detectors and phosphors. Nano YAG could offer many advantageous over bulk materials and large grain size phosphors. In this work Ce doped YAG (Ce:YAG) nanophosphors (NP) were synthesized using simple chemical methods and crystalized by annealing at 800, 900 and 1100°C. Luminescence was recorded in the range of 200 to 800 nm using X-ray induced luminescence technique to detect all emission centers in the sample and evaluate their relative intensities. The effect of annealing temperature and the use of different complexing and polymerization agents on the particle morphology and luminescence were investigated. Trapping phenomena were studied in Ce:YAG NP and bulk ceramics by thermally stimulated luminescence spectroscopy and a comparison was made between them and Ce:YAG single crystals. Measurements concluded that trapping is dominated by crystal defects in single crystals and by trapping sites at the grain boundaries in ceramics. Ce:YAG NPs -on the other hand- are free of traps, which seems to be characteristic of their small grain structure. This study illustrates the effect of chemical agents and annealing temperatures on the structural and optical properties of Ce:YAG nanophosphors and shed light on the nature and characteristics of traps in YAG, which greatly affect its performance in a wide range of applications. Furthermore it reveals that different trapping mechanisms take place among single crystals, bulk ceramics and NPs which could have impact on understanding the optical and scintillation properties of various luminescent materials.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  2. N. Goto and H. Ito, “High-Average-Power Generation of Nd: YAG Laser and its Industrial Applications,” Rev. Laser Eng. 21(8), 885–893 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, “Measurement of Excited‐State‐Absorption Loss for Ce3+ in Y3Al5O12 and Implications for Tunable 5d→4f Rare Earth Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33(5), 410–412 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. J. Miniscalco, J. M. Pellegrino, and W. M. Yen, “Measurements of Excited‐State Absorption in Ce3+: YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 49(12), 6109 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Blasse and A. Bril, “Investigation of Some Ce3+‐Activated Phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys. 47(12), 5139–5145 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. W. Van Tol and J. Van Esdonk, “A High Luminance High-Resolution Cathode-Ray Tube for Special Purposes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 30(3), 193–197 (1983).
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  7. J. F. Owen, P. B. Dorain, and T. Kobayasi, “Excited‐state absorption in Eu+2: CaF2 and Ce+3: YAG single crystals at 298 and 77 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 52(3), 1216–1223 (1981).
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    [Crossref]
  10. J. L. Wu, G. Gundiah, and A. K. Cheetham, “Structure–property correlations in Ce-doped garnet phosphors for use in solid state lighting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 441(4-6), 250–254 (2007).
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  11. M. J. Weber, “Inorganic scintillators: today and tomorrow,” J. Lumin. 100(1-4), 35–45 (2002).
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  12. Y. Zorenko, V. Gorbenko, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nejezchleb, A. Vedda, V. Kolobanov, and D. Spassky, “Single crystalline film scintillators based on Ce- and Pr-doped aluminium garnets,” Radiat. Meas. 42(4-5), 521–527 (2007).
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  13. E. Mihóková, M. Nikl, J. A. Mareš, A. Beitlerová, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blažek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin. 126(1), 77–80 (2007).
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  14. M. Nikl, “Scintillation detectors for x-rays,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(4), R37–R54 (2006).
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  15. M. Mashlan, D. Jancik, and A. Kholmetskii, “YAG: Ce and YAP: Ce – Suitable Fast Detectors for Transmission Mössbauer Spectroscopy,” Hyperfine Interact. 139(1/4), 673–678 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
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  17. J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, G. C. Chi, and R. K. Wu, “White-light emission from near UV InGaN-GaN LED chip percolated with blue/green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(1), 18–20 (2003).
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  18. J. M. Choi, S. S. Kim, and S. P. Chang, “Effects of the surface area of phosphor powders on colour coordinate variance,” Adv. Appl. Ceramics 115(4), 210–215 (2016).
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  19. M. S. Shur and A. Zukauskas, “Solid-State Lighting: Toward Superior Illumination,” Proc. IEEE 93(10), 1691 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  20. P. Vaqueiro and M. A. López-quintela, “Synthesis of yttrium aluminium garnet by the citrate gel process,” J. Mater. Chem. 8(1), 161–163 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. Ohno and T. Abe, “The synthesis and particle growth mechanism of bright green phosphor YAG: Tb,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 141(5), 1252–1254 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  22. R. P. Rao, “Preparation and characterization of fine-grain yttrium-based phosphors by sol-gel process,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(1), 189–197 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. Huang, D. Jiang, J. Zhang, Q. Lin, and Z. Huang, “Sintering of transparent Nd: YAG ceramics in oxygen atmosphere,” J. Rare Earths 31(2), 153–157 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, “Fabrication and Optical Properties of High-Performance Polycrystalline Nd:YAG Ceramics for Solid-State Lasers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 835–1136 (1995).
  25. J. Xu, R. Zeng, and Y. Gong, “Preparation of electrospun YAG:Ce nanofiber-based phosphor layer for white LEDs application,” Ceramics International 42(3), 4616–4620 (2016).
  26. A. V. Belyakov and A. N. Sukhozhak, “Production of Transparent Ceramics (Review),” Science for Ceramics Manufacture, Glass and Ceramics 52(1-2), 14–19 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  27. S. N. Bagaev, V. V. Osipov, V. A. Shitov, S. M. Vatnik, and K. E. Lukyashin, “Synthesis of ceramic active Nd:YAG laser medium,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 25(4), 292–297 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  28. C. R. Varney and F. A. Selim, “Color Centers in YAG,” AIMS Materials Science 2(4), 560–572 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  29. X. Zhang, D. Liu, J. Wang, H. Yu, H. Qin, Y. Sang, and H. Liu, “Fabrication and laser output of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics from microwave synthesized precursors,” Rare Met. 30(6), 607–615 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  30. D. Guo, B. Ma, L. Zhao, J. Qiu, W. Liu, Y. Sang, J. Claverie, and H. Liu, “Bright YAG:Ce Nanorod Phosphors Prepared via a Partial Wet Chemical Route and Biolabeling Applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(19), 11990–11997 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. N. Tsuruoka, T. Sasagawa, T. Yodo, M. Yoshimoto, O. Odawara, and H. Wada, “Facile preparation of YAG:Ce nanoparticles by laser irradiation in water and their optical properties,” Springerplus 5(1), 325 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. C. R. Varney, M. A. Khamehchi, J. Ji, and F. A. Selim, “X-ray luminescence based spectrometer for investigation of scintillation properties,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(10), 103112 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. C. R. Varney, D. T. Mackay, A. Pratt, S. M. Reda, and F. A. Selim, “Energy levels of exciton traps in yag single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 063505 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  34. D. T. Mackay, C. R. Varney, J. Buscher, and F. A. Selim, “Study of exciton dynamics in garnets by low temperature Thermo-luminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023522 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  35. E. Garskaite, M. Lindgren, M. Eimarsrud, and T. Grande, “Luminescent properties of rare earth (Er, Yb) yttrium aluminum garnet thin films and bulk samples synthesized by an aqueous sol-gel technique,” J. European Chemical Society 30, 1707–1715 (2010).
  36. J. Ji, L. A. Boatner, and F. A. Selim, “Donor characterization in ZnO by thermally stimulated luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(4), 041102 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  37. D. Winarski, C. Persson, and F. A. Selim, “Hydrogen in Insulating Y3Al5O12 strongly narrows the energy gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 221110 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  38. S. M. Reda, C. R. Varney, and F. A. Selim, “Radio-luminescence and absence of trapping defects in Nd-doped YAG single crystals,” Results in Physics 2, 123–126 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  39. N. Matsushita, N. Tsuchiya, K. Nakatsuka, and T. Yanagitani, “Precipitation and calcination processes for yttrium aluminum garnet precursors synthesized by the urea method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82(8), 1977–1984 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  40. F. Huber, Z. Yu, J. C. Walmsley, D. Chen, H. J. Venvik, and A. Holmen, “Nanocrystalline Cu–Ce–Zr mixed oxide catalysts for water-gas shift: carbon nanofibers as dispersing agent for the mixed oxide particles,” Appl. Catal. B 71(1-2), 7–15 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  41. T. Ogi, A. Bayu, D. Nandiyanto, W. N. Wang, F. Iskandar, and K. Okuyama, “Direct synthesis of spherical YAG:Ce phosphor from precursor solution containing polymer and urea,” Chem. Eng. J. 210, 461–466 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  42. S. Yamabi and H. Imai, “Synthesis of rutile and anatase films with high surface areas in aqueous solutions containing urea,” Thin Solid Films 434(1-2), 86–93 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  43. J. Jiao, “Polyoxyethylated nonionic surfactants and their applications in topical ocular drug delivery,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 60(15), 1663–1673 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. H. Qin, J. Jiang, Z. Luo, and H. Jiang, “YAG phosphor with spatially separated luminescence centers,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(2), 244–247 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  45. K. M. Kinsman, J. McKittrick, and Phase Development and Luminescence in Chromium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, “(YAG:Cr) Phosphors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 286 (1994).
  46. W. Wang, J. Tang, and S. T. Hus, “Energy transfer and enriched emission spectrum in Cr and Ce co-doped Y3Al5O12 yellow phosphors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457(1-3), 103–105 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  47. C. R. Varney, S. M. Reda, D. T. Mackay, M. C. Rowe, and F. A. Selim, “Strong visible and near infrared luminescence in undoped YAG single crystals,” AIP Adv. 1(4), 042170 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  48. F. A. Selim, C. R. Varney, M. C. Tarun, M. C. Rowe, G. S. Collins, and M. D. McCluskey, “Positron lifetime measurements of hydrogen passivation of cation vacancies in yttrium aluminum oxide garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 88(17), 174102 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  49. C. R. Varney and F. A. Selim, “Positron Lifetime Measurements of Vacancy Defects in Complex Oxides,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 125(3), 764–766 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2016 (6)

S. Arjoca, E. G. Víllora, D. Inomata, Y. Arai, Y. Cho, T. Sekiguchi, and K. Shimamura, “High homogeneity, thermal stability and external quantum efficiency of Ce:YAG single-crystal powder phosphorsfor white LEDs,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 124(5), 574–578 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. M. Choi, S. S. Kim, and S. P. Chang, “Effects of the surface area of phosphor powders on colour coordinate variance,” Adv. Appl. Ceramics 115(4), 210–215 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, R. Zeng, and Y. Gong, “Preparation of electrospun YAG:Ce nanofiber-based phosphor layer for white LEDs application,” Ceramics International 42(3), 4616–4620 (2016).

D. Guo, B. Ma, L. Zhao, J. Qiu, W. Liu, Y. Sang, J. Claverie, and H. Liu, “Bright YAG:Ce Nanorod Phosphors Prepared via a Partial Wet Chemical Route and Biolabeling Applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(19), 11990–11997 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Tsuruoka, T. Sasagawa, T. Yodo, M. Yoshimoto, O. Odawara, and H. Wada, “Facile preparation of YAG:Ce nanoparticles by laser irradiation in water and their optical properties,” Springerplus 5(1), 325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Qin, J. Jiang, Z. Luo, and H. Jiang, “YAG phosphor with spatially separated luminescence centers,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(2), 244–247 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

C. R. Varney and F. A. Selim, “Color Centers in YAG,” AIMS Materials Science 2(4), 560–572 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

C. R. Varney and F. A. Selim, “Positron Lifetime Measurements of Vacancy Defects in Complex Oxides,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 125(3), 764–766 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ji, L. A. Boatner, and F. A. Selim, “Donor characterization in ZnO by thermally stimulated luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(4), 041102 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Winarski, C. Persson, and F. A. Selim, “Hydrogen in Insulating Y3Al5O12 strongly narrows the energy gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 221110 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Y. Huang, D. Jiang, J. Zhang, Q. Lin, and Z. Huang, “Sintering of transparent Nd: YAG ceramics in oxygen atmosphere,” J. Rare Earths 31(2), 153–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. A. Selim, C. R. Varney, M. C. Tarun, M. C. Rowe, G. S. Collins, and M. D. McCluskey, “Positron lifetime measurements of hydrogen passivation of cation vacancies in yttrium aluminum oxide garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 88(17), 174102 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

T. Ogi, A. Bayu, D. Nandiyanto, W. N. Wang, F. Iskandar, and K. Okuyama, “Direct synthesis of spherical YAG:Ce phosphor from precursor solution containing polymer and urea,” Chem. Eng. J. 210, 461–466 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. N. Bagaev, V. V. Osipov, V. A. Shitov, S. M. Vatnik, and K. E. Lukyashin, “Synthesis of ceramic active Nd:YAG laser medium,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 25(4), 292–297 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. M. Reda, C. R. Varney, and F. A. Selim, “Radio-luminescence and absence of trapping defects in Nd-doped YAG single crystals,” Results in Physics 2, 123–126 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. R. Varney, M. A. Khamehchi, J. Ji, and F. A. Selim, “X-ray luminescence based spectrometer for investigation of scintillation properties,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(10), 103112 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Varney, D. T. Mackay, A. Pratt, S. M. Reda, and F. A. Selim, “Energy levels of exciton traps in yag single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 063505 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. T. Mackay, C. R. Varney, J. Buscher, and F. A. Selim, “Study of exciton dynamics in garnets by low temperature Thermo-luminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023522 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

X. Zhang, D. Liu, J. Wang, H. Yu, H. Qin, Y. Sang, and H. Liu, “Fabrication and laser output of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics from microwave synthesized precursors,” Rare Met. 30(6), 607–615 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. R. Varney, S. M. Reda, D. T. Mackay, M. C. Rowe, and F. A. Selim, “Strong visible and near infrared luminescence in undoped YAG single crystals,” AIP Adv. 1(4), 042170 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

E. Garskaite, M. Lindgren, M. Eimarsrud, and T. Grande, “Luminescent properties of rare earth (Er, Yb) yttrium aluminum garnet thin films and bulk samples synthesized by an aqueous sol-gel technique,” J. European Chemical Society 30, 1707–1715 (2010).

2008 (2)

W. Wang, J. Tang, and S. T. Hus, “Energy transfer and enriched emission spectrum in Cr and Ce co-doped Y3Al5O12 yellow phosphors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457(1-3), 103–105 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Jiao, “Polyoxyethylated nonionic surfactants and their applications in topical ocular drug delivery,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 60(15), 1663–1673 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

F. Huber, Z. Yu, J. C. Walmsley, D. Chen, H. J. Venvik, and A. Holmen, “Nanocrystalline Cu–Ce–Zr mixed oxide catalysts for water-gas shift: carbon nanofibers as dispersing agent for the mixed oxide particles,” Appl. Catal. B 71(1-2), 7–15 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Zorenko, V. Gorbenko, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nejezchleb, A. Vedda, V. Kolobanov, and D. Spassky, “Single crystalline film scintillators based on Ce- and Pr-doped aluminium garnets,” Radiat. Meas. 42(4-5), 521–527 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Mihóková, M. Nikl, J. A. Mareš, A. Beitlerová, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blažek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin. 126(1), 77–80 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. L. Wu, G. Gundiah, and A. K. Cheetham, “Structure–property correlations in Ce-doped garnet phosphors for use in solid state lighting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 441(4-6), 250–254 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. Nikl, “Scintillation detectors for x-rays,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(4), R37–R54 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. S. Shur and A. Zukauskas, “Solid-State Lighting: Toward Superior Illumination,” Proc. IEEE 93(10), 1691 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, G. C. Chi, and R. K. Wu, “White-light emission from near UV InGaN-GaN LED chip percolated with blue/green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(1), 18–20 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Yamabi and H. Imai, “Synthesis of rutile and anatase films with high surface areas in aqueous solutions containing urea,” Thin Solid Films 434(1-2), 86–93 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

M. Mashlan, D. Jancik, and A. Kholmetskii, “YAG: Ce and YAP: Ce – Suitable Fast Detectors for Transmission Mössbauer Spectroscopy,” Hyperfine Interact. 139(1/4), 673–678 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. J. Weber, “Inorganic scintillators: today and tomorrow,” J. Lumin. 100(1-4), 35–45 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

N. Matsushita, N. Tsuchiya, K. Nakatsuka, and T. Yanagitani, “Precipitation and calcination processes for yttrium aluminum garnet precursors synthesized by the urea method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82(8), 1977–1984 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

P. Vaqueiro and M. A. López-quintela, “Synthesis of yttrium aluminium garnet by the citrate gel process,” J. Mater. Chem. 8(1), 161–163 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

R. P. Rao, “Preparation and characterization of fine-grain yttrium-based phosphors by sol-gel process,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(1), 189–197 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

A. V. Belyakov and A. N. Sukhozhak, “Production of Transparent Ceramics (Review),” Science for Ceramics Manufacture, Glass and Ceramics 52(1-2), 14–19 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, “Fabrication and Optical Properties of High-Performance Polycrystalline Nd:YAG Ceramics for Solid-State Lasers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 835–1136 (1995).

1994 (2)

K. Ohno and T. Abe, “The synthesis and particle growth mechanism of bright green phosphor YAG: Tb,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 141(5), 1252–1254 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. M. Kinsman, J. McKittrick, and Phase Development and Luminescence in Chromium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, “(YAG:Cr) Phosphors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 286 (1994).

1993 (1)

N. Goto and H. Ito, “High-Average-Power Generation of Nd: YAG Laser and its Industrial Applications,” Rev. Laser Eng. 21(8), 885–893 (1993).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

M. W. Van Tol and J. Van Esdonk, “A High Luminance High-Resolution Cathode-Ray Tube for Special Purposes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 30(3), 193–197 (1983).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

J. F. Owen, P. B. Dorain, and T. Kobayasi, “Excited‐state absorption in Eu+2: CaF2 and Ce+3: YAG single crystals at 298 and 77 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 52(3), 1216–1223 (1981).
[Crossref]

1978 (2)

R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, “Measurement of Excited‐State‐Absorption Loss for Ce3+ in Y3Al5O12 and Implications for Tunable 5d→4f Rare Earth Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33(5), 410–412 (1978).
[Crossref]

W. J. Miniscalco, J. M. Pellegrino, and W. M. Yen, “Measurements of Excited‐State Absorption in Ce3+: YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 49(12), 6109 (1978).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

G. Blasse and A. Bril, “Investigation of Some Ce3+‐Activated Phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys. 47(12), 5139–5145 (1967).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Laser Oscillations In Nd-Doped Yttrium Aluminum, Yttrium Gallium and Gadolinium Garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(10), 182 (1964).
[Crossref]

Abe, T.

K. Ohno and T. Abe, “The synthesis and particle growth mechanism of bright green phosphor YAG: Tb,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 141(5), 1252–1254 (1994).
[Crossref]

Arai, Y.

S. Arjoca, E. G. Víllora, D. Inomata, Y. Arai, Y. Cho, T. Sekiguchi, and K. Shimamura, “High homogeneity, thermal stability and external quantum efficiency of Ce:YAG single-crystal powder phosphorsfor white LEDs,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 124(5), 574–578 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arjoca, S.

S. Arjoca, E. G. Víllora, D. Inomata, Y. Arai, Y. Cho, T. Sekiguchi, and K. Shimamura, “High homogeneity, thermal stability and external quantum efficiency of Ce:YAG single-crystal powder phosphorsfor white LEDs,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 124(5), 574–578 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bagaev, S. N.

S. N. Bagaev, V. V. Osipov, V. A. Shitov, S. M. Vatnik, and K. E. Lukyashin, “Synthesis of ceramic active Nd:YAG laser medium,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 25(4), 292–297 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bayu, A.

T. Ogi, A. Bayu, D. Nandiyanto, W. N. Wang, F. Iskandar, and K. Okuyama, “Direct synthesis of spherical YAG:Ce phosphor from precursor solution containing polymer and urea,” Chem. Eng. J. 210, 461–466 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beitlerová, A.

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S. Arjoca, E. G. Víllora, D. Inomata, Y. Arai, Y. Cho, T. Sekiguchi, and K. Shimamura, “High homogeneity, thermal stability and external quantum efficiency of Ce:YAG single-crystal powder phosphorsfor white LEDs,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 124(5), 574–578 (2016).
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J. M. Choi, S. S. Kim, and S. P. Chang, “Effects of the surface area of phosphor powders on colour coordinate variance,” Adv. Appl. Ceramics 115(4), 210–215 (2016).
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D. Guo, B. Ma, L. Zhao, J. Qiu, W. Liu, Y. Sang, J. Claverie, and H. Liu, “Bright YAG:Ce Nanorod Phosphors Prepared via a Partial Wet Chemical Route and Biolabeling Applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(19), 11990–11997 (2016).
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E. Mihóková, M. Nikl, J. A. Mareš, A. Beitlerová, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blažek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin. 126(1), 77–80 (2007).
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J. F. Owen, P. B. Dorain, and T. Kobayasi, “Excited‐state absorption in Eu+2: CaF2 and Ce+3: YAG single crystals at 298 and 77 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 52(3), 1216–1223 (1981).
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E. Garskaite, M. Lindgren, M. Eimarsrud, and T. Grande, “Luminescent properties of rare earth (Er, Yb) yttrium aluminum garnet thin films and bulk samples synthesized by an aqueous sol-gel technique,” J. European Chemical Society 30, 1707–1715 (2010).

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
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E. Garskaite, M. Lindgren, M. Eimarsrud, and T. Grande, “Luminescent properties of rare earth (Er, Yb) yttrium aluminum garnet thin films and bulk samples synthesized by an aqueous sol-gel technique,” J. European Chemical Society 30, 1707–1715 (2010).

Geusic, J. E.

J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Laser Oscillations In Nd-Doped Yttrium Aluminum, Yttrium Gallium and Gadolinium Garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(10), 182 (1964).
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Y. Zorenko, V. Gorbenko, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nejezchleb, A. Vedda, V. Kolobanov, and D. Spassky, “Single crystalline film scintillators based on Ce- and Pr-doped aluminium garnets,” Radiat. Meas. 42(4-5), 521–527 (2007).
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E. Garskaite, M. Lindgren, M. Eimarsrud, and T. Grande, “Luminescent properties of rare earth (Er, Yb) yttrium aluminum garnet thin films and bulk samples synthesized by an aqueous sol-gel technique,” J. European Chemical Society 30, 1707–1715 (2010).

Gundiah, G.

J. L. Wu, G. Gundiah, and A. K. Cheetham, “Structure–property correlations in Ce-doped garnet phosphors for use in solid state lighting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 441(4-6), 250–254 (2007).
[Crossref]

Guo, D.

D. Guo, B. Ma, L. Zhao, J. Qiu, W. Liu, Y. Sang, J. Claverie, and H. Liu, “Bright YAG:Ce Nanorod Phosphors Prepared via a Partial Wet Chemical Route and Biolabeling Applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(19), 11990–11997 (2016).
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D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Holmen, A.

F. Huber, Z. Yu, J. C. Walmsley, D. Chen, H. J. Venvik, and A. Holmen, “Nanocrystalline Cu–Ce–Zr mixed oxide catalysts for water-gas shift: carbon nanofibers as dispersing agent for the mixed oxide particles,” Appl. Catal. B 71(1-2), 7–15 (2007).
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Y. Huang, D. Jiang, J. Zhang, Q. Lin, and Z. Huang, “Sintering of transparent Nd: YAG ceramics in oxygen atmosphere,” J. Rare Earths 31(2), 153–157 (2013).
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Y. Huang, D. Jiang, J. Zhang, Q. Lin, and Z. Huang, “Sintering of transparent Nd: YAG ceramics in oxygen atmosphere,” J. Rare Earths 31(2), 153–157 (2013).
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F. Huber, Z. Yu, J. C. Walmsley, D. Chen, H. J. Venvik, and A. Holmen, “Nanocrystalline Cu–Ce–Zr mixed oxide catalysts for water-gas shift: carbon nanofibers as dispersing agent for the mixed oxide particles,” Appl. Catal. B 71(1-2), 7–15 (2007).
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S. Arjoca, E. G. Víllora, D. Inomata, Y. Arai, Y. Cho, T. Sekiguchi, and K. Shimamura, “High homogeneity, thermal stability and external quantum efficiency of Ce:YAG single-crystal powder phosphorsfor white LEDs,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 124(5), 574–578 (2016).
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Iskandar, F.

T. Ogi, A. Bayu, D. Nandiyanto, W. N. Wang, F. Iskandar, and K. Okuyama, “Direct synthesis of spherical YAG:Ce phosphor from precursor solution containing polymer and urea,” Chem. Eng. J. 210, 461–466 (2012).
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N. Goto and H. Ito, “High-Average-Power Generation of Nd: YAG Laser and its Industrial Applications,” Rev. Laser Eng. 21(8), 885–893 (1993).
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R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, “Measurement of Excited‐State‐Absorption Loss for Ce3+ in Y3Al5O12 and Implications for Tunable 5d→4f Rare Earth Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33(5), 410–412 (1978).
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J. Ji, L. A. Boatner, and F. A. Selim, “Donor characterization in ZnO by thermally stimulated luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(4), 041102 (2014).
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Khamehchi, M. A.

C. R. Varney, M. A. Khamehchi, J. Ji, and F. A. Selim, “X-ray luminescence based spectrometer for investigation of scintillation properties,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(10), 103112 (2012).
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M. Mashlan, D. Jancik, and A. Kholmetskii, “YAG: Ce and YAP: Ce – Suitable Fast Detectors for Transmission Mössbauer Spectroscopy,” Hyperfine Interact. 139(1/4), 673–678 (2002).
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Kim, S. S.

J. M. Choi, S. S. Kim, and S. P. Chang, “Effects of the surface area of phosphor powders on colour coordinate variance,” Adv. Appl. Ceramics 115(4), 210–215 (2016).
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A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, “Fabrication and Optical Properties of High-Performance Polycrystalline Nd:YAG Ceramics for Solid-State Lasers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 835–1136 (1995).

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J. F. Owen, P. B. Dorain, and T. Kobayasi, “Excited‐state absorption in Eu+2: CaF2 and Ce+3: YAG single crystals at 298 and 77 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 52(3), 1216–1223 (1981).
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Kolobanov, V.

Y. Zorenko, V. Gorbenko, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nejezchleb, A. Vedda, V. Kolobanov, and D. Spassky, “Single crystalline film scintillators based on Ce- and Pr-doped aluminium garnets,” Radiat. Meas. 42(4-5), 521–527 (2007).
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R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, “Measurement of Excited‐State‐Absorption Loss for Ce3+ in Y3Al5O12 and Implications for Tunable 5d→4f Rare Earth Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33(5), 410–412 (1978).
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J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, G. C. Chi, and R. K. Wu, “White-light emission from near UV InGaN-GaN LED chip percolated with blue/green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(1), 18–20 (2003).
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Lai, W. C.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, G. C. Chi, and R. K. Wu, “White-light emission from near UV InGaN-GaN LED chip percolated with blue/green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(1), 18–20 (2003).
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Lin, Q.

Y. Huang, D. Jiang, J. Zhang, Q. Lin, and Z. Huang, “Sintering of transparent Nd: YAG ceramics in oxygen atmosphere,” J. Rare Earths 31(2), 153–157 (2013).
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Lin, Y. C.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, G. C. Chi, and R. K. Wu, “White-light emission from near UV InGaN-GaN LED chip percolated with blue/green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(1), 18–20 (2003).
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E. Garskaite, M. Lindgren, M. Eimarsrud, and T. Grande, “Luminescent properties of rare earth (Er, Yb) yttrium aluminum garnet thin films and bulk samples synthesized by an aqueous sol-gel technique,” J. European Chemical Society 30, 1707–1715 (2010).

Liu, D.

X. Zhang, D. Liu, J. Wang, H. Yu, H. Qin, Y. Sang, and H. Liu, “Fabrication and laser output of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics from microwave synthesized precursors,” Rare Met. 30(6), 607–615 (2011).
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Liu, H.

D. Guo, B. Ma, L. Zhao, J. Qiu, W. Liu, Y. Sang, J. Claverie, and H. Liu, “Bright YAG:Ce Nanorod Phosphors Prepared via a Partial Wet Chemical Route and Biolabeling Applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(19), 11990–11997 (2016).
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X. Zhang, D. Liu, J. Wang, H. Yu, H. Qin, Y. Sang, and H. Liu, “Fabrication and laser output of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics from microwave synthesized precursors,” Rare Met. 30(6), 607–615 (2011).
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Liu, W.

D. Guo, B. Ma, L. Zhao, J. Qiu, W. Liu, Y. Sang, J. Claverie, and H. Liu, “Bright YAG:Ce Nanorod Phosphors Prepared via a Partial Wet Chemical Route and Biolabeling Applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(19), 11990–11997 (2016).
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D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
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Luo, Z.

H. Qin, J. Jiang, Z. Luo, and H. Jiang, “YAG phosphor with spatially separated luminescence centers,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(2), 244–247 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ma, B.

D. Guo, B. Ma, L. Zhao, J. Qiu, W. Liu, Y. Sang, J. Claverie, and H. Liu, “Bright YAG:Ce Nanorod Phosphors Prepared via a Partial Wet Chemical Route and Biolabeling Applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(19), 11990–11997 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mackay, D. T.

D. T. Mackay, C. R. Varney, J. Buscher, and F. A. Selim, “Study of exciton dynamics in garnets by low temperature Thermo-luminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023522 (2012).
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C. R. Varney, D. T. Mackay, A. Pratt, S. M. Reda, and F. A. Selim, “Energy levels of exciton traps in yag single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 063505 (2012).
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C. R. Varney, S. M. Reda, D. T. Mackay, M. C. Rowe, and F. A. Selim, “Strong visible and near infrared luminescence in undoped YAG single crystals,” AIP Adv. 1(4), 042170 (2011).
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Marcos, H. M.

J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Laser Oscillations In Nd-Doped Yttrium Aluminum, Yttrium Gallium and Gadolinium Garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(10), 182 (1964).
[Crossref]

Mareš, J. A.

E. Mihóková, M. Nikl, J. A. Mareš, A. Beitlerová, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blažek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin. 126(1), 77–80 (2007).
[Crossref]

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mashlan, M.

M. Mashlan, D. Jancik, and A. Kholmetskii, “YAG: Ce and YAP: Ce – Suitable Fast Detectors for Transmission Mössbauer Spectroscopy,” Hyperfine Interact. 139(1/4), 673–678 (2002).
[Crossref]

Matsushita, N.

N. Matsushita, N. Tsuchiya, K. Nakatsuka, and T. Yanagitani, “Precipitation and calcination processes for yttrium aluminum garnet precursors synthesized by the urea method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82(8), 1977–1984 (1999).
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McCluskey, M. D.

F. A. Selim, C. R. Varney, M. C. Tarun, M. C. Rowe, G. S. Collins, and M. D. McCluskey, “Positron lifetime measurements of hydrogen passivation of cation vacancies in yttrium aluminum oxide garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 88(17), 174102 (2013).
[Crossref]

McKittrick, J.

K. M. Kinsman, J. McKittrick, and Phase Development and Luminescence in Chromium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, “(YAG:Cr) Phosphors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 286 (1994).

Mihokova, E.

Y. Zorenko, V. Gorbenko, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nejezchleb, A. Vedda, V. Kolobanov, and D. Spassky, “Single crystalline film scintillators based on Ce- and Pr-doped aluminium garnets,” Radiat. Meas. 42(4-5), 521–527 (2007).
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Mihóková, E.

E. Mihóková, M. Nikl, J. A. Mareš, A. Beitlerová, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blažek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin. 126(1), 77–80 (2007).
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Nandiyanto, D.

T. Ogi, A. Bayu, D. Nandiyanto, W. N. Wang, F. Iskandar, and K. Okuyama, “Direct synthesis of spherical YAG:Ce phosphor from precursor solution containing polymer and urea,” Chem. Eng. J. 210, 461–466 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nejezchleb, K.

Y. Zorenko, V. Gorbenko, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nejezchleb, A. Vedda, V. Kolobanov, and D. Spassky, “Single crystalline film scintillators based on Ce- and Pr-doped aluminium garnets,” Radiat. Meas. 42(4-5), 521–527 (2007).
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E. Mihóková, M. Nikl, J. A. Mareš, A. Beitlerová, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blažek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin. 126(1), 77–80 (2007).
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Nikl, M.

Y. Zorenko, V. Gorbenko, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nejezchleb, A. Vedda, V. Kolobanov, and D. Spassky, “Single crystalline film scintillators based on Ce- and Pr-doped aluminium garnets,” Radiat. Meas. 42(4-5), 521–527 (2007).
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E. Mihóková, M. Nikl, J. A. Mareš, A. Beitlerová, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blažek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin. 126(1), 77–80 (2007).
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M. Nikl, “Scintillation detectors for x-rays,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(4), R37–R54 (2006).
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Odawara, O.

N. Tsuruoka, T. Sasagawa, T. Yodo, M. Yoshimoto, O. Odawara, and H. Wada, “Facile preparation of YAG:Ce nanoparticles by laser irradiation in water and their optical properties,” Springerplus 5(1), 325 (2016).
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D. Guo, B. Ma, L. Zhao, J. Qiu, W. Liu, Y. Sang, J. Claverie, and H. Liu, “Bright YAG:Ce Nanorod Phosphors Prepared via a Partial Wet Chemical Route and Biolabeling Applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(19), 11990–11997 (2016).
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C. R. Varney, S. M. Reda, D. T. Mackay, M. C. Rowe, and F. A. Selim, “Strong visible and near infrared luminescence in undoped YAG single crystals,” AIP Adv. 1(4), 042170 (2011).
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J. Ji, L. A. Boatner, and F. A. Selim, “Donor characterization in ZnO by thermally stimulated luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(4), 041102 (2014).
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N. Tsuruoka, T. Sasagawa, T. Yodo, M. Yoshimoto, O. Odawara, and H. Wada, “Facile preparation of YAG:Ce nanoparticles by laser irradiation in water and their optical properties,” Springerplus 5(1), 325 (2016).
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C. R. Varney and F. A. Selim, “Color Centers in YAG,” AIMS Materials Science 2(4), 560–572 (2015).
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C. R. Varney and F. A. Selim, “Positron Lifetime Measurements of Vacancy Defects in Complex Oxides,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 125(3), 764–766 (2014).
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F. A. Selim, C. R. Varney, M. C. Tarun, M. C. Rowe, G. S. Collins, and M. D. McCluskey, “Positron lifetime measurements of hydrogen passivation of cation vacancies in yttrium aluminum oxide garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 88(17), 174102 (2013).
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C. R. Varney, M. A. Khamehchi, J. Ji, and F. A. Selim, “X-ray luminescence based spectrometer for investigation of scintillation properties,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(10), 103112 (2012).
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S. M. Reda, C. R. Varney, and F. A. Selim, “Radio-luminescence and absence of trapping defects in Nd-doped YAG single crystals,” Results in Physics 2, 123–126 (2012).
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C. R. Varney, S. M. Reda, D. T. Mackay, M. C. Rowe, and F. A. Selim, “Strong visible and near infrared luminescence in undoped YAG single crystals,” AIP Adv. 1(4), 042170 (2011).
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S. N. Bagaev, V. V. Osipov, V. A. Shitov, S. M. Vatnik, and K. E. Lukyashin, “Synthesis of ceramic active Nd:YAG laser medium,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 25(4), 292–297 (2012).
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Y. Zorenko, V. Gorbenko, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nejezchleb, A. Vedda, V. Kolobanov, and D. Spassky, “Single crystalline film scintillators based on Ce- and Pr-doped aluminium garnets,” Radiat. Meas. 42(4-5), 521–527 (2007).
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S. Arjoca, E. G. Víllora, D. Inomata, Y. Arai, Y. Cho, T. Sekiguchi, and K. Shimamura, “High homogeneity, thermal stability and external quantum efficiency of Ce:YAG single-crystal powder phosphorsfor white LEDs,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 124(5), 574–578 (2016).
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N. Tsuruoka, T. Sasagawa, T. Yodo, M. Yoshimoto, O. Odawara, and H. Wada, “Facile preparation of YAG:Ce nanoparticles by laser irradiation in water and their optical properties,” Springerplus 5(1), 325 (2016).
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F. Huber, Z. Yu, J. C. Walmsley, D. Chen, H. J. Venvik, and A. Holmen, “Nanocrystalline Cu–Ce–Zr mixed oxide catalysts for water-gas shift: carbon nanofibers as dispersing agent for the mixed oxide particles,” Appl. Catal. B 71(1-2), 7–15 (2007).
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X. Zhang, D. Liu, J. Wang, H. Yu, H. Qin, Y. Sang, and H. Liu, “Fabrication and laser output of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics from microwave synthesized precursors,” Rare Met. 30(6), 607–615 (2011).
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Wang, W.

W. Wang, J. Tang, and S. T. Hus, “Energy transfer and enriched emission spectrum in Cr and Ce co-doped Y3Al5O12 yellow phosphors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457(1-3), 103–105 (2008).
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Wang, W. N.

T. Ogi, A. Bayu, D. Nandiyanto, W. N. Wang, F. Iskandar, and K. Okuyama, “Direct synthesis of spherical YAG:Ce phosphor from precursor solution containing polymer and urea,” Chem. Eng. J. 210, 461–466 (2012).
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D. Winarski, C. Persson, and F. A. Selim, “Hydrogen in Insulating Y3Al5O12 strongly narrows the energy gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 221110 (2014).
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Wu, R. K.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, G. C. Chi, and R. K. Wu, “White-light emission from near UV InGaN-GaN LED chip percolated with blue/green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(1), 18–20 (2003).
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J. Xu, R. Zeng, and Y. Gong, “Preparation of electrospun YAG:Ce nanofiber-based phosphor layer for white LEDs application,” Ceramics International 42(3), 4616–4620 (2016).

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W. J. Miniscalco, J. M. Pellegrino, and W. M. Yen, “Measurements of Excited‐State Absorption in Ce3+: YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 49(12), 6109 (1978).
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N. Tsuruoka, T. Sasagawa, T. Yodo, M. Yoshimoto, O. Odawara, and H. Wada, “Facile preparation of YAG:Ce nanoparticles by laser irradiation in water and their optical properties,” Springerplus 5(1), 325 (2016).
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Yoshimoto, M.

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X. Zhang, D. Liu, J. Wang, H. Yu, H. Qin, Y. Sang, and H. Liu, “Fabrication and laser output of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics from microwave synthesized precursors,” Rare Met. 30(6), 607–615 (2011).
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Yu, Z.

F. Huber, Z. Yu, J. C. Walmsley, D. Chen, H. J. Venvik, and A. Holmen, “Nanocrystalline Cu–Ce–Zr mixed oxide catalysts for water-gas shift: carbon nanofibers as dispersing agent for the mixed oxide particles,” Appl. Catal. B 71(1-2), 7–15 (2007).
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X. Zhang, D. Liu, J. Wang, H. Yu, H. Qin, Y. Sang, and H. Liu, “Fabrication and laser output of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics from microwave synthesized precursors,” Rare Met. 30(6), 607–615 (2011).
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Zhao, L.

D. Guo, B. Ma, L. Zhao, J. Qiu, W. Liu, Y. Sang, J. Claverie, and H. Liu, “Bright YAG:Ce Nanorod Phosphors Prepared via a Partial Wet Chemical Route and Biolabeling Applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(19), 11990–11997 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zorenko, Y.

Y. Zorenko, V. Gorbenko, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nejezchleb, A. Vedda, V. Kolobanov, and D. Spassky, “Single crystalline film scintillators based on Ce- and Pr-doped aluminium garnets,” Radiat. Meas. 42(4-5), 521–527 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zukauskas, A.

M. S. Shur and A. Zukauskas, “Solid-State Lighting: Toward Superior Illumination,” Proc. IEEE 93(10), 1691 (2005).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

D. Guo, B. Ma, L. Zhao, J. Qiu, W. Liu, Y. Sang, J. Claverie, and H. Liu, “Bright YAG:Ce Nanorod Phosphors Prepared via a Partial Wet Chemical Route and Biolabeling Applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(19), 11990–11997 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Phys. Pol. A (1)

C. R. Varney and F. A. Selim, “Positron Lifetime Measurements of Vacancy Defects in Complex Oxides,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 125(3), 764–766 (2014).
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Adv. Appl. Ceramics (1)

J. M. Choi, S. S. Kim, and S. P. Chang, “Effects of the surface area of phosphor powders on colour coordinate variance,” Adv. Appl. Ceramics 115(4), 210–215 (2016).
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Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. (1)

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AIMS Materials Science (1)

C. R. Varney and F. A. Selim, “Color Centers in YAG,” AIMS Materials Science 2(4), 560–572 (2015).
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AIP Adv. (1)

C. R. Varney, S. M. Reda, D. T. Mackay, M. C. Rowe, and F. A. Selim, “Strong visible and near infrared luminescence in undoped YAG single crystals,” AIP Adv. 1(4), 042170 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Catal. B (1)

F. Huber, Z. Yu, J. C. Walmsley, D. Chen, H. J. Venvik, and A. Holmen, “Nanocrystalline Cu–Ce–Zr mixed oxide catalysts for water-gas shift: carbon nanofibers as dispersing agent for the mixed oxide particles,” Appl. Catal. B 71(1-2), 7–15 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. Ji, L. A. Boatner, and F. A. Selim, “Donor characterization in ZnO by thermally stimulated luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(4), 041102 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Winarski, C. Persson, and F. A. Selim, “Hydrogen in Insulating Y3Al5O12 strongly narrows the energy gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 221110 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Laser Oscillations In Nd-Doped Yttrium Aluminum, Yttrium Gallium and Gadolinium Garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(10), 182 (1964).
[Crossref]

R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, “Measurement of Excited‐State‐Absorption Loss for Ce3+ in Y3Al5O12 and Implications for Tunable 5d→4f Rare Earth Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33(5), 410–412 (1978).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 X-ray diffraction patterns of YAG NPs grown with acetic acid and ethylene glycol and annealed at 900°C. No impurity phase was detected in the sample.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 X-ray diffraction patterns of Ce:YAG NPs after each anneal. The dotted lines represent fits for the measurements.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 SEM micrographs showing particle morphologies for the two Ce:YAG NPs: (a) grown using acetic acid and ethylene glycol and annealed at 800°C, (b) and (c) grown using urea and vinyl alcohol and annealed at 900°C with different magnification.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 XRIL of Ce:YAG NPs: (a) grown using acetic acid and Ethylene glycol and annealed at 900°C, (b) grown using urea and vinyl alcohol and annealed at 800°C, (c) Effect of chemical routes on XRIL emission. (d) Effect of annealing temperature on XRIL emission from the sample prepared by Urea and vinyl alcohol. No emission was detected from samples annealed below 800°C.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 PL emission spectra of Ce:YAG NPs under 455 nm excitation light. (a) grown with urea and vinyl alcohol and annealed at 800 and 1100°C. (b) Effect of chemical routes after annealing at 800 and 900°C. No emission was detected from samples annealed below 800°C.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Contour plots of TSL in Ce:YAG single crystals and bulk ceramics from room temperature to 400 °C.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison of high-temperature TSL glow curves.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Contour plots of TSL in Ce: YAG crystals and bulk ceramics from −190 °C to room temperature.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Comparison of low-temperature TSL glow curves.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a): Contour plot and (b) glow curve of high- and low-temperature TSL in Ce:YAG nanophosphors. The measurements exhibit high level of noise because of the very weak emission.

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