Abstract

By using the graphene-SiO2-Si-dielectrics-metallic ground plane (GSiO2SiDM) structures, we investigate the tunable properties of graphene metamaterials (MMs) absorbers in the terahertz region, including the effects of operation frequency, Fermi level, and graphene structure patterns. The results manifest that the graphene tunable GSiO2SiDM structure can achieve net absorption by changing structure parameters and the Fermi level of graphene layer. The resonant absorption and reflection curves of the GSiO2SiDM structures can be shifted in a wide range via controlling the applied electric fields. The modulation depth of resonant amplitude and frequency can reach more than 60% and 30%, respectively. The resonant peak (dip) of the absorption (reflection) curves shift to high frequency with the increase of Fermi level of the graphene layer. Due to broad absorption curve, the graphene MMs absorbers structures are suitable for the fabrication of broad absorber. The results are very useful to design novel devices, such as thermal detectors, imager, and biosensors.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (7)

X. Y. He, “Tunable terahertz graphene metamaterials,” Carbon 82, 229–237 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin perfect absorbers for electromagnetic waves: theory, design, and realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. L. Gu, X. G. Guo, Z. L. Fu, W. J. Wan, R. Zhang, Z. Y. Tan, and J. C. Cao, “Optical-phonon-mediated photocurrent in terahertz quantum-well photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, R. Singh, L. Du, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active graphene-silicon hybrid diode for terahertz waves,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7082 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. He, Z. Y. Zhao, and W. Shi, “Graphene-supported tunable near-IR metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 178–181 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Nevius, M. Conrad, F. Wang, A. Celis, M. N. Nair, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, A. Tejeda, and E. H. Conrad, “Semiconducting graphene from highly ordered substrate interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 136802 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Feng, N. N. Dong, Y. X. Li, X. Y. Zhang, C. X. Chang, S. F. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Host matrix effect on the near infrared saturation performance of graphene absorbers,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 802–808 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

Y. Wen, W. Ma, J. Bailey, G. Matmon, G. Aeppli, and X. Yu, “Absorption modulation of terahertz metamaterial by varying the conductivity of ground plane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 141111 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. J. H. McCrindle, J. Grant, T. D. Drysdale, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Multi-spectral materials: hybridisation of optical plasmonic filters and a terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Adv. Optical Mater. 2(2), 149–153 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Y. He and R. Li, “Comparison of graphene-based transverse magnetic and electric surface plasmon modes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(1), 4600106 (2014).

2013 (7)

D. Shrekenhamer, W. C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 394–399 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Tan, T. Zhou, J. C. Cao, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz imaging with quantum-cascade laser and quantum-well photodetector,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1344–1346 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Y. He, J. Tao, and B. Meng, “Analysis of graphene TE surface plasmons in the terahertz regime,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345203 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. H. Zhang, J. G. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. L. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. M. Mittleman, “Frontiers in terahertz sources and plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 666–669 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, C. Y. Song, T. E. Lanier, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, W. M. Dennis, Y. P. Zhao, and W. L. Zhang, “Tailoring terahertz plasmons with silver nanorod arrays,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1766 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (7)

W. Cao, R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. He, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Low-loss ultra-high-Q dark mode plasmonic Fano metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3366–3368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, A. Tredicucci, F. Léonard, and J. Kono, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Alaee, M. Farhat, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “A perfect absorber made of a graphene micro-ribbon metamaterial,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28017–28024 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Alves, D. Grbovic, B. Kearney, and G. Karunasiri, “Microelectromechanical systems bimaterial terahertz sensor with integrated metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1886–1888 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

2010 (1)

A. R. Wright and C. Zhang, “Dynamic conductivity of graphene with electron-LO-phonon interaction,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165413 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. R. Wright, J. C. Cao, and C. Zhang, “Enhanced optical conductivity of bilayer graphene nanoribbons in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(20), 207401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Y. He, “Numerical analysis of the propagation properties of subwavelength semiconductor slit in the terahertz region,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15359–15371 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions for an anisotropic, non-Local model of biased graphene,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 56(3), 131108 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(2), 026222 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

J. T. Lü and J. C. Cao, “Coulomb scattering in the Monte Carlo simulation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211115 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aeppli, G.

Y. Wen, W. Ma, J. Bailey, G. Matmon, G. Aeppli, and X. Yu, “Absorption modulation of terahertz metamaterial by varying the conductivity of ground plane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 141111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alaee, R.

Al-Naib, I. A. I.

Alves, F.

Averitt, R. D.

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 394–399 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, J.

Y. Wen, W. Ma, J. Bailey, G. Matmon, G. Aeppli, and X. Yu, “Absorption modulation of terahertz metamaterial by varying the conductivity of ground plane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 141111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bingham, C. M.

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burger, S.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cao, J. C.

L. L. Gu, X. G. Guo, Z. L. Fu, W. J. Wan, R. Zhang, Z. Y. Tan, and J. C. Cao, “Optical-phonon-mediated photocurrent in terahertz quantum-well photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Tan, T. Zhou, J. C. Cao, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz imaging with quantum-cascade laser and quantum-well photodetector,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1344–1346 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. R. Wright, J. C. Cao, and C. Zhang, “Enhanced optical conductivity of bilayer graphene nanoribbons in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(20), 207401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Lü and J. C. Cao, “Coulomb scattering in the Monte Carlo simulation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

W. Cao, C. Y. Song, T. E. Lanier, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, W. M. Dennis, Y. P. Zhao, and W. L. Zhang, “Tailoring terahertz plasmons with silver nanorod arrays,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1766 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. H. Zhang, J. G. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. L. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. He, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Low-loss ultra-high-Q dark mode plasmonic Fano metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3366–3368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carbotte, J. P.

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(2), 026222 (2007).
[Crossref]

Celis, A.

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X. Y. He and R. Li, “Comparison of graphene-based transverse magnetic and electric surface plasmon modes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(1), 4600106 (2014).

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M. S. Nevius, M. Conrad, F. Wang, A. Celis, M. N. Nair, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, A. Tejeda, and E. H. Conrad, “Semiconducting graphene from highly ordered substrate interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 136802 (2015).
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Saha, S. C.

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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
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Sensale-Rodriguez, B.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
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Sharapov, S. G.

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(2), 026222 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. R.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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Shi, W.

Shrekenhamer, D.

D. Shrekenhamer, W. C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177403 (2013).
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Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin perfect absorbers for electromagnetic waves: theory, design, and realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
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Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, R. Singh, L. Du, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active graphene-silicon hybrid diode for terahertz waves,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7082 (2015).
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W. Cao, C. Y. Song, T. E. Lanier, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, W. M. Dennis, Y. P. Zhao, and W. L. Zhang, “Tailoring terahertz plasmons with silver nanorod arrays,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1766 (2013).
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W. Cao, R. Singh, C. H. Zhang, J. G. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. L. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
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W. Cao, R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. He, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Low-loss ultra-high-Q dark mode plasmonic Fano metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3366–3368 (2012).
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Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8912–8919 (2011).
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N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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Song, C. Y.

W. Cao, C. Y. Song, T. E. Lanier, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, W. M. Dennis, Y. P. Zhao, and W. L. Zhang, “Tailoring terahertz plasmons with silver nanorod arrays,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1766 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C. M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Strikwerda, A. C.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
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Tahy, K.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
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M. S. Nevius, M. Conrad, F. Wang, A. Celis, M. N. Nair, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, A. Tejeda, and E. H. Conrad, “Semiconducting graphene from highly ordered substrate interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 136802 (2015).
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L. L. Gu, X. G. Guo, Z. L. Fu, W. J. Wan, R. Zhang, Z. Y. Tan, and J. C. Cao, “Optical-phonon-mediated photocurrent in terahertz quantum-well photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111107 (2015).
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Z. Y. Tan, T. Zhou, J. C. Cao, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz imaging with quantum-cascade laser and quantum-well photodetector,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1344–1346 (2013).
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H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
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Tejeda, A.

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Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, R. Singh, L. Du, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active graphene-silicon hybrid diode for terahertz waves,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7082 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8912–8919 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tonouchi, M.

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. H. Zhang, J. G. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. L. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
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L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, A. Tredicucci, F. Léonard, and J. Kono, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
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Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin perfect absorbers for electromagnetic waves: theory, design, and realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
[Crossref]

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H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
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N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
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L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, A. Tredicucci, F. Léonard, and J. Kono, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
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L. L. Gu, X. G. Guo, Z. L. Fu, W. J. Wan, R. Zhang, Z. Y. Tan, and J. C. Cao, “Optical-phonon-mediated photocurrent in terahertz quantum-well photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

M. S. Nevius, M. Conrad, F. Wang, A. Celis, M. N. Nair, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, A. Tejeda, and E. H. Conrad, “Semiconducting graphene from highly ordered substrate interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 136802 (2015).
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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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Wegener, M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
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Wen, Y.

Y. Wen, W. Ma, J. Bailey, G. Matmon, G. Aeppli, and X. Yu, “Absorption modulation of terahertz metamaterial by varying the conductivity of ground plane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 141111 (2014).
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B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
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A. R. Wright and C. Zhang, “Dynamic conductivity of graphene with electron-LO-phonon interaction,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165413 (2010).
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A. R. Wright, J. C. Cao, and C. Zhang, “Enhanced optical conductivity of bilayer graphene nanoribbons in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(20), 207401 (2009).
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H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 394–399 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
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H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 394–399 (2013).
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H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
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Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
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H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 394–399 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, R.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, X.

Y. Wen, W. Ma, J. Bailey, G. Matmon, G. Aeppli, and X. Yu, “Absorption modulation of terahertz metamaterial by varying the conductivity of ground plane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 141111 (2014).
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Zettl, A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

A. R. Wright and C. Zhang, “Dynamic conductivity of graphene with electron-LO-phonon interaction,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165413 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. R. Wright, J. C. Cao, and C. Zhang, “Enhanced optical conductivity of bilayer graphene nanoribbons in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(20), 207401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C. H.

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. H. Zhang, J. G. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. L. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

L. L. Gu, X. G. Guo, Z. L. Fu, W. J. Wan, R. Zhang, Z. Y. Tan, and J. C. Cao, “Optical-phonon-mediated photocurrent in terahertz quantum-well photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. F.

Zhang, W.

Zhang, W. L.

W. Cao, C. Y. Song, T. E. Lanier, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, W. M. Dennis, Y. P. Zhao, and W. L. Zhang, “Tailoring terahertz plasmons with silver nanorod arrays,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1766 (2013).
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W. Cao, R. Singh, C. H. Zhang, J. G. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. L. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, R. Singh, L. Du, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active graphene-silicon hybrid diode for terahertz waves,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7082 (2015).
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H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
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H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
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Zhang, X. C.

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
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Zhang, X. Y.

Zhao, Y. P.

W. Cao, C. Y. Song, T. E. Lanier, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, W. M. Dennis, Y. P. Zhao, and W. L. Zhang, “Tailoring terahertz plasmons with silver nanorod arrays,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1766 (2013).
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Zhao, Z. Y.

Zhou, J.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
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Z. Y. Tan, T. Zhou, J. C. Cao, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz imaging with quantum-cascade laser and quantum-well photodetector,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1344–1346 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, W.

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 394–399 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
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I. J. H. McCrindle, J. Grant, T. D. Drysdale, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Multi-spectral materials: hybridisation of optical plasmonic filters and a terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Adv. Optical Mater. 2(2), 149–153 (2014).
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Y. Wen, W. Ma, J. Bailey, G. Matmon, G. Aeppli, and X. Yu, “Absorption modulation of terahertz metamaterial by varying the conductivity of ground plane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 141111 (2014).
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L. L. Gu, X. G. Guo, Z. L. Fu, W. J. Wan, R. Zhang, Z. Y. Tan, and J. C. Cao, “Optical-phonon-mediated photocurrent in terahertz quantum-well photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111107 (2015).
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W. Cao, R. Singh, C. H. Zhang, J. G. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. L. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
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Z. Y. Tan, T. Zhou, J. C. Cao, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz imaging with quantum-cascade laser and quantum-well photodetector,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1344–1346 (2013).
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V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(2), 026222 (2007).
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Nano Lett. (1)

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
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Nanotechnology (1)

X. Y. He, J. Tao, and B. Meng, “Analysis of graphene TE surface plasmons in the terahertz regime,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345203 (2013).
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Nat. Commun. (2)

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, R. Singh, L. Du, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active graphene-silicon hybrid diode for terahertz waves,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7082 (2015).
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Nat. Mater. (2)

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
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L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, A. Tredicucci, F. Léonard, and J. Kono, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
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Nat. Photonics (3)

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 394–399 (2013).
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Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

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Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin perfect absorbers for electromagnetic waves: theory, design, and realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
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Phys. Rev. B (3)

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
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H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

A. R. Wright, J. C. Cao, and C. Zhang, “Enhanced optical conductivity of bilayer graphene nanoribbons in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(20), 207401 (2009).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The side view of the graphene MMs structure, the graphene patterns is deposited on the SiO2/Si layers. 1(b)-1(d) The top views of geometry and dimensions of the several kinds of metamaterials unit cell structures. 1(b) the circular structure, D = 24 μm; 1(c) the rectangular structure, w = h = 24 μm; 1(d) the cross-shaped structure, w = 12 μm, h = 24 μm. The periodic length along x and y directions are both 32 μm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 2(a)-2(c) show the absorption, reflection, ε and μ of the MMs structure based on the circular shaped unit cell. The Fermi levels of the graphene layer are 0.1 eV, 0.2 eV, 0.3 eV, 0.5 eV, 0.8 eV and 1.0 eV, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 3(a)-3(c) show the surface current density, Ex and Ey of the graphene MMs structures based on the circular-shaped unit cell. The polarization direction of the incident light is along y direction. The resonant frequency is 1.70 THz. The Fermi level of the graphene layer is 0.5 eV.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 4(a) and 4(b) show the absorption and reflection of the MMs structures based on the rectangular unit cell, the polarization of the incident wave is along y direction. The Fermi levels of the graphene layer are 0.1 eV, 0.2 eV, 0.3 eV, 0.5 eV, 0.8 eV, and 1.0 eV, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a)-5(c) show the surface current density, Ex and Ey of the graphene MMs structures based on the rectangular-shaped unit cell. The polarization direction of the incident light is along y direction. The resonant frequency is 1.47 THz. The Fermi level of the graphene layer is 0.5 eV.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 6(a) and 6(b) show the absorption and reflection curves of the MMs structures based on the cross-shaped unit cell, the polarization of the incident wave is along y direction. The Fermi levels of graphene layer are 0.1 eV, 0.2 eV, 0.3 eV, 0.5 eV, 0.8 eV, and 1.0 eV, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 7(a)-7(c) show the surface current density, Ex and Ey of the graphene MMs structures based on the cross-shaped unit cell. The polarization direction of the incident light is along y direction. The resonant frequency is 1.62 THz. The Fermi level of the graphene layer is 0.5 eV.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 The comparison of absorptive properties of several kinds of different unit cell structure

Equations (3)

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σ( ω, μ c ,τ,T )= σ inter + σ intra = j e 2 ( ωj τ 1 ) π 2 × [ 1 ( ωj τ 1 ) 2 0 f d ( ε ) ε f d ( ε ) ε dε 0 f d ( ε ) f d ( ε ) ( ωj τ 1 ) 2 4 ( ε/ ) 2 dε ]
ε g =1+j σ g ω ε 0 Δ
n d = 1 π 2 v F 2 f d ( ε ) f d ( ε+2 E f )εdε

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