Abstract

Enhanced photorefractive (PR) performances are reported for a PR composite of perylene bisimide (PBI)–sensitized poly(4-(diphenylamino)benzyl acrylate) (PDAA), 2-(4-(azepan-1-yl)benzylidene)malononitrile (7-DCST), and (4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)methanol (TPAOH). The addition of a large amount of the TPAOH photoconductive plasticizer was found to produce a preferred hole manifold that reduces the disordered state. A photorefractive performance with a minimum response time of 11 ms, a maximum external diffraction efficiency of 41.6%, a maximum sensitivity of 117 cm2 J−1, and a maximum optical gain of 296 cm−1 were obtained with an external electric field of 55 V μm−1 for PDAA/7-DCST/TPAOH/PBI (30/30/39.9/0.1 by wt.).

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

F. Würthner, C. R. Saha-Möller, B. Fimmel, S. Ogi, P. Leowanawat, and D. Schmidt, “Perylene bisimide dye assemblies as archetype functional supramolecular materials,” Chem. Rev. 116(3), 962–1052 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. V. Nguyen, H. N. Giang, K. Kinashi, W. Sakai, and N. Tsutsumi, “Photorefractivity of perylene bisimide-sensitized poly(4-(diphenylamino)benzyl acrylate),” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 217(1), 85–91 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

N. Tsutsumi, K. Kinashi, K. Masumura, and K. Kono, “Photorefractive performance of poly(triarylamine)-based polymer composites: an approach from the photoconductive properties,” J. Polym. Sci Part B: Polymer Physics. 53(7), 502–508 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, X. Yang, G. Long, X. Wan, Y. Chen, and Q. Zhang, “A perylene diimide (PDI)-based small molecule with tetrahedral configuration as a non-fullerene acceptor for organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(18), 4698–4705 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. B.-Y. Hsu, C.-M. Cheng, C. Luo, S. N. Patel, C. Zhong, H. Sun, J. Sherman, B. H. Lee, L. Ying, M. Wang, G. Bazan, M. Chabinyc, J.-L. Brédas, and A. Heeger, “The density of states and the transport effective mass in a highly oriented semiconducting polymer: Electronic delocalization in 1D,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7759–7765 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (8)

D. Venkateshvaran, M. Nikolka, A. Sadhanala, V. Lemaur, M. Zelazny, M. Kepa, M. Hurhangee, A. J. Kronemeijer, V. Pecunia, I. Nasrallah, I. Romanov, K. Broch, I. McCulloch, D. Emin, Y. Olivier, J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, and H. Sirringhaus, “Approaching disorder-free transport in high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 515(7527), 384–388 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-R. Tseng, H. Phan, C. Luo, M. Wang, L. A. Perez, S. N. Patel, L. Ying, E. J. Kramer, T.-Q. Nguyen, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “High-mobility field-effect transistors fabricated with macroscopic aligned semiconducting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 2993–2998 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Giang, K. Kinashi, W. Sakai, and N. Tsutsumi, “Triphenylamine photoconductive polymers for high performance photorefractive devices,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 291, 26–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chantharasupawong, C. W. Christenson, R. Philip, L. Zhai, J. Winiarz, M. Yamamoto, L. Tetard, R. R. Nair, and J. Thomas, “Photorefractive performances of a grapheme-doped PATPD/7-DCST/ECZ composite,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(36), 7639–7647 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. N. Giang, K. Kinashi, S. Sakai, and N. Tsutsumi, “Photorefractive response and real-time holographic application of a poly(4-(diphenylamino)benzyl acrylate)-based composite,” Polym. J. 46(1), 59–66 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Tsujimura, K. Kinashi, W. Sakai, and N. Tsutsumi, “Erratum: “Recent advances in photorefractivity of poly(4-diphenylaminostyrene) composites: Wavelength dependence and dynamic holographic images,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(8), 082601 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Sasaki, S. Kajikawa, and Y. Naka, “Dynamic amplification of optical signals in photorefractive ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Faraday Discuss. 174, 203–218 (2014).
[PubMed]

B. Lynn, P.-A. Blanche, and N. Peyghambarian, “Photorefractive polymers for holography,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 52(3), 193–231 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S. Tsujimura, K. Kinashi, W. Sakai, and N. Tsutsumi, “High-speed photorefractive response capability in triphenylamine polymer-based composites,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 064101 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Lv, S. R. Puniredd, J. Zhang, Z. Li, H. Zhu, W. Jiang, H. Dong, Y. He, L. Jiang, Y. Li, W. Pisula, Q. Meng, W. Hu, and Z. Wang, “High mobility, air stable, organic single crystal transistors of an n-type diperylene bisimide,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2626–2630 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

E. Di Donato, R. P. Fornari, S. Di Motta, Y. Li, Z. Wang, and F. Negri, “N-Type charge transport and mobility of fluorinated perylene bisimide semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(16), 5327–5334 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Alvasevich, C. Li, and K. Müllen, “Synthesis and applications of core-enlarged perylene dyes,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(19), 3814–3826 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Heek, C. Fasting, C. Rest, X. Zhang, F. Würthner, and R. Haag, “Highly fluorescent water-soluble polyglycerol-dendronized perylene bisimide dyes,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(11), 1884–1886 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Z. Tian, A. D. Shaller, and A. D. Q. Li, “Twisted perylene dyes enable highly fluorescent and photostable nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2, 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

S. Tay, P. A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nature 451(7179), 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

H. Qian, C. Liu, Z. Wang, and D. Zhu, “S-heterocyclic annelated perylene bisimide: synthesis and co-crystal with pyrene,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 44, 4587–4589 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

O. Ostroverkhova and W. E. Moerner, “Organic photorefractives: mechanisms, materials, and applications,” Chem. Rev. 104(7), 3267–3314 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

T. K. Däubler, R. Bittner, K. Meerholz, V. Cimrova, and D. Neher, “Charge carrier photogeneration, trapping, and space-charge field formation in PVK-based photorefractive materials,” Phys. Rev. B 61(20), 13515–13527 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. Goonesekera and S. Ducharme, “Effect of dipolar molecules on carrier mobilities in photorefractive polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6506 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Hirao and H. Nishizawa, “Effect of dipoles on carrier drift and diffusion of molecularly doped polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 56(6), R2904–R2907 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

P. M. Borsenberger, E. H. Magin, M. B. O’Regan, and J. A. Sinicropi, “The role of dipole moments on hole transport in triphenylamine-doped polymers,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 34(2), 317–323 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

P. M. Borsenberger and J. J. Fitzgerald, “Effects of the dipole moment on charge transport in disordered molecular solids,” J. Phys. Chem. 97(18), 4815–4819 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. S. Schildkraut and A. V. Buettner, “Theory and simulation of the formation and erasure of space charge gratings in photoconductive polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 72(5), 1888–1893 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

P. M. Borsenberger, L. Pautmeier, and H. Bässler, “Charge transport in disordered molecular solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 94(8), 5447–5454 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

Y. Pochi, “Two-wave mixing in nonlinear media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(3), 484–519 (1989).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electro-optic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22(1), 949–960 (1978).
[Crossref]

Abdelwahab, T.

Alvasevich, Y.

Y. Alvasevich, C. Li, and K. Müllen, “Synthesis and applications of core-enlarged perylene dyes,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(19), 3814–3826 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bässler, H.

P. M. Borsenberger, L. Pautmeier, and H. Bässler, “Charge transport in disordered molecular solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 94(8), 5447–5454 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bazan, G.

B. B.-Y. Hsu, C.-M. Cheng, C. Luo, S. N. Patel, C. Zhong, H. Sun, J. Sherman, B. H. Lee, L. Ying, M. Wang, G. Bazan, M. Chabinyc, J.-L. Brédas, and A. Heeger, “The density of states and the transport effective mass in a highly oriented semiconducting polymer: Electronic delocalization in 1D,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7759–7765 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bazan, G. C.

H.-R. Tseng, H. Phan, C. Luo, M. Wang, L. A. Perez, S. N. Patel, L. Ying, E. J. Kramer, T.-Q. Nguyen, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “High-mobility field-effect transistors fabricated with macroscopic aligned semiconducting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 2993–2998 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beljonne, D.

D. Venkateshvaran, M. Nikolka, A. Sadhanala, V. Lemaur, M. Zelazny, M. Kepa, M. Hurhangee, A. J. Kronemeijer, V. Pecunia, I. Nasrallah, I. Romanov, K. Broch, I. McCulloch, D. Emin, Y. Olivier, J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, and H. Sirringhaus, “Approaching disorder-free transport in high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 515(7527), 384–388 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bittner, R.

T. K. Däubler, R. Bittner, K. Meerholz, V. Cimrova, and D. Neher, “Charge carrier photogeneration, trapping, and space-charge field formation in PVK-based photorefractive materials,” Phys. Rev. B 61(20), 13515–13527 (2000).
[Crossref]

Blanche, P. A.

S. Tay, P. A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nature 451(7179), 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanche, P.-A.

B. Lynn, P.-A. Blanche, and N. Peyghambarian, “Photorefractive polymers for holography,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 52(3), 193–231 (2014).
[Crossref]

Borsenberger, P. M.

P. M. Borsenberger, E. H. Magin, M. B. O’Regan, and J. A. Sinicropi, “The role of dipole moments on hole transport in triphenylamine-doped polymers,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 34(2), 317–323 (1996).
[Crossref]

P. M. Borsenberger and J. J. Fitzgerald, “Effects of the dipole moment on charge transport in disordered molecular solids,” J. Phys. Chem. 97(18), 4815–4819 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. M. Borsenberger, L. Pautmeier, and H. Bässler, “Charge transport in disordered molecular solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 94(8), 5447–5454 (1991).
[Crossref]

Brédas, J.-L.

B. B.-Y. Hsu, C.-M. Cheng, C. Luo, S. N. Patel, C. Zhong, H. Sun, J. Sherman, B. H. Lee, L. Ying, M. Wang, G. Bazan, M. Chabinyc, J.-L. Brédas, and A. Heeger, “The density of states and the transport effective mass in a highly oriented semiconducting polymer: Electronic delocalization in 1D,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7759–7765 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brenner, C.

Broch, K.

D. Venkateshvaran, M. Nikolka, A. Sadhanala, V. Lemaur, M. Zelazny, M. Kepa, M. Hurhangee, A. J. Kronemeijer, V. Pecunia, I. Nasrallah, I. Romanov, K. Broch, I. McCulloch, D. Emin, Y. Olivier, J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, and H. Sirringhaus, “Approaching disorder-free transport in high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 515(7527), 384–388 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buettner, A. V.

J. S. Schildkraut and A. V. Buettner, “Theory and simulation of the formation and erasure of space charge gratings in photoconductive polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 72(5), 1888–1893 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chabinyc, M.

B. B.-Y. Hsu, C.-M. Cheng, C. Luo, S. N. Patel, C. Zhong, H. Sun, J. Sherman, B. H. Lee, L. Ying, M. Wang, G. Bazan, M. Chabinyc, J.-L. Brédas, and A. Heeger, “The density of states and the transport effective mass in a highly oriented semiconducting polymer: Electronic delocalization in 1D,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7759–7765 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chantharasupawong, P.

P. Chantharasupawong, C. W. Christenson, R. Philip, L. Zhai, J. Winiarz, M. Yamamoto, L. Tetard, R. R. Nair, and J. Thomas, “Photorefractive performances of a grapheme-doped PATPD/7-DCST/ECZ composite,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(36), 7639–7647 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, X. Yang, G. Long, X. Wan, Y. Chen, and Q. Zhang, “A perylene diimide (PDI)-based small molecule with tetrahedral configuration as a non-fullerene acceptor for organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(18), 4698–4705 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

W. Chen, X. Yang, G. Long, X. Wan, Y. Chen, and Q. Zhang, “A perylene diimide (PDI)-based small molecule with tetrahedral configuration as a non-fullerene acceptor for organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(18), 4698–4705 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C.-M.

B. B.-Y. Hsu, C.-M. Cheng, C. Luo, S. N. Patel, C. Zhong, H. Sun, J. Sherman, B. H. Lee, L. Ying, M. Wang, G. Bazan, M. Chabinyc, J.-L. Brédas, and A. Heeger, “The density of states and the transport effective mass in a highly oriented semiconducting polymer: Electronic delocalization in 1D,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7759–7765 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christenson, C. W.

P. Chantharasupawong, C. W. Christenson, R. Philip, L. Zhai, J. Winiarz, M. Yamamoto, L. Tetard, R. R. Nair, and J. Thomas, “Photorefractive performances of a grapheme-doped PATPD/7-DCST/ECZ composite,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(36), 7639–7647 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cimrova, V.

T. K. Däubler, R. Bittner, K. Meerholz, V. Cimrova, and D. Neher, “Charge carrier photogeneration, trapping, and space-charge field formation in PVK-based photorefractive materials,” Phys. Rev. B 61(20), 13515–13527 (2000).
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Cornil, J.

D. Venkateshvaran, M. Nikolka, A. Sadhanala, V. Lemaur, M. Zelazny, M. Kepa, M. Hurhangee, A. J. Kronemeijer, V. Pecunia, I. Nasrallah, I. Romanov, K. Broch, I. McCulloch, D. Emin, Y. Olivier, J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, and H. Sirringhaus, “Approaching disorder-free transport in high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 515(7527), 384–388 (2014).
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Darakis, E.

Däubler, T. K.

T. K. Däubler, R. Bittner, K. Meerholz, V. Cimrova, and D. Neher, “Charge carrier photogeneration, trapping, and space-charge field formation in PVK-based photorefractive materials,” Phys. Rev. B 61(20), 13515–13527 (2000).
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E. Di Donato, R. P. Fornari, S. Di Motta, Y. Li, Z. Wang, and F. Negri, “N-Type charge transport and mobility of fluorinated perylene bisimide semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(16), 5327–5334 (2010).
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E. Di Donato, R. P. Fornari, S. Di Motta, Y. Li, Z. Wang, and F. Negri, “N-Type charge transport and mobility of fluorinated perylene bisimide semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(16), 5327–5334 (2010).
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Dong, H.

A. Lv, S. R. Puniredd, J. Zhang, Z. Li, H. Zhu, W. Jiang, H. Dong, Y. He, L. Jiang, Y. Li, W. Pisula, Q. Meng, W. Hu, and Z. Wang, “High mobility, air stable, organic single crystal transistors of an n-type diperylene bisimide,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2626–2630 (2012).
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A. Goonesekera and S. Ducharme, “Effect of dipolar molecules on carrier mobilities in photorefractive polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6506 (1999).
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Emin, D.

D. Venkateshvaran, M. Nikolka, A. Sadhanala, V. Lemaur, M. Zelazny, M. Kepa, M. Hurhangee, A. J. Kronemeijer, V. Pecunia, I. Nasrallah, I. Romanov, K. Broch, I. McCulloch, D. Emin, Y. Olivier, J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, and H. Sirringhaus, “Approaching disorder-free transport in high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 515(7527), 384–388 (2014).
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Fasting, C.

T. Heek, C. Fasting, C. Rest, X. Zhang, F. Würthner, and R. Haag, “Highly fluorescent water-soluble polyglycerol-dendronized perylene bisimide dyes,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(11), 1884–1886 (2010).
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Fimmel, B.

F. Würthner, C. R. Saha-Möller, B. Fimmel, S. Ogi, P. Leowanawat, and D. Schmidt, “Perylene bisimide dye assemblies as archetype functional supramolecular materials,” Chem. Rev. 116(3), 962–1052 (2016).
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P. M. Borsenberger and J. J. Fitzgerald, “Effects of the dipole moment on charge transport in disordered molecular solids,” J. Phys. Chem. 97(18), 4815–4819 (1993).
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Flores, D.

S. Tay, P. A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nature 451(7179), 694–698 (2008).
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Fornari, R. P.

E. Di Donato, R. P. Fornari, S. Di Motta, Y. Li, Z. Wang, and F. Negri, “N-Type charge transport and mobility of fluorinated perylene bisimide semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(16), 5327–5334 (2010).
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Gerhardt, N. C.

Giang, H. N.

T. V. Nguyen, H. N. Giang, K. Kinashi, W. Sakai, and N. Tsutsumi, “Photorefractivity of perylene bisimide-sensitized poly(4-(diphenylamino)benzyl acrylate),” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 217(1), 85–91 (2016).
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H. N. Giang, K. Kinashi, S. Sakai, and N. Tsutsumi, “Photorefractive response and real-time holographic application of a poly(4-(diphenylamino)benzyl acrylate)-based composite,” Polym. J. 46(1), 59–66 (2014).
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H. N. Giang, K. Kinashi, W. Sakai, and N. Tsutsumi, “Triphenylamine photoconductive polymers for high performance photorefractive devices,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 291, 26–33 (2014).
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Goonesekera, A.

A. Goonesekera and S. Ducharme, “Effect of dipolar molecules on carrier mobilities in photorefractive polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6506 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gu, T.

S. Tay, P. A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nature 451(7179), 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haag, R.

T. Heek, C. Fasting, C. Rest, X. Zhang, F. Würthner, and R. Haag, “Highly fluorescent water-soluble polyglycerol-dendronized perylene bisimide dyes,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(11), 1884–1886 (2010).
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He, Y.

A. Lv, S. R. Puniredd, J. Zhang, Z. Li, H. Zhu, W. Jiang, H. Dong, Y. He, L. Jiang, Y. Li, W. Pisula, Q. Meng, W. Hu, and Z. Wang, “High mobility, air stable, organic single crystal transistors of an n-type diperylene bisimide,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2626–2630 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heeger, A.

B. B.-Y. Hsu, C.-M. Cheng, C. Luo, S. N. Patel, C. Zhong, H. Sun, J. Sherman, B. H. Lee, L. Ying, M. Wang, G. Bazan, M. Chabinyc, J.-L. Brédas, and A. Heeger, “The density of states and the transport effective mass in a highly oriented semiconducting polymer: Electronic delocalization in 1D,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7759–7765 (2015).
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Heeger, A. J.

H.-R. Tseng, H. Phan, C. Luo, M. Wang, L. A. Perez, S. N. Patel, L. Ying, E. J. Kramer, T.-Q. Nguyen, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “High-mobility field-effect transistors fabricated with macroscopic aligned semiconducting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 2993–2998 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. Heek, C. Fasting, C. Rest, X. Zhang, F. Würthner, and R. Haag, “Highly fluorescent water-soluble polyglycerol-dendronized perylene bisimide dyes,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(11), 1884–1886 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirao, A.

A. Hirao and H. Nishizawa, “Effect of dipoles on carrier drift and diffusion of molecularly doped polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 56(6), R2904–R2907 (1997).
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Hofmann, M. R.

Höpfner, H.

Hsu, B. B.-Y.

B. B.-Y. Hsu, C.-M. Cheng, C. Luo, S. N. Patel, C. Zhong, H. Sun, J. Sherman, B. H. Lee, L. Ying, M. Wang, G. Bazan, M. Chabinyc, J.-L. Brédas, and A. Heeger, “The density of states and the transport effective mass in a highly oriented semiconducting polymer: Electronic delocalization in 1D,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7759–7765 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, W.

A. Lv, S. R. Puniredd, J. Zhang, Z. Li, H. Zhu, W. Jiang, H. Dong, Y. He, L. Jiang, Y. Li, W. Pisula, Q. Meng, W. Hu, and Z. Wang, “High mobility, air stable, organic single crystal transistors of an n-type diperylene bisimide,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2626–2630 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hurhangee, M.

D. Venkateshvaran, M. Nikolka, A. Sadhanala, V. Lemaur, M. Zelazny, M. Kepa, M. Hurhangee, A. J. Kronemeijer, V. Pecunia, I. Nasrallah, I. Romanov, K. Broch, I. McCulloch, D. Emin, Y. Olivier, J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, and H. Sirringhaus, “Approaching disorder-free transport in high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 515(7527), 384–388 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, L.

A. Lv, S. R. Puniredd, J. Zhang, Z. Li, H. Zhu, W. Jiang, H. Dong, Y. He, L. Jiang, Y. Li, W. Pisula, Q. Meng, W. Hu, and Z. Wang, “High mobility, air stable, organic single crystal transistors of an n-type diperylene bisimide,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2626–2630 (2012).
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Jiang, W.

A. Lv, S. R. Puniredd, J. Zhang, Z. Li, H. Zhu, W. Jiang, H. Dong, Y. He, L. Jiang, Y. Li, W. Pisula, Q. Meng, W. Hu, and Z. Wang, “High mobility, air stable, organic single crystal transistors of an n-type diperylene bisimide,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2626–2630 (2012).
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Kajikawa, S.

T. Sasaki, S. Kajikawa, and Y. Naka, “Dynamic amplification of optical signals in photorefractive ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Faraday Discuss. 174, 203–218 (2014).
[PubMed]

Kepa, M.

D. Venkateshvaran, M. Nikolka, A. Sadhanala, V. Lemaur, M. Zelazny, M. Kepa, M. Hurhangee, A. J. Kronemeijer, V. Pecunia, I. Nasrallah, I. Romanov, K. Broch, I. McCulloch, D. Emin, Y. Olivier, J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, and H. Sirringhaus, “Approaching disorder-free transport in high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 515(7527), 384–388 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinashi, K.

T. V. Nguyen, H. N. Giang, K. Kinashi, W. Sakai, and N. Tsutsumi, “Photorefractivity of perylene bisimide-sensitized poly(4-(diphenylamino)benzyl acrylate),” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 217(1), 85–91 (2016).
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N. Tsutsumi, K. Kinashi, K. Masumura, and K. Kono, “Photorefractive performance of poly(triarylamine)-based polymer composites: an approach from the photoconductive properties,” J. Polym. Sci Part B: Polymer Physics. 53(7), 502–508 (2015).
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H. N. Giang, K. Kinashi, W. Sakai, and N. Tsutsumi, “Triphenylamine photoconductive polymers for high performance photorefractive devices,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 291, 26–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. N. Giang, K. Kinashi, S. Sakai, and N. Tsutsumi, “Photorefractive response and real-time holographic application of a poly(4-(diphenylamino)benzyl acrylate)-based composite,” Polym. J. 46(1), 59–66 (2014).
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S. Tsujimura, K. Kinashi, W. Sakai, and N. Tsutsumi, “Erratum: “Recent advances in photorefractivity of poly(4-diphenylaminostyrene) composites: Wavelength dependence and dynamic holographic images,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(8), 082601 (2014).
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S. Tsujimura, K. Kinashi, W. Sakai, and N. Tsutsumi, “High-speed photorefractive response capability in triphenylamine polymer-based composites,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 064101 (2012).
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Kono, K.

N. Tsutsumi, K. Kinashi, K. Masumura, and K. Kono, “Photorefractive performance of poly(triarylamine)-based polymer composites: an approach from the photoconductive properties,” J. Polym. Sci Part B: Polymer Physics. 53(7), 502–508 (2015).
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Koukourakis, N.

Kramer, E. J.

H.-R. Tseng, H. Phan, C. Luo, M. Wang, L. A. Perez, S. N. Patel, L. Ying, E. J. Kramer, T.-Q. Nguyen, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “High-mobility field-effect transistors fabricated with macroscopic aligned semiconducting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 2993–2998 (2014).
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Kronemeijer, A. J.

D. Venkateshvaran, M. Nikolka, A. Sadhanala, V. Lemaur, M. Zelazny, M. Kepa, M. Hurhangee, A. J. Kronemeijer, V. Pecunia, I. Nasrallah, I. Romanov, K. Broch, I. McCulloch, D. Emin, Y. Olivier, J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, and H. Sirringhaus, “Approaching disorder-free transport in high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 515(7527), 384–388 (2014).
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Kukhtarev, N. V.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electro-optic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22(1), 949–960 (1978).
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Lai, Y. W.

Lee, B. H.

B. B.-Y. Hsu, C.-M. Cheng, C. Luo, S. N. Patel, C. Zhong, H. Sun, J. Sherman, B. H. Lee, L. Ying, M. Wang, G. Bazan, M. Chabinyc, J.-L. Brédas, and A. Heeger, “The density of states and the transport effective mass in a highly oriented semiconducting polymer: Electronic delocalization in 1D,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7759–7765 (2015).
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Lemaur, V.

D. Venkateshvaran, M. Nikolka, A. Sadhanala, V. Lemaur, M. Zelazny, M. Kepa, M. Hurhangee, A. J. Kronemeijer, V. Pecunia, I. Nasrallah, I. Romanov, K. Broch, I. McCulloch, D. Emin, Y. Olivier, J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, and H. Sirringhaus, “Approaching disorder-free transport in high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 515(7527), 384–388 (2014).
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Leowanawat, P.

F. Würthner, C. R. Saha-Möller, B. Fimmel, S. Ogi, P. Leowanawat, and D. Schmidt, “Perylene bisimide dye assemblies as archetype functional supramolecular materials,” Chem. Rev. 116(3), 962–1052 (2016).
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Li, A. D. Q.

Z. Tian, A. D. Shaller, and A. D. Q. Li, “Twisted perylene dyes enable highly fluorescent and photostable nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2, 180–182 (2009).
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Li, C.

Y. Alvasevich, C. Li, and K. Müllen, “Synthesis and applications of core-enlarged perylene dyes,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(19), 3814–3826 (2010).
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Li, G.

S. Tay, P. A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nature 451(7179), 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M. Y.

Li, Y.

A. Lv, S. R. Puniredd, J. Zhang, Z. Li, H. Zhu, W. Jiang, H. Dong, Y. He, L. Jiang, Y. Li, W. Pisula, Q. Meng, W. Hu, and Z. Wang, “High mobility, air stable, organic single crystal transistors of an n-type diperylene bisimide,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2626–2630 (2012).
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E. Di Donato, R. P. Fornari, S. Di Motta, Y. Li, Z. Wang, and F. Negri, “N-Type charge transport and mobility of fluorinated perylene bisimide semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(16), 5327–5334 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

A. Lv, S. R. Puniredd, J. Zhang, Z. Li, H. Zhu, W. Jiang, H. Dong, Y. He, L. Jiang, Y. Li, W. Pisula, Q. Meng, W. Hu, and Z. Wang, “High mobility, air stable, organic single crystal transistors of an n-type diperylene bisimide,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2626–2630 (2012).
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Lin, W.

S. Tay, P. A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nature 451(7179), 694–698 (2008).
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Liu, C.

H. Qian, C. Liu, Z. Wang, and D. Zhu, “S-heterocyclic annelated perylene bisimide: synthesis and co-crystal with pyrene,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 44, 4587–4589 (2006).
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Long, G.

W. Chen, X. Yang, G. Long, X. Wan, Y. Chen, and Q. Zhang, “A perylene diimide (PDI)-based small molecule with tetrahedral configuration as a non-fullerene acceptor for organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(18), 4698–4705 (2015).
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Luo, C.

B. B.-Y. Hsu, C.-M. Cheng, C. Luo, S. N. Patel, C. Zhong, H. Sun, J. Sherman, B. H. Lee, L. Ying, M. Wang, G. Bazan, M. Chabinyc, J.-L. Brédas, and A. Heeger, “The density of states and the transport effective mass in a highly oriented semiconducting polymer: Electronic delocalization in 1D,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7759–7765 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-R. Tseng, H. Phan, C. Luo, M. Wang, L. A. Perez, S. N. Patel, L. Ying, E. J. Kramer, T.-Q. Nguyen, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “High-mobility field-effect transistors fabricated with macroscopic aligned semiconducting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 2993–2998 (2014).
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Lv, A.

A. Lv, S. R. Puniredd, J. Zhang, Z. Li, H. Zhu, W. Jiang, H. Dong, Y. He, L. Jiang, Y. Li, W. Pisula, Q. Meng, W. Hu, and Z. Wang, “High mobility, air stable, organic single crystal transistors of an n-type diperylene bisimide,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2626–2630 (2012).
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Lynn, B.

B. Lynn, P.-A. Blanche, and N. Peyghambarian, “Photorefractive polymers for holography,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 52(3), 193–231 (2014).
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Magin, E. H.

P. M. Borsenberger, E. H. Magin, M. B. O’Regan, and J. A. Sinicropi, “The role of dipole moments on hole transport in triphenylamine-doped polymers,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 34(2), 317–323 (1996).
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Markov, V. B.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electro-optic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22(1), 949–960 (1978).
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Masumura, K.

N. Tsutsumi, K. Kinashi, K. Masumura, and K. Kono, “Photorefractive performance of poly(triarylamine)-based polymer composites: an approach from the photoconductive properties,” J. Polym. Sci Part B: Polymer Physics. 53(7), 502–508 (2015).
[Crossref]

McCulloch, I.

D. Venkateshvaran, M. Nikolka, A. Sadhanala, V. Lemaur, M. Zelazny, M. Kepa, M. Hurhangee, A. J. Kronemeijer, V. Pecunia, I. Nasrallah, I. Romanov, K. Broch, I. McCulloch, D. Emin, Y. Olivier, J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, and H. Sirringhaus, “Approaching disorder-free transport in high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 515(7527), 384–388 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meerholz, K.

T. K. Däubler, R. Bittner, K. Meerholz, V. Cimrova, and D. Neher, “Charge carrier photogeneration, trapping, and space-charge field formation in PVK-based photorefractive materials,” Phys. Rev. B 61(20), 13515–13527 (2000).
[Crossref]

Meng, Q.

A. Lv, S. R. Puniredd, J. Zhang, Z. Li, H. Zhu, W. Jiang, H. Dong, Y. He, L. Jiang, Y. Li, W. Pisula, Q. Meng, W. Hu, and Z. Wang, “High mobility, air stable, organic single crystal transistors of an n-type diperylene bisimide,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2626–2630 (2012).
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Moerner, W. E.

O. Ostroverkhova and W. E. Moerner, “Organic photorefractives: mechanisms, materials, and applications,” Chem. Rev. 104(7), 3267–3314 (2004).
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Müllen, K.

Y. Alvasevich, C. Li, and K. Müllen, “Synthesis and applications of core-enlarged perylene dyes,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(19), 3814–3826 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nair, R. R.

P. Chantharasupawong, C. W. Christenson, R. Philip, L. Zhai, J. Winiarz, M. Yamamoto, L. Tetard, R. R. Nair, and J. Thomas, “Photorefractive performances of a grapheme-doped PATPD/7-DCST/ECZ composite,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(36), 7639–7647 (2014).
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Naka, Y.

T. Sasaki, S. Kajikawa, and Y. Naka, “Dynamic amplification of optical signals in photorefractive ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Faraday Discuss. 174, 203–218 (2014).
[PubMed]

Nasrallah, I.

D. Venkateshvaran, M. Nikolka, A. Sadhanala, V. Lemaur, M. Zelazny, M. Kepa, M. Hurhangee, A. J. Kronemeijer, V. Pecunia, I. Nasrallah, I. Romanov, K. Broch, I. McCulloch, D. Emin, Y. Olivier, J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, and H. Sirringhaus, “Approaching disorder-free transport in high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 515(7527), 384–388 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Negri, F.

E. Di Donato, R. P. Fornari, S. Di Motta, Y. Li, Z. Wang, and F. Negri, “N-Type charge transport and mobility of fluorinated perylene bisimide semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(16), 5327–5334 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neher, D.

T. K. Däubler, R. Bittner, K. Meerholz, V. Cimrova, and D. Neher, “Charge carrier photogeneration, trapping, and space-charge field formation in PVK-based photorefractive materials,” Phys. Rev. B 61(20), 13515–13527 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, T. V.

T. V. Nguyen, H. N. Giang, K. Kinashi, W. Sakai, and N. Tsutsumi, “Photorefractivity of perylene bisimide-sensitized poly(4-(diphenylamino)benzyl acrylate),” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 217(1), 85–91 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, T.-Q.

H.-R. Tseng, H. Phan, C. Luo, M. Wang, L. A. Perez, S. N. Patel, L. Ying, E. J. Kramer, T.-Q. Nguyen, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “High-mobility field-effect transistors fabricated with macroscopic aligned semiconducting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 2993–2998 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nikolka, M.

D. Venkateshvaran, M. Nikolka, A. Sadhanala, V. Lemaur, M. Zelazny, M. Kepa, M. Hurhangee, A. J. Kronemeijer, V. Pecunia, I. Nasrallah, I. Romanov, K. Broch, I. McCulloch, D. Emin, Y. Olivier, J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, and H. Sirringhaus, “Approaching disorder-free transport in high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 515(7527), 384–388 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishizawa, H.

A. Hirao and H. Nishizawa, “Effect of dipoles on carrier drift and diffusion of molecularly doped polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 56(6), R2904–R2907 (1997).
[Crossref]

Norwood, R. A.

S. Tay, P. A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nature 451(7179), 694–698 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Regan, M. B.

P. M. Borsenberger, E. H. Magin, M. B. O’Regan, and J. A. Sinicropi, “The role of dipole moments on hole transport in triphenylamine-doped polymers,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 34(2), 317–323 (1996).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Lv, S. R. Puniredd, J. Zhang, Z. Li, H. Zhu, W. Jiang, H. Dong, Y. He, L. Jiang, Y. Li, W. Pisula, Q. Meng, W. Hu, and Z. Wang, “High mobility, air stable, organic single crystal transistors of an n-type diperylene bisimide,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2626–2630 (2012).
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Winiarz, J.

P. Chantharasupawong, C. W. Christenson, R. Philip, L. Zhai, J. Winiarz, M. Yamamoto, L. Tetard, R. R. Nair, and J. Thomas, “Photorefractive performances of a grapheme-doped PATPD/7-DCST/ECZ composite,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(36), 7639–7647 (2014).
[Crossref]

Würthner, F.

F. Würthner, C. R. Saha-Möller, B. Fimmel, S. Ogi, P. Leowanawat, and D. Schmidt, “Perylene bisimide dye assemblies as archetype functional supramolecular materials,” Chem. Rev. 116(3), 962–1052 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Heek, C. Fasting, C. Rest, X. Zhang, F. Würthner, and R. Haag, “Highly fluorescent water-soluble polyglycerol-dendronized perylene bisimide dyes,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(11), 1884–1886 (2010).
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Yamamoto, M.

P. Chantharasupawong, C. W. Christenson, R. Philip, L. Zhai, J. Winiarz, M. Yamamoto, L. Tetard, R. R. Nair, and J. Thomas, “Photorefractive performances of a grapheme-doped PATPD/7-DCST/ECZ composite,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(36), 7639–7647 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Tay, P. A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nature 451(7179), 694–698 (2008).
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W. Chen, X. Yang, G. Long, X. Wan, Y. Chen, and Q. Zhang, “A perylene diimide (PDI)-based small molecule with tetrahedral configuration as a non-fullerene acceptor for organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(18), 4698–4705 (2015).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-R. Tseng, H. Phan, C. Luo, M. Wang, L. A. Perez, S. N. Patel, L. Ying, E. J. Kramer, T.-Q. Nguyen, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “High-mobility field-effect transistors fabricated with macroscopic aligned semiconducting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 2993–2998 (2014).
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Zelazny, M.

D. Venkateshvaran, M. Nikolka, A. Sadhanala, V. Lemaur, M. Zelazny, M. Kepa, M. Hurhangee, A. J. Kronemeijer, V. Pecunia, I. Nasrallah, I. Romanov, K. Broch, I. McCulloch, D. Emin, Y. Olivier, J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, and H. Sirringhaus, “Approaching disorder-free transport in high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 515(7527), 384–388 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhai, L.

P. Chantharasupawong, C. W. Christenson, R. Philip, L. Zhai, J. Winiarz, M. Yamamoto, L. Tetard, R. R. Nair, and J. Thomas, “Photorefractive performances of a grapheme-doped PATPD/7-DCST/ECZ composite,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(36), 7639–7647 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

A. Lv, S. R. Puniredd, J. Zhang, Z. Li, H. Zhu, W. Jiang, H. Dong, Y. He, L. Jiang, Y. Li, W. Pisula, Q. Meng, W. Hu, and Z. Wang, “High mobility, air stable, organic single crystal transistors of an n-type diperylene bisimide,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2626–2630 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

W. Chen, X. Yang, G. Long, X. Wan, Y. Chen, and Q. Zhang, “A perylene diimide (PDI)-based small molecule with tetrahedral configuration as a non-fullerene acceptor for organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(18), 4698–4705 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

T. Heek, C. Fasting, C. Rest, X. Zhang, F. Würthner, and R. Haag, “Highly fluorescent water-soluble polyglycerol-dendronized perylene bisimide dyes,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(11), 1884–1886 (2010).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Structural formulae of PDAA, 7-DCST, TPAOH, and PBI.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 TGA spectrum of PBI.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 UV-Vis absorption spectra of PBI in solution and as a solid film.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Electronic band structures of composites: a) DOS. b) Extracted DOS curves from (a). Curve fitting was performed in the photon energy region between the peak (6.0 and 6.1 eV) and lower energy tail toward 5.6 eV or smaller.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Hole-hopping mechanism in various PDAA/7-DCST/TPAOH/PBI composites.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 PR quantities, glass transition temperatures and absorption coefficients of the PR polymer composites at the electric field of 40 V μm−1

Tables Icon

Table 2 Photoconductivity and related quantities as well as the space-charge field of the PR polymer composites at the electric field of 40 V μm−1.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Photorefractive parameters of PDAA/7-DCST/TPAOH/PBI (30/30/39.9/0.1 wt%, d = 46 μm) at various electric fields.

Equations (13)

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η int % = I d I t + I d × 100.
η ext = exp ( α d cos θ A ) η int .
η int = η 0 { 1 exp [ ( t τ ) β ] } .
S = η ext I τ .
Γ = 1 d [ cos θ A ln I 1 ( I 2 0 ) I 1 ( I 2 = 0 ) cos θ B ln I 2 ( I 1 0 ) I 2 ( I 1 = 0 ) ] .
η int = sin 2 ( K Δ n cos ( θ B θ A ) ) .
Γ = 4 π Δ n λ ( e ^ 1 e ^ 2 ) sin Φ .
tan Φ = [ E D E 0 ( 1 + E D E q + E 0 2 E D E q ) ] .
| E SC | E q ( E D 2 + E 0 2 E 0 2 + ( E q + E D ) 2 ) 1 / 2 .
T i = E q ε r ε 0 K G e .
σ ph = I ph E 0 s .
φ ph = σ ph E 0 h ν e I 0 α d .
η p = e d T i ε r ε 0 E 0 φ ph .

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