Abstract

Abstract: IGZO/PET specimens were respectively prepared with 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60° as the inclination angle of the thin film deposition. The n-type conductivity was identified in these specimens. The following parameters, including the film thickness and morphologies of the top and lateral surfaces, the mechanical properties, chemical compounds and their primary lattices in X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and the X-ray photoelectron spectrometries (XPS) for Ga2p, Ga3d, In3d, Zn2p, and O1s are presented. IR is defined as the intensity ratio of the InGaO3(ZnO)3 peak value to the sum of the peak values of InGaO3(ZnO)3 and InGaZnO4. Decompositions of the O1s and Ga3d spectra provide nearly Gaussian profiles of Ga-Ga, In4d, Ga-O, O1, O2, and O3. The O2 intensity ratio IRO2, which is defined as the ratio of O2 peak intensity to the peak intensity sum of O1 and O2, was evaluated for these five specimens. Depth profiles of the distributions of O, Zn, Ga, and In ions were obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and the slope (Go) of the O-ion profile in the decaying region was obtained as a function of inclination angle. Increases in the inclination angle can effectively reduce surface roughness. The peak intensities of Ga2p, Ga3d, In3d, Zn2p, and O1s formed in the specimen preparations with a nonzero inclination angle were always lower than those of the IGZO_0° specimen. Although an increase in inclination angle can raise the IRO2 value, a nonzero inclination angle yielded an IR value lower than that of the IGZO_0° specimen. Moreover, the IRO2 value increased with (negative) Go decrease as the response. The combined result of increasing IRO2 and the In-O and Ga-O bonds, and decreasing the IGZO film thickness can increase light transmission. Specimens with a larger surface roughness result in a higher reflection. The IR parameter for the specimens with a nonzero inclination angle has a value smaller than that of the IGZO_0° specimen; as such, an increase in IR is advantageous for increasing the n-type conductivity. The decreasing rate of extinction coefficient k with respect to wavelength in the visible light region increases significantly with increasing IRO2. IR and IRO2 are therefore the governing factors of the peak intensities for the three decomposed profiles of micro-photoluminescence (PL). Increasing IR and IRO2 or decreasing film thickness is advantageous for increasing the PL peak intensities. Increases in the product values of IR and IRO2 are favorable for increasing the peak intensities of violet and ultraviolet.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

N. Tiwari, H. P. D. Shieh, and P.-T. Liu, “Structural, optical, and photoluminescence study of ZnO/IGZO thin film for thin film transistor application,” Mater. Lett. 151, 53–56 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, Z. X. Song, F. Ma, Y. H. Li, and K. W. Xu, “Effects of high-temperature thermal annealing on the electronic properties of In-Ga-Zn oxide thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 33(2), 021520 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

L. Li, L. Fan, Y. Li, Z. Song, F. Ma, and C. Liu, “Effect of thermal annealing on the properties of transparent conductive In–Ga–Zn oxide thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 021506 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. T. Huang and H. C. Chen, “Automatic measurement and stress analysis of ITO/PET flexible substrate by shadow moiré interferometer with phase-shifting interferometry,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(7), 609–614 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

B. Y. Su, S. Y. Chu, Y. D. Juang, and S. Y. Liu, “Effects of Mg doping on the gate bias and thermal stability of solution-processed InGaZnO thin-film transistors,” J. Alloys Compd. 580, 10–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, L. Gong, L. Xie, and S. Zhang, “Comparison of the electrical and optical properties of direct current and radio frequency sputtered amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 527, 21–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. T. T. Nguyen, O. Renault, B. Aventurier, G. Rodriguez, J. P. Barnes, and F. Templier, “Analysis of IGZO thin-film transistors by XPS and relation with electrical characteristics,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(9), 770–774 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Liu, T. P. Chen, Z. Liu, C. S. Tan, and K. C. Leong, “Effect of O2 plasma immersion on electrical properties and transistor performance of indium gallium zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 545, 533–536 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. J. Kang, J. Baik, H. J. Shin, J. G. Chung, K. H. Kim, and J. Lee, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of air-annealed amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film surface electronic and photonic devices, and systems,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(9), 192–194 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Jung, H. I. Kang, and D. H. Yoon, “The electrical, optical, and structural properties of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide films and channel thin-film transistors,” Solid-State Electron. 79, 125–129 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Pu, Q. Zhou, L. Yue, and Q. Zhang, “Investigation of oxygen plasma treatment on the device performance of solution-processed a-IGZO thin film transistors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 722–726 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

A. C. Galca, G. Socol, and V. Craciun, “Optical properties of amorphous-like indium zinc oxide and indium gallium zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 520(14), 4722–4725 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Thakur, H. Yoo, S. J. Kang, J. Y. Baik, I. J. Lee, H. K. Lee, K. Kim, B. Kim, S. Jung, J. Park, and H. J. Shin, “Effects of substrate temperature on structural, electrical and optical properties of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 1(1), 11–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. H. Jung, H. J. Moon, M. K. Ryu, K. I. Cho, B. S. Bae, and E. J. Yun, “The effects of high-energy electron beam irradiation on the properties of IGZO thin films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering,” J. Ceram. Process. Res. 13, s246–s250 (2012).

J. H. Kim, D. K. Seo, C. H. Ahn, S. W. Shin, H. H. Cho, and H. K. Cho, “Hybrid solution processed InGaO3(ZnO)m thin films with periodic layered structures and thermoelectric properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(32), 16312–16317 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. H. Yang, J. Y. Kim, M. J. Park, K. H. Choi, J. S. Kwak, H. K. Kim, and J. M. Lee, “Low resistance ohmic contacts to amorphous IGZO thin films by hydrogen plasma treatment,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 206(24), 5067–5071 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

T. Chen, M. Y. Wu, R. Ishihara, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, and C. I. M. Beenakker, “Excimer laser crystallization of InGaZnO4 on SiO4 substrate,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 22(11), 1694–1696 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhao, X. W. Sun, H. Ryu, and Y. B. Moon, “Thermally stable transparent conducting and highly infrared reflective Ga-doped ZnO thin films by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 768–772 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Wu, L. Fang, Y. J. Pan, K. Zhou, H. B. Ruan, G. B. Liu, and C. Y. Kong, “Effect of annealing treatment on structural, electrical, and optical properties of Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520(2), 703–707 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. J. Liu, S. H. Su, H. W. Fang, J. H. Hsieh, and J. Y. Juang, “Effects of Cr doping on physical properties of amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(23), 10018–10021 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (7)

T. Aoi, N. Oka, Y. Sato, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, and Y. Shigesato, “DC sputter deposition of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc–oxide (a-IGZO) films with H2O introduction,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3004–3007 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. U. Sim, S. W. Shin, A. V. Moholkar, J. H. Yun, J. H. Moon, and J. H. Kim, “Effects of dopant (Al, Ga, and In) on the characteristics of ZnO thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering system,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(3), S463–S467 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Yang, X. M. Li, X. D. Gao, X. Cao, R. Yang, and Y. Z. Li, “Effects of the oxygen pressure on the structural and optical properties of ZnBeMgO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(7), 978–981 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Prasada Rao, M. C. Santhosh Kumar, A. Safarulla, V. Ganesan, S. R. Barman, and C. Sanjeeviraja, “Physical properties of ZnO thin films deposited at various substrate temperatures using spray pyrolysis,” Physica B 405(9), 2226–2231 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Rim, D. L. Kim, W. H. Jeong, and H. J. Kim, “Effect of Zr addition on ZnSnO thin-film transistors using a solution process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 233502 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Kamiya and H. Hosono, “Material characteristics and applications of transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors,” NPG Asia Mater. 2(1), 15–22 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Jeong, Y. G. Ha, J. Moon, A. Facchetti, and T. J. Marks, “Role of gallium doping in dramatically lowering amorphous-oxide processing temperatures for solution-derived indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors,” Adv. Mater. 22(12), 1346–1350 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

G. H. Kim, H. S. Kim, H. S. Shin, B. D. Ahn, K. H. Kim, and H. J. Kim, “Inkjet-printed InGaZnO thin film transistor,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4007–4010 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. W. Park, P. S. Jeong, S. H. Choi, H. Lee, B. H. Kong, and H. K. Cho, “Optical and structural properties of ion-implanted InGaZnO thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmission electron microscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(11), 111603 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Song, D. Kim, X. S. Li, T. Jun, Y. Jeong, and J. Moon, “Solution processed invisible all-oxide thin film transistors,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(46), 8881–8886 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Sato, K. Abe, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O coplanar homojunction thin-film transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 133502 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. S. Park, T. W. Kim, D. Stryakhilev, J. S. Lee, S. G. An, Y. S. Pyo, D. B. Lee, Y. G. Mo, D. U. Jin, and H. K. Chung, “Flexible full color organic light-emitting diode display on polyimide plastic substrate driven by amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013503 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Beena, K. J. Lethy, R. Vinodkumar, V. P. Mahadevan Pillai, V. Ganesan, D. M. Phase, and S. K. Sudheer, “Effect of substrate temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of pulsed laser ablated nanostructured indium oxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(20), 8334–8342 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

D. C. Paine, B. Yaglioglu, Z. Beiley, and S. Lee, “Amorphous IZO-based transparent thin film transistors,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5894–5898 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Suresh, P. Gollakota, P. Wellenius, A. Dhawan, and J. F. Muth, “Transparent, high mobility InGaZnO thin films deposited by PLD,” Thin Solid Films 516(7), 1326–1329 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Yanagi, E. Ikenaga, K. Yang, K. Kobayashi, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Subgap states in transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor, In–Ga–Zn–O, observed by bulk sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 202117 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

S. Wang, G. Xia, H. He, K. Yi, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Structural and optical properties of nanostructured TiO2 thin films fabricated by glancing angle deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 431(1-2), 287–291 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition: fabrication, properties, and applications of micro- and nanostructured thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 25(5), 1317–1335 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Kang, I. Song, C. Kim, Y. Park, T. D. Kang, H. S. Lee, J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, S. H. Choi, and H. Lee, “Effect of Ga/In ratio on the optical and electrical properties of GaInZnO thin films grown on SiO2/Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091910 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Y. J. Lin, C. L. Tsai, Y. M. Lu, and C. J. Liu, “Optical and electrical properties of undoped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093501 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

D. H. Fan, Z. Y. Ning, and M. F. Jiang, “Characteristics and luminescence of Ge doped ZnO films prepared by alternate radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 245(1-4), 414–419 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Bae, C. W. Na, J. H. Kang, and J. Park, “Comparative structure and optical properties of Ga-, In-, and Sn-doped ZnO nanowires synthesized via thermal evaporation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(7), 2526–2531 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Kumar, H. Gong, and R. Akkipeddi, “A study of conduction in the transition zone between homologous and ZnO-rich regions in the In2O3–ZnO system,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063706 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. L. Zhang and J. C. M. Li, “Anisotropic elastic moduli and Poisson’s ratios of a poly(ethylene terephthalate) film,” J. Polym. Sci. Pt. B-Polym, Phys. 42, 260–266 (2004).

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors,” Nature 432(7016), 488–492 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

K. Matsubara, P. Fons, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, and S. Niki, “Room-temperature deposition of Al-doped ZnO films by oxygen radical-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 422(1-2), 176–179 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. H. Zhang, Z. Y. Xue, and Q. P. Wang, “The mechanisms of blue emission from ZnO films deposited on glass substrate by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(21), 2837–2840 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

M. Suzuki and Y. Taga, “Numerical study of the effective surface area of obliquely deposited thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(11), 5599–5605 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. W. Seto, B. Dick, and M. J. Brett, “Microsprings and microcantilevers: studies of mechanical response,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 11(5), 582–588 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

X. W. Zhou, R. A. Johnson, and H. N. G. Wadley, “A molecular dynamics study of nickel vapor deposition: temperature, incident angle, and adatom energy effects,” Acta Mater. 45(4), 1513–1524 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Modelling and characterization of columnar growth in evaporated films,” Thin Solid Films 226(2), 196–201 (1993).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1984 (1)

M. Harris, M. Bowden, and H. A. Macleod, “Refractive index variations in dielectric films having columnar microstructure,” Opt. Commun. 51(1), 29–32 (1984).
[Crossref]

Abe, K.

A. Sato, K. Abe, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O coplanar homojunction thin-film transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 133502 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ahn, B. D.

G. H. Kim, H. S. Kim, H. S. Shin, B. D. Ahn, K. H. Kim, and H. J. Kim, “Inkjet-printed InGaZnO thin film transistor,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4007–4010 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ahn, C. H.

J. H. Kim, D. K. Seo, C. H. Ahn, S. W. Shin, H. H. Cho, and H. K. Cho, “Hybrid solution processed InGaO3(ZnO)m thin films with periodic layered structures and thermoelectric properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(32), 16312–16317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Akkipeddi, R.

B. Kumar, H. Gong, and R. Akkipeddi, “A study of conduction in the transition zone between homologous and ZnO-rich regions in the In2O3–ZnO system,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063706 (2005).
[Crossref]

An, S. G.

J. S. Park, T. W. Kim, D. Stryakhilev, J. S. Lee, S. G. An, Y. S. Pyo, D. B. Lee, Y. G. Mo, D. U. Jin, and H. K. Chung, “Flexible full color organic light-emitting diode display on polyimide plastic substrate driven by amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Aoi, T.

T. Aoi, N. Oka, Y. Sato, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, and Y. Shigesato, “DC sputter deposition of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc–oxide (a-IGZO) films with H2O introduction,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3004–3007 (2010).
[Crossref]

Aventurier, B.

T. T. T. Nguyen, O. Renault, B. Aventurier, G. Rodriguez, J. P. Barnes, and F. Templier, “Analysis of IGZO thin-film transistors by XPS and relation with electrical characteristics,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(9), 770–774 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bae, B. S.

S. H. Jung, H. J. Moon, M. K. Ryu, K. I. Cho, B. S. Bae, and E. J. Yun, “The effects of high-energy electron beam irradiation on the properties of IGZO thin films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering,” J. Ceram. Process. Res. 13, s246–s250 (2012).

Bae, S. Y.

S. Y. Bae, C. W. Na, J. H. Kang, and J. Park, “Comparative structure and optical properties of Ga-, In-, and Sn-doped ZnO nanowires synthesized via thermal evaporation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(7), 2526–2531 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baek, S. H.

D. Kang, I. Song, C. Kim, Y. Park, T. D. Kang, H. S. Lee, J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, S. H. Choi, and H. Lee, “Effect of Ga/In ratio on the optical and electrical properties of GaInZnO thin films grown on SiO2/Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baik, J.

S. J. Kang, J. Baik, H. J. Shin, J. G. Chung, K. H. Kim, and J. Lee, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of air-annealed amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film surface electronic and photonic devices, and systems,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(9), 192–194 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baik, J. Y.

A. Thakur, H. Yoo, S. J. Kang, J. Y. Baik, I. J. Lee, H. K. Lee, K. Kim, B. Kim, S. Jung, J. Park, and H. J. Shin, “Effects of substrate temperature on structural, electrical and optical properties of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 1(1), 11–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barman, S. R.

T. Prasada Rao, M. C. Santhosh Kumar, A. Safarulla, V. Ganesan, S. R. Barman, and C. Sanjeeviraja, “Physical properties of ZnO thin films deposited at various substrate temperatures using spray pyrolysis,” Physica B 405(9), 2226–2231 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barnes, J. P.

T. T. T. Nguyen, O. Renault, B. Aventurier, G. Rodriguez, J. P. Barnes, and F. Templier, “Analysis of IGZO thin-film transistors by XPS and relation with electrical characteristics,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(9), 770–774 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beena, D.

D. Beena, K. J. Lethy, R. Vinodkumar, V. P. Mahadevan Pillai, V. Ganesan, D. M. Phase, and S. K. Sudheer, “Effect of substrate temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of pulsed laser ablated nanostructured indium oxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(20), 8334–8342 (2009).
[Crossref]

Beenakker, C. I. M.

T. Chen, M. Y. Wu, R. Ishihara, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, and C. I. M. Beenakker, “Excimer laser crystallization of InGaZnO4 on SiO4 substrate,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 22(11), 1694–1696 (2011).
[Crossref]

Beiley, Z.

D. C. Paine, B. Yaglioglu, Z. Beiley, and S. Lee, “Amorphous IZO-based transparent thin film transistors,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5894–5898 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bowden, M.

M. Harris, M. Bowden, and H. A. Macleod, “Refractive index variations in dielectric films having columnar microstructure,” Opt. Commun. 51(1), 29–32 (1984).
[Crossref]

Brett, M. J.

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition: fabrication, properties, and applications of micro- and nanostructured thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 25(5), 1317–1335 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. W. Seto, B. Dick, and M. J. Brett, “Microsprings and microcantilevers: studies of mechanical response,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 11(5), 582–588 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Modelling and characterization of columnar growth in evaporated films,” Thin Solid Films 226(2), 196–201 (1993).
[Crossref]

Cao, X.

C. Yang, X. M. Li, X. D. Gao, X. Cao, R. Yang, and Y. Z. Li, “Effects of the oxygen pressure on the structural and optical properties of ZnBeMgO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(7), 978–981 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. C.

K. T. Huang and H. C. Chen, “Automatic measurement and stress analysis of ITO/PET flexible substrate by shadow moiré interferometer with phase-shifting interferometry,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(7), 609–614 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

T. Chen, M. Y. Wu, R. Ishihara, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, and C. I. M. Beenakker, “Excimer laser crystallization of InGaZnO4 on SiO4 substrate,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 22(11), 1694–1696 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. P.

P. Liu, T. P. Chen, Z. Liu, C. S. Tan, and K. C. Leong, “Effect of O2 plasma immersion on electrical properties and transistor performance of indium gallium zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 545, 533–536 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cho, H. H.

J. H. Kim, D. K. Seo, C. H. Ahn, S. W. Shin, H. H. Cho, and H. K. Cho, “Hybrid solution processed InGaO3(ZnO)m thin films with periodic layered structures and thermoelectric properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(32), 16312–16317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cho, H. K.

J. H. Kim, D. K. Seo, C. H. Ahn, S. W. Shin, H. H. Cho, and H. K. Cho, “Hybrid solution processed InGaO3(ZnO)m thin films with periodic layered structures and thermoelectric properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(32), 16312–16317 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. W. Park, P. S. Jeong, S. H. Choi, H. Lee, B. H. Kong, and H. K. Cho, “Optical and structural properties of ion-implanted InGaZnO thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmission electron microscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(11), 111603 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cho, K. I.

S. H. Jung, H. J. Moon, M. K. Ryu, K. I. Cho, B. S. Bae, and E. J. Yun, “The effects of high-energy electron beam irradiation on the properties of IGZO thin films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering,” J. Ceram. Process. Res. 13, s246–s250 (2012).

Choi, K. H.

S. H. Yang, J. Y. Kim, M. J. Park, K. H. Choi, J. S. Kwak, H. K. Kim, and J. M. Lee, “Low resistance ohmic contacts to amorphous IGZO thin films by hydrogen plasma treatment,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 206(24), 5067–5071 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. H.

J. W. Park, P. S. Jeong, S. H. Choi, H. Lee, B. H. Kong, and H. K. Cho, “Optical and structural properties of ion-implanted InGaZnO thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmission electron microscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(11), 111603 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Kang, I. Song, C. Kim, Y. Park, T. D. Kang, H. S. Lee, J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, S. H. Choi, and H. Lee, “Effect of Ga/In ratio on the optical and electrical properties of GaInZnO thin films grown on SiO2/Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chu, S. Y.

B. Y. Su, S. Y. Chu, Y. D. Juang, and S. Y. Liu, “Effects of Mg doping on the gate bias and thermal stability of solution-processed InGaZnO thin-film transistors,” J. Alloys Compd. 580, 10–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chung, H. K.

J. S. Park, T. W. Kim, D. Stryakhilev, J. S. Lee, S. G. An, Y. S. Pyo, D. B. Lee, Y. G. Mo, D. U. Jin, and H. K. Chung, “Flexible full color organic light-emitting diode display on polyimide plastic substrate driven by amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chung, J. G.

S. J. Kang, J. Baik, H. J. Shin, J. G. Chung, K. H. Kim, and J. Lee, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of air-annealed amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film surface electronic and photonic devices, and systems,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(9), 192–194 (2013).
[Crossref]

Craciun, V.

A. C. Galca, G. Socol, and V. Craciun, “Optical properties of amorphous-like indium zinc oxide and indium gallium zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 520(14), 4722–4725 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dhawan, A.

A. Suresh, P. Gollakota, P. Wellenius, A. Dhawan, and J. F. Muth, “Transparent, high mobility InGaZnO thin films deposited by PLD,” Thin Solid Films 516(7), 1326–1329 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dick, B.

M. W. Seto, B. Dick, and M. J. Brett, “Microsprings and microcantilevers: studies of mechanical response,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 11(5), 582–588 (2001).
[Crossref]

Facchetti, A.

S. Jeong, Y. G. Ha, J. Moon, A. Facchetti, and T. J. Marks, “Role of gallium doping in dramatically lowering amorphous-oxide processing temperatures for solution-derived indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors,” Adv. Mater. 22(12), 1346–1350 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, D. H.

D. H. Fan, Z. Y. Ning, and M. F. Jiang, “Characteristics and luminescence of Ge doped ZnO films prepared by alternate radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 245(1-4), 414–419 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fan, L.

L. Li, L. Fan, Y. Li, Z. Song, F. Ma, and C. Liu, “Effect of thermal annealing on the properties of transparent conductive In–Ga–Zn oxide thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 021506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fan, Z.

S. Wang, G. Xia, H. He, K. Yi, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Structural and optical properties of nanostructured TiO2 thin films fabricated by glancing angle deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 431(1-2), 287–291 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fang, H. W.

S. J. Liu, S. H. Su, H. W. Fang, J. H. Hsieh, and J. Y. Juang, “Effects of Cr doping on physical properties of amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(23), 10018–10021 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fang, L.

F. Wu, L. Fang, Y. J. Pan, K. Zhou, H. B. Ruan, G. B. Liu, and C. Y. Kong, “Effect of annealing treatment on structural, electrical, and optical properties of Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520(2), 703–707 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fons, P.

K. Matsubara, P. Fons, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, and S. Niki, “Room-temperature deposition of Al-doped ZnO films by oxygen radical-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 422(1-2), 176–179 (2002).
[Crossref]

Galca, A. C.

A. C. Galca, G. Socol, and V. Craciun, “Optical properties of amorphous-like indium zinc oxide and indium gallium zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 520(14), 4722–4725 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ganesan, V.

T. Prasada Rao, M. C. Santhosh Kumar, A. Safarulla, V. Ganesan, S. R. Barman, and C. Sanjeeviraja, “Physical properties of ZnO thin films deposited at various substrate temperatures using spray pyrolysis,” Physica B 405(9), 2226–2231 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Beena, K. J. Lethy, R. Vinodkumar, V. P. Mahadevan Pillai, V. Ganesan, D. M. Phase, and S. K. Sudheer, “Effect of substrate temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of pulsed laser ablated nanostructured indium oxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(20), 8334–8342 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gao, X. D.

C. Yang, X. M. Li, X. D. Gao, X. Cao, R. Yang, and Y. Z. Li, “Effects of the oxygen pressure on the structural and optical properties of ZnBeMgO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(7), 978–981 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gollakota, P.

A. Suresh, P. Gollakota, P. Wellenius, A. Dhawan, and J. F. Muth, “Transparent, high mobility InGaZnO thin films deposited by PLD,” Thin Solid Films 516(7), 1326–1329 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gong, H.

B. Kumar, H. Gong, and R. Akkipeddi, “A study of conduction in the transition zone between homologous and ZnO-rich regions in the In2O3–ZnO system,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063706 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gong, L.

J. Yao, L. Gong, L. Xie, and S. Zhang, “Comparison of the electrical and optical properties of direct current and radio frequency sputtered amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 527, 21–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ha, Y. G.

S. Jeong, Y. G. Ha, J. Moon, A. Facchetti, and T. J. Marks, “Role of gallium doping in dramatically lowering amorphous-oxide processing temperatures for solution-derived indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors,” Adv. Mater. 22(12), 1346–1350 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, M.

M. Harris, M. Bowden, and H. A. Macleod, “Refractive index variations in dielectric films having columnar microstructure,” Opt. Commun. 51(1), 29–32 (1984).
[Crossref]

Hawkeye, M. M.

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition: fabrication, properties, and applications of micro- and nanostructured thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 25(5), 1317–1335 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hayashi, R.

T. Aoi, N. Oka, Y. Sato, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, and Y. Shigesato, “DC sputter deposition of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc–oxide (a-IGZO) films with H2O introduction,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3004–3007 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Sato, K. Abe, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O coplanar homojunction thin-film transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 133502 (2009).
[Crossref]

He, H.

S. Wang, G. Xia, H. He, K. Yi, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Structural and optical properties of nanostructured TiO2 thin films fabricated by glancing angle deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 431(1-2), 287–291 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hirano, M.

A. Sato, K. Abe, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O coplanar homojunction thin-film transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 133502 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Yanagi, E. Ikenaga, K. Yang, K. Kobayashi, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Subgap states in transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor, In–Ga–Zn–O, observed by bulk sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 202117 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors,” Nature 432(7016), 488–492 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hosono, H.

T. Chen, M. Y. Wu, R. Ishihara, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, and C. I. M. Beenakker, “Excimer laser crystallization of InGaZnO4 on SiO4 substrate,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 22(11), 1694–1696 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kamiya and H. Hosono, “Material characteristics and applications of transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors,” NPG Asia Mater. 2(1), 15–22 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Sato, K. Abe, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O coplanar homojunction thin-film transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 133502 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Yanagi, E. Ikenaga, K. Yang, K. Kobayashi, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Subgap states in transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor, In–Ga–Zn–O, observed by bulk sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 202117 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors,” Nature 432(7016), 488–492 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsieh, J. H.

S. J. Liu, S. H. Su, H. W. Fang, J. H. Hsieh, and J. Y. Juang, “Effects of Cr doping on physical properties of amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(23), 10018–10021 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, K. T.

K. T. Huang and H. C. Chen, “Automatic measurement and stress analysis of ITO/PET flexible substrate by shadow moiré interferometer with phase-shifting interferometry,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(7), 609–614 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ikenaga, E.

K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Yanagi, E. Ikenaga, K. Yang, K. Kobayashi, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Subgap states in transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor, In–Ga–Zn–O, observed by bulk sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 202117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ishihara, R.

T. Chen, M. Y. Wu, R. Ishihara, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, and C. I. M. Beenakker, “Excimer laser crystallization of InGaZnO4 on SiO4 substrate,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 22(11), 1694–1696 (2011).
[Crossref]

Iwata, K.

K. Matsubara, P. Fons, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, and S. Niki, “Room-temperature deposition of Al-doped ZnO films by oxygen radical-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 422(1-2), 176–179 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jeong, P. S.

J. W. Park, P. S. Jeong, S. H. Choi, H. Lee, B. H. Kong, and H. K. Cho, “Optical and structural properties of ion-implanted InGaZnO thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmission electron microscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(11), 111603 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jeong, S.

S. Jeong, Y. G. Ha, J. Moon, A. Facchetti, and T. J. Marks, “Role of gallium doping in dramatically lowering amorphous-oxide processing temperatures for solution-derived indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors,” Adv. Mater. 22(12), 1346–1350 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, W. H.

Y. S. Rim, D. L. Kim, W. H. Jeong, and H. J. Kim, “Effect of Zr addition on ZnSnO thin-film transistors using a solution process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 233502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jeong, Y.

K. Song, D. Kim, X. S. Li, T. Jun, Y. Jeong, and J. Moon, “Solution processed invisible all-oxide thin film transistors,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(46), 8881–8886 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jiang, M. F.

D. H. Fan, Z. Y. Ning, and M. F. Jiang, “Characteristics and luminescence of Ge doped ZnO films prepared by alternate radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 245(1-4), 414–419 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jin, D. U.

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C. H. Jung, H. I. Kang, and D. H. Yoon, “The electrical, optical, and structural properties of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide films and channel thin-film transistors,” Solid-State Electron. 79, 125–129 (2013).
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A. Thakur, H. Yoo, S. J. Kang, J. Y. Baik, I. J. Lee, H. K. Lee, K. Kim, B. Kim, S. Jung, J. Park, and H. J. Shin, “Effects of substrate temperature on structural, electrical and optical properties of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 1(1), 11–15 (2012).
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S. H. Yang, J. Y. Kim, M. J. Park, K. H. Choi, J. S. Kwak, H. K. Kim, and J. M. Lee, “Low resistance ohmic contacts to amorphous IGZO thin films by hydrogen plasma treatment,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 206(24), 5067–5071 (2012).
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S. H. Yang, J. Y. Kim, M. J. Park, K. H. Choi, J. S. Kwak, H. K. Kim, and J. M. Lee, “Low resistance ohmic contacts to amorphous IGZO thin films by hydrogen plasma treatment,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 206(24), 5067–5071 (2012).
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J. S. Park, T. W. Kim, D. Stryakhilev, J. S. Lee, S. G. An, Y. S. Pyo, D. B. Lee, Y. G. Mo, D. U. Jin, and H. K. Chung, “Flexible full color organic light-emitting diode display on polyimide plastic substrate driven by amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013503 (2009).
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K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Yanagi, E. Ikenaga, K. Yang, K. Kobayashi, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Subgap states in transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor, In–Ga–Zn–O, observed by bulk sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 202117 (2008).
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S. H. Yang, J. Y. Kim, M. J. Park, K. H. Choi, J. S. Kwak, H. K. Kim, and J. M. Lee, “Low resistance ohmic contacts to amorphous IGZO thin films by hydrogen plasma treatment,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 206(24), 5067–5071 (2012).
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J. S. Park, T. W. Kim, D. Stryakhilev, J. S. Lee, S. G. An, Y. S. Pyo, D. B. Lee, Y. G. Mo, D. U. Jin, and H. K. Chung, “Flexible full color organic light-emitting diode display on polyimide plastic substrate driven by amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013503 (2009).
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D. Kang, I. Song, C. Kim, Y. Park, T. D. Kang, H. S. Lee, J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, S. H. Choi, and H. Lee, “Effect of Ga/In ratio on the optical and electrical properties of GaInZnO thin films grown on SiO2/Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091910 (2007).
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A. Thakur, H. Yoo, S. J. Kang, J. Y. Baik, I. J. Lee, H. K. Lee, K. Kim, B. Kim, S. Jung, J. Park, and H. J. Shin, “Effects of substrate temperature on structural, electrical and optical properties of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 1(1), 11–15 (2012).
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A. Thakur, H. Yoo, S. J. Kang, J. Y. Baik, I. J. Lee, H. K. Lee, K. Kim, B. Kim, S. Jung, J. Park, and H. J. Shin, “Effects of substrate temperature on structural, electrical and optical properties of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 1(1), 11–15 (2012).
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S. J. Kang, J. Baik, H. J. Shin, J. G. Chung, K. H. Kim, and J. Lee, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of air-annealed amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film surface electronic and photonic devices, and systems,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(9), 192–194 (2013).
[Crossref]

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S. H. Yang, J. Y. Kim, M. J. Park, K. H. Choi, J. S. Kwak, H. K. Kim, and J. M. Lee, “Low resistance ohmic contacts to amorphous IGZO thin films by hydrogen plasma treatment,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 206(24), 5067–5071 (2012).
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J. S. Park, T. W. Kim, D. Stryakhilev, J. S. Lee, S. G. An, Y. S. Pyo, D. B. Lee, Y. G. Mo, D. U. Jin, and H. K. Chung, “Flexible full color organic light-emitting diode display on polyimide plastic substrate driven by amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013503 (2009).
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C. Yang, X. M. Li, X. D. Gao, X. Cao, R. Yang, and Y. Z. Li, “Effects of the oxygen pressure on the structural and optical properties of ZnBeMgO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(7), 978–981 (2010).
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P. Liu, T. P. Chen, Z. Liu, C. S. Tan, and K. C. Leong, “Effect of O2 plasma immersion on electrical properties and transistor performance of indium gallium zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 545, 533–536 (2013).
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B. Y. Su, S. Y. Chu, Y. D. Juang, and S. Y. Liu, “Effects of Mg doping on the gate bias and thermal stability of solution-processed InGaZnO thin-film transistors,” J. Alloys Compd. 580, 10–14 (2013).
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Liu, Z.

P. Liu, T. P. Chen, Z. Liu, C. S. Tan, and K. C. Leong, “Effect of O2 plasma immersion on electrical properties and transistor performance of indium gallium zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 545, 533–536 (2013).
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L. Li, L. Fan, Y. Li, Z. Song, F. Ma, and C. Liu, “Effect of thermal annealing on the properties of transparent conductive In–Ga–Zn oxide thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 021506 (2014).
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Moholkar, A. V.

K. U. Sim, S. W. Shin, A. V. Moholkar, J. H. Yun, J. H. Moon, and J. H. Kim, “Effects of dopant (Al, Ga, and In) on the characteristics of ZnO thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering system,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(3), S463–S467 (2010).
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S. H. Jung, H. J. Moon, M. K. Ryu, K. I. Cho, B. S. Bae, and E. J. Yun, “The effects of high-energy electron beam irradiation on the properties of IGZO thin films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering,” J. Ceram. Process. Res. 13, s246–s250 (2012).

Moon, J.

S. Jeong, Y. G. Ha, J. Moon, A. Facchetti, and T. J. Marks, “Role of gallium doping in dramatically lowering amorphous-oxide processing temperatures for solution-derived indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors,” Adv. Mater. 22(12), 1346–1350 (2010).
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K. Song, D. Kim, X. S. Li, T. Jun, Y. Jeong, and J. Moon, “Solution processed invisible all-oxide thin film transistors,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(46), 8881–8886 (2009).
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Moon, J. H.

K. U. Sim, S. W. Shin, A. V. Moholkar, J. H. Yun, J. H. Moon, and J. H. Kim, “Effects of dopant (Al, Ga, and In) on the characteristics of ZnO thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering system,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(3), S463–S467 (2010).
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K. Matsubara, P. Fons, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, and S. Niki, “Room-temperature deposition of Al-doped ZnO films by oxygen radical-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 422(1-2), 176–179 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ning, Z. Y.

D. H. Fan, Z. Y. Ning, and M. F. Jiang, “Characteristics and luminescence of Ge doped ZnO films prepared by alternate radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 245(1-4), 414–419 (2005).
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T. Chen, M. Y. Wu, R. Ishihara, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, and C. I. M. Beenakker, “Excimer laser crystallization of InGaZnO4 on SiO4 substrate,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 22(11), 1694–1696 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Sato, K. Abe, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O coplanar homojunction thin-film transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 133502 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Yanagi, E. Ikenaga, K. Yang, K. Kobayashi, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Subgap states in transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor, In–Ga–Zn–O, observed by bulk sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 202117 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors,” Nature 432(7016), 488–492 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohta, H.

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors,” Nature 432(7016), 488–492 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oka, N.

T. Aoi, N. Oka, Y. Sato, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, and Y. Shigesato, “DC sputter deposition of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc–oxide (a-IGZO) films with H2O introduction,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3004–3007 (2010).
[Crossref]

Paine, D. C.

D. C. Paine, B. Yaglioglu, Z. Beiley, and S. Lee, “Amorphous IZO-based transparent thin film transistors,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5894–5898 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y. J.

F. Wu, L. Fang, Y. J. Pan, K. Zhou, H. B. Ruan, G. B. Liu, and C. Y. Kong, “Effect of annealing treatment on structural, electrical, and optical properties of Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520(2), 703–707 (2011).
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Park, J.

A. Thakur, H. Yoo, S. J. Kang, J. Y. Baik, I. J. Lee, H. K. Lee, K. Kim, B. Kim, S. Jung, J. Park, and H. J. Shin, “Effects of substrate temperature on structural, electrical and optical properties of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 1(1), 11–15 (2012).
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S. Y. Bae, C. W. Na, J. H. Kang, and J. Park, “Comparative structure and optical properties of Ga-, In-, and Sn-doped ZnO nanowires synthesized via thermal evaporation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(7), 2526–2531 (2005).
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J. S. Park, T. W. Kim, D. Stryakhilev, J. S. Lee, S. G. An, Y. S. Pyo, D. B. Lee, Y. G. Mo, D. U. Jin, and H. K. Chung, “Flexible full color organic light-emitting diode display on polyimide plastic substrate driven by amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013503 (2009).
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J. W. Park, P. S. Jeong, S. H. Choi, H. Lee, B. H. Kong, and H. K. Cho, “Optical and structural properties of ion-implanted InGaZnO thin films studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmission electron microscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(11), 111603 (2009).
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D. Kang, I. Song, C. Kim, Y. Park, T. D. Kang, H. S. Lee, J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, S. H. Choi, and H. Lee, “Effect of Ga/In ratio on the optical and electrical properties of GaInZnO thin films grown on SiO2/Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091910 (2007).
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Park, M. J.

S. H. Yang, J. Y. Kim, M. J. Park, K. H. Choi, J. S. Kwak, H. K. Kim, and J. M. Lee, “Low resistance ohmic contacts to amorphous IGZO thin films by hydrogen plasma treatment,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 206(24), 5067–5071 (2012).
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Park, Y.

D. Kang, I. Song, C. Kim, Y. Park, T. D. Kang, H. S. Lee, J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, S. H. Choi, and H. Lee, “Effect of Ga/In ratio on the optical and electrical properties of GaInZnO thin films grown on SiO2/Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091910 (2007).
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D. Beena, K. J. Lethy, R. Vinodkumar, V. P. Mahadevan Pillai, V. Ganesan, D. M. Phase, and S. K. Sudheer, “Effect of substrate temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of pulsed laser ablated nanostructured indium oxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(20), 8334–8342 (2009).
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Prasada Rao, T.

T. Prasada Rao, M. C. Santhosh Kumar, A. Safarulla, V. Ganesan, S. R. Barman, and C. Sanjeeviraja, “Physical properties of ZnO thin films deposited at various substrate temperatures using spray pyrolysis,” Physica B 405(9), 2226–2231 (2010).
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H. Pu, Q. Zhou, L. Yue, and Q. Zhang, “Investigation of oxygen plasma treatment on the device performance of solution-processed a-IGZO thin film transistors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 722–726 (2013).
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J. S. Park, T. W. Kim, D. Stryakhilev, J. S. Lee, S. G. An, Y. S. Pyo, D. B. Lee, Y. G. Mo, D. U. Jin, and H. K. Chung, “Flexible full color organic light-emitting diode display on polyimide plastic substrate driven by amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013503 (2009).
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T. T. T. Nguyen, O. Renault, B. Aventurier, G. Rodriguez, J. P. Barnes, and F. Templier, “Analysis of IGZO thin-film transistors by XPS and relation with electrical characteristics,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(9), 770–774 (2013).
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Y. S. Rim, D. L. Kim, W. H. Jeong, and H. J. Kim, “Effect of Zr addition on ZnSnO thin-film transistors using a solution process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 233502 (2010).
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T. T. T. Nguyen, O. Renault, B. Aventurier, G. Rodriguez, J. P. Barnes, and F. Templier, “Analysis of IGZO thin-film transistors by XPS and relation with electrical characteristics,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(9), 770–774 (2013).
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F. Wu, L. Fang, Y. J. Pan, K. Zhou, H. B. Ruan, G. B. Liu, and C. Y. Kong, “Effect of annealing treatment on structural, electrical, and optical properties of Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520(2), 703–707 (2011).
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J. L. Zhao, X. W. Sun, H. Ryu, and Y. B. Moon, “Thermally stable transparent conducting and highly infrared reflective Ga-doped ZnO thin films by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 768–772 (2011).
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S. H. Jung, H. J. Moon, M. K. Ryu, K. I. Cho, B. S. Bae, and E. J. Yun, “The effects of high-energy electron beam irradiation on the properties of IGZO thin films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering,” J. Ceram. Process. Res. 13, s246–s250 (2012).

Safarulla, A.

T. Prasada Rao, M. C. Santhosh Kumar, A. Safarulla, V. Ganesan, S. R. Barman, and C. Sanjeeviraja, “Physical properties of ZnO thin films deposited at various substrate temperatures using spray pyrolysis,” Physica B 405(9), 2226–2231 (2010).
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T. Prasada Rao, M. C. Santhosh Kumar, A. Safarulla, V. Ganesan, S. R. Barman, and C. Sanjeeviraja, “Physical properties of ZnO thin films deposited at various substrate temperatures using spray pyrolysis,” Physica B 405(9), 2226–2231 (2010).
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Santhosh Kumar, M. C.

T. Prasada Rao, M. C. Santhosh Kumar, A. Safarulla, V. Ganesan, S. R. Barman, and C. Sanjeeviraja, “Physical properties of ZnO thin films deposited at various substrate temperatures using spray pyrolysis,” Physica B 405(9), 2226–2231 (2010).
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A. Sato, K. Abe, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O coplanar homojunction thin-film transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 133502 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sato, Y.

T. Aoi, N. Oka, Y. Sato, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, and Y. Shigesato, “DC sputter deposition of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc–oxide (a-IGZO) films with H2O introduction,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3004–3007 (2010).
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J. H. Kim, D. K. Seo, C. H. Ahn, S. W. Shin, H. H. Cho, and H. K. Cho, “Hybrid solution processed InGaO3(ZnO)m thin films with periodic layered structures and thermoelectric properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(32), 16312–16317 (2012).
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S. Wang, G. Xia, H. He, K. Yi, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Structural and optical properties of nanostructured TiO2 thin films fabricated by glancing angle deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 431(1-2), 287–291 (2007).
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Shieh, H. P. D.

N. Tiwari, H. P. D. Shieh, and P.-T. Liu, “Structural, optical, and photoluminescence study of ZnO/IGZO thin film for thin film transistor application,” Mater. Lett. 151, 53–56 (2015).
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T. Aoi, N. Oka, Y. Sato, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, and Y. Shigesato, “DC sputter deposition of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc–oxide (a-IGZO) films with H2O introduction,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3004–3007 (2010).
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S. J. Kang, J. Baik, H. J. Shin, J. G. Chung, K. H. Kim, and J. Lee, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of air-annealed amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film surface electronic and photonic devices, and systems,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(9), 192–194 (2013).
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A. Thakur, H. Yoo, S. J. Kang, J. Y. Baik, I. J. Lee, H. K. Lee, K. Kim, B. Kim, S. Jung, J. Park, and H. J. Shin, “Effects of substrate temperature on structural, electrical and optical properties of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 1(1), 11–15 (2012).
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Shin, H. S.

G. H. Kim, H. S. Kim, H. S. Shin, B. D. Ahn, K. H. Kim, and H. J. Kim, “Inkjet-printed InGaZnO thin film transistor,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4007–4010 (2009).
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J. H. Kim, D. K. Seo, C. H. Ahn, S. W. Shin, H. H. Cho, and H. K. Cho, “Hybrid solution processed InGaO3(ZnO)m thin films with periodic layered structures and thermoelectric properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(32), 16312–16317 (2012).
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K. U. Sim, S. W. Shin, A. V. Moholkar, J. H. Yun, J. H. Moon, and J. H. Kim, “Effects of dopant (Al, Ga, and In) on the characteristics of ZnO thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering system,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(3), S463–S467 (2010).
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K. U. Sim, S. W. Shin, A. V. Moholkar, J. H. Yun, J. H. Moon, and J. H. Kim, “Effects of dopant (Al, Ga, and In) on the characteristics of ZnO thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering system,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(3), S463–S467 (2010).
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D. Kang, I. Song, C. Kim, Y. Park, T. D. Kang, H. S. Lee, J. W. Park, S. H. Baek, S. H. Choi, and H. Lee, “Effect of Ga/In ratio on the optical and electrical properties of GaInZnO thin films grown on SiO2/Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091910 (2007).
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K. Song, D. Kim, X. S. Li, T. Jun, Y. Jeong, and J. Moon, “Solution processed invisible all-oxide thin film transistors,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(46), 8881–8886 (2009).
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L. Li, L. Fan, Y. Li, Z. Song, F. Ma, and C. Liu, “Effect of thermal annealing on the properties of transparent conductive In–Ga–Zn oxide thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 021506 (2014).
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Q. Li, Z. X. Song, F. Ma, Y. H. Li, and K. W. Xu, “Effects of high-temperature thermal annealing on the electronic properties of In-Ga-Zn oxide thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 33(2), 021520 (2015).
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J. S. Park, T. W. Kim, D. Stryakhilev, J. S. Lee, S. G. An, Y. S. Pyo, D. B. Lee, Y. G. Mo, D. U. Jin, and H. K. Chung, “Flexible full color organic light-emitting diode display on polyimide plastic substrate driven by amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013503 (2009).
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B. Y. Su, S. Y. Chu, Y. D. Juang, and S. Y. Liu, “Effects of Mg doping on the gate bias and thermal stability of solution-processed InGaZnO thin-film transistors,” J. Alloys Compd. 580, 10–14 (2013).
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S. J. Liu, S. H. Su, H. W. Fang, J. H. Hsieh, and J. Y. Juang, “Effects of Cr doping on physical properties of amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(23), 10018–10021 (2011).
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D. Beena, K. J. Lethy, R. Vinodkumar, V. P. Mahadevan Pillai, V. Ganesan, D. M. Phase, and S. K. Sudheer, “Effect of substrate temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of pulsed laser ablated nanostructured indium oxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(20), 8334–8342 (2009).
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Sun, X. W.

J. L. Zhao, X. W. Sun, H. Ryu, and Y. B. Moon, “Thermally stable transparent conducting and highly infrared reflective Ga-doped ZnO thin films by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 768–772 (2011).
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A. Suresh, P. Gollakota, P. Wellenius, A. Dhawan, and J. F. Muth, “Transparent, high mobility InGaZnO thin films deposited by PLD,” Thin Solid Films 516(7), 1326–1329 (2008).
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R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Modelling and characterization of columnar growth in evaporated films,” Thin Solid Films 226(2), 196–201 (1993).
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Takagi, A.

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors,” Nature 432(7016), 488–492 (2004).
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Tan, C. S.

P. Liu, T. P. Chen, Z. Liu, C. S. Tan, and K. C. Leong, “Effect of O2 plasma immersion on electrical properties and transistor performance of indium gallium zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 545, 533–536 (2013).
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Templier, F.

T. T. T. Nguyen, O. Renault, B. Aventurier, G. Rodriguez, J. P. Barnes, and F. Templier, “Analysis of IGZO thin-film transistors by XPS and relation with electrical characteristics,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(9), 770–774 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thakur, A.

A. Thakur, H. Yoo, S. J. Kang, J. Y. Baik, I. J. Lee, H. K. Lee, K. Kim, B. Kim, S. Jung, J. Park, and H. J. Shin, “Effects of substrate temperature on structural, electrical and optical properties of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 1(1), 11–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tiwari, N.

N. Tiwari, H. P. D. Shieh, and P.-T. Liu, “Structural, optical, and photoluminescence study of ZnO/IGZO thin film for thin film transistor application,” Mater. Lett. 151, 53–56 (2015).
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D. Beena, K. J. Lethy, R. Vinodkumar, V. P. Mahadevan Pillai, V. Ganesan, D. M. Phase, and S. K. Sudheer, “Effect of substrate temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of pulsed laser ablated nanostructured indium oxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(20), 8334–8342 (2009).
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D. H. Zhang, Z. Y. Xue, and Q. P. Wang, “The mechanisms of blue emission from ZnO films deposited on glass substrate by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(21), 2837–2840 (2002).
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Wang, S.

S. Wang, G. Xia, H. He, K. Yi, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Structural and optical properties of nanostructured TiO2 thin films fabricated by glancing angle deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 431(1-2), 287–291 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wellenius, P.

A. Suresh, P. Gollakota, P. Wellenius, A. Dhawan, and J. F. Muth, “Transparent, high mobility InGaZnO thin films deposited by PLD,” Thin Solid Films 516(7), 1326–1329 (2008).
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Wu, F.

F. Wu, L. Fang, Y. J. Pan, K. Zhou, H. B. Ruan, G. B. Liu, and C. Y. Kong, “Effect of annealing treatment on structural, electrical, and optical properties of Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520(2), 703–707 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, M. Y.

T. Chen, M. Y. Wu, R. Ishihara, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, and C. I. M. Beenakker, “Excimer laser crystallization of InGaZnO4 on SiO4 substrate,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 22(11), 1694–1696 (2011).
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Xia, G.

S. Wang, G. Xia, H. He, K. Yi, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Structural and optical properties of nanostructured TiO2 thin films fabricated by glancing angle deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 431(1-2), 287–291 (2007).
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Xie, L.

J. Yao, L. Gong, L. Xie, and S. Zhang, “Comparison of the electrical and optical properties of direct current and radio frequency sputtered amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 527, 21–25 (2013).
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Xu, K. W.

Q. Li, Z. X. Song, F. Ma, Y. H. Li, and K. W. Xu, “Effects of high-temperature thermal annealing on the electronic properties of In-Ga-Zn oxide thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 33(2), 021520 (2015).
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Xue, Z. Y.

D. H. Zhang, Z. Y. Xue, and Q. P. Wang, “The mechanisms of blue emission from ZnO films deposited on glass substrate by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(21), 2837–2840 (2002).
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D. C. Paine, B. Yaglioglu, Z. Beiley, and S. Lee, “Amorphous IZO-based transparent thin film transistors,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5894–5898 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yamada, A.

K. Matsubara, P. Fons, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, and S. Niki, “Room-temperature deposition of Al-doped ZnO films by oxygen radical-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 422(1-2), 176–179 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yanagi, H.

K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Yanagi, E. Ikenaga, K. Yang, K. Kobayashi, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Subgap states in transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor, In–Ga–Zn–O, observed by bulk sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 202117 (2008).
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C. Yang, X. M. Li, X. D. Gao, X. Cao, R. Yang, and Y. Z. Li, “Effects of the oxygen pressure on the structural and optical properties of ZnBeMgO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(7), 978–981 (2010).
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K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Yanagi, E. Ikenaga, K. Yang, K. Kobayashi, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Subgap states in transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor, In–Ga–Zn–O, observed by bulk sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 202117 (2008).
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Yang, R.

C. Yang, X. M. Li, X. D. Gao, X. Cao, R. Yang, and Y. Z. Li, “Effects of the oxygen pressure on the structural and optical properties of ZnBeMgO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(7), 978–981 (2010).
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Yang, S. H.

S. H. Yang, J. Y. Kim, M. J. Park, K. H. Choi, J. S. Kwak, H. K. Kim, and J. M. Lee, “Low resistance ohmic contacts to amorphous IGZO thin films by hydrogen plasma treatment,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 206(24), 5067–5071 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

J. Yao, L. Gong, L. Xie, and S. Zhang, “Comparison of the electrical and optical properties of direct current and radio frequency sputtered amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 527, 21–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yi, K.

S. Wang, G. Xia, H. He, K. Yi, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Structural and optical properties of nanostructured TiO2 thin films fabricated by glancing angle deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 431(1-2), 287–291 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yoo, H.

A. Thakur, H. Yoo, S. J. Kang, J. Y. Baik, I. J. Lee, H. K. Lee, K. Kim, B. Kim, S. Jung, J. Park, and H. J. Shin, “Effects of substrate temperature on structural, electrical and optical properties of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 1(1), 11–15 (2012).
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C. H. Jung, H. I. Kang, and D. H. Yoon, “The electrical, optical, and structural properties of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide films and channel thin-film transistors,” Solid-State Electron. 79, 125–129 (2013).
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Yue, L.

H. Pu, Q. Zhou, L. Yue, and Q. Zhang, “Investigation of oxygen plasma treatment on the device performance of solution-processed a-IGZO thin film transistors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 722–726 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yun, E. J.

S. H. Jung, H. J. Moon, M. K. Ryu, K. I. Cho, B. S. Bae, and E. J. Yun, “The effects of high-energy electron beam irradiation on the properties of IGZO thin films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering,” J. Ceram. Process. Res. 13, s246–s250 (2012).

Yun, J. H.

K. U. Sim, S. W. Shin, A. V. Moholkar, J. H. Yun, J. H. Moon, and J. H. Kim, “Effects of dopant (Al, Ga, and In) on the characteristics of ZnO thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering system,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(3), S463–S467 (2010).
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Zhang, D. H.

D. H. Zhang, Z. Y. Xue, and Q. P. Wang, “The mechanisms of blue emission from ZnO films deposited on glass substrate by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(21), 2837–2840 (2002).
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Zhang, Q.

H. Pu, Q. Zhou, L. Yue, and Q. Zhang, “Investigation of oxygen plasma treatment on the device performance of solution-processed a-IGZO thin film transistors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 722–726 (2013).
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Zhang, S.

J. Yao, L. Gong, L. Xie, and S. Zhang, “Comparison of the electrical and optical properties of direct current and radio frequency sputtered amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 527, 21–25 (2013).
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Zhang, S. L.

S. L. Zhang and J. C. M. Li, “Anisotropic elastic moduli and Poisson’s ratios of a poly(ethylene terephthalate) film,” J. Polym. Sci. Pt. B-Polym, Phys. 42, 260–266 (2004).

Zhao, J. L.

J. L. Zhao, X. W. Sun, H. Ryu, and Y. B. Moon, “Thermally stable transparent conducting and highly infrared reflective Ga-doped ZnO thin films by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 768–772 (2011).
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F. Wu, L. Fang, Y. J. Pan, K. Zhou, H. B. Ruan, G. B. Liu, and C. Y. Kong, “Effect of annealing treatment on structural, electrical, and optical properties of Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520(2), 703–707 (2011).
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Zhou, Q.

H. Pu, Q. Zhou, L. Yue, and Q. Zhang, “Investigation of oxygen plasma treatment on the device performance of solution-processed a-IGZO thin film transistors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 722–726 (2013).
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X. W. Zhou, R. A. Johnson, and H. N. G. Wadley, “A molecular dynamics study of nickel vapor deposition: temperature, incident angle, and adatom energy effects,” Acta Mater. 45(4), 1513–1524 (1997).
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A. Sato, K. Abe, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O coplanar homojunction thin-film transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 133502 (2009).
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H. Pu, Q. Zhou, L. Yue, and Q. Zhang, “Investigation of oxygen plasma treatment on the device performance of solution-processed a-IGZO thin film transistors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 722–726 (2013).
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K. U. Sim, S. W. Shin, A. V. Moholkar, J. H. Yun, J. H. Moon, and J. H. Kim, “Effects of dopant (Al, Ga, and In) on the characteristics of ZnO thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering system,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(3), S463–S467 (2010).
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S. H. Jung, H. J. Moon, M. K. Ryu, K. I. Cho, B. S. Bae, and E. J. Yun, “The effects of high-energy electron beam irradiation on the properties of IGZO thin films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering,” J. Ceram. Process. Res. 13, s246–s250 (2012).

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J. Mater. Chem. (2)

K. Song, D. Kim, X. S. Li, T. Jun, Y. Jeong, and J. Moon, “Solution processed invisible all-oxide thin film transistors,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(46), 8881–8886 (2009).
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J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

D. H. Zhang, Z. Y. Xue, and Q. P. Wang, “The mechanisms of blue emission from ZnO films deposited on glass substrate by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(21), 2837–2840 (2002).
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S. L. Zhang and J. C. M. Li, “Anisotropic elastic moduli and Poisson’s ratios of a poly(ethylene terephthalate) film,” J. Polym. Sci. Pt. B-Polym, Phys. 42, 260–266 (2004).

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L. Li, L. Fan, Y. Li, Z. Song, F. Ma, and C. Liu, “Effect of thermal annealing on the properties of transparent conductive In–Ga–Zn oxide thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 021506 (2014).
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N. Tiwari, H. P. D. Shieh, and P.-T. Liu, “Structural, optical, and photoluminescence study of ZnO/IGZO thin film for thin film transistor application,” Mater. Lett. 151, 53–56 (2015).
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J. L. Zhao, X. W. Sun, H. Ryu, and Y. B. Moon, “Thermally stable transparent conducting and highly infrared reflective Ga-doped ZnO thin films by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 768–772 (2011).
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T. Prasada Rao, M. C. Santhosh Kumar, A. Safarulla, V. Ganesan, S. R. Barman, and C. Sanjeeviraja, “Physical properties of ZnO thin films deposited at various substrate temperatures using spray pyrolysis,” Physica B 405(9), 2226–2231 (2010).
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C. H. Jung, H. I. Kang, and D. H. Yoon, “The electrical, optical, and structural properties of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide films and channel thin-film transistors,” Solid-State Electron. 79, 125–129 (2013).
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S. H. Yang, J. Y. Kim, M. J. Park, K. H. Choi, J. S. Kwak, H. K. Kim, and J. M. Lee, “Low resistance ohmic contacts to amorphous IGZO thin films by hydrogen plasma treatment,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 206(24), 5067–5071 (2012).
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A. Suresh, P. Gollakota, P. Wellenius, A. Dhawan, and J. F. Muth, “Transparent, high mobility InGaZnO thin films deposited by PLD,” Thin Solid Films 516(7), 1326–1329 (2008).
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D. C. Paine, B. Yaglioglu, Z. Beiley, and S. Lee, “Amorphous IZO-based transparent thin film transistors,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5894–5898 (2008).
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P. Liu, T. P. Chen, Z. Liu, C. S. Tan, and K. C. Leong, “Effect of O2 plasma immersion on electrical properties and transistor performance of indium gallium zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 545, 533–536 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, L. Gong, L. Xie, and S. Zhang, “Comparison of the electrical and optical properties of direct current and radio frequency sputtered amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 527, 21–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. H. Kim, H. S. Kim, H. S. Shin, B. D. Ahn, K. H. Kim, and H. J. Kim, “Inkjet-printed InGaZnO thin film transistor,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4007–4010 (2009).
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F. Wu, L. Fang, Y. J. Pan, K. Zhou, H. B. Ruan, G. B. Liu, and C. Y. Kong, “Effect of annealing treatment on structural, electrical, and optical properties of Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520(2), 703–707 (2011).
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A. C. Galca, G. Socol, and V. Craciun, “Optical properties of amorphous-like indium zinc oxide and indium gallium zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 520(14), 4722–4725 (2012).
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K. Matsubara, P. Fons, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, and S. Niki, “Room-temperature deposition of Al-doped ZnO films by oxygen radical-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 422(1-2), 176–179 (2002).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 SEM images of (a) IGZO_0°; (b) IGZO_15°; (c) IGZO_30°; (d) IGZO_45°; and (e) IGZO_60° specimens.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Lateral surface SEM images of (a) IGZO_0°, and (b) IGZO_60° specimens, (c) the film thicknesses of these five specimens.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 TEM morphologies near the interface of the (a) IGZO_15° specimen, (b) IGZO_45° specimen and the PET substrate. (c) The mean grain size data of these five specimens prepared by different inclination angle.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 XRD patterns of the five specimens with different inclination angles.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 TEM diffraction patterns of (a) IGZO_15°; (b) IGZO_45°; and (c) the HRTEM image of the IGZO_45° specimen.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 XPS spectra of (a) Ga2p1/2, Ga2p3/2, and Ga3d; (b) In3d3/2 and In3d5/2; (c) Zn2p1/2 and Zn2p3/2; and (d) O1s for the five specimens.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Deconvolutions of the Ga3d XPS spectra arising in the IGZO_0° specimen.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Deconvolutions of the O1s XPS spectrum arising in the IGZO_0° specimen.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Complete depth profile (from the top surface downward into the sample) for the IGZO_0° specimen.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Results of (a) transmittance; (b) reflection; and (c) absorption of the five specimens in the two light wavelength regions.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Results of refractive index n and extinction coefficient k for (a) IGZO_0°, (b) IGZO_15°, (c) IGZO_30°, (d) IGZO_45°, and (e) IGZO_60° specimens, varying with wavelength in the visible light region.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Photoluminescence intensity profiles of the (a) IGZO_0°, (b) IGZO_15°, (c) IGZO_30°, (d) IGZO_45°, and (e) IGZO_60° specimens and the respective decompositions into Gaussian profiles with peak-1 to peak-3.

Tables (11)

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Table 1 Details of deposition conditions

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Table 2 Basic physical and mechanical properties of Poly(ethylene terephalate) (PET) [27]

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Table 3 Results of hardness and reduced modulus in the five specimens

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Table 4 XRD measurements of 2θ and the peak intensities of InGaO3(ZnO)3 (0 0 6), InGaO3(ZnO)3 (0 0 9), and InGaZnO4 (1 0 10)

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Table 5 Peak intensity (I) ratios (IRs) of the five specimens

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Table 6 The atomic percentages of In3d: Ga2p: Zn2p: O1s for the five specimens

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Table 7 Peak intensities of Ga2p, Ga3d, In3d, Zn2p, and O1s from the XPS analyses

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Table 8 O1-O3 peak intensities of O1s spectra and IRO2 values of the five specimens

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Table 9 Results of the upper and lower bounds of the secondary O-ion counts of the five specimens and their gradients with respect to depth from the top surface of the specimen

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Table 10 Integration of n over the wavelengths in the visible light and Δk of the five specimens

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Table 11 Intensity and wavelength results of the PL decompositions into the three Gaussion profiles with peak-1 to peak-3 for each of the five specimens

Equations (1)

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ρ=(2cosα)/(1+cosα)

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