Abstract

Black phosphorus has emerged as a promising two-dimensional semiconductor, which has a unique structure that is anisotropic in-plane. This structural anisotropy translates to some very interesting orientation dependent properties. In this paper we present directional characterization and analysis of the phonon and electrical properties in black phosphorus. Using polarization dependent Raman we show a simple method for estimating orientation. A complementary radially contacted field effect transistor (FET) was fabricated in order to measure orientation dependent electrical properties. Mobility and transconductance followed a sinusoidal like dependence on orientation with a 30% anisotropy. Correlating these results with Raman, we show how Raman methods might be used as a nondestructive technique to orient black phosphorus devices.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. N. Youngblood, C. Chen, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current,” Nat. Photonics 9, 247–252 (2015).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  23. S. Das and J. Appenzeller, “Screening and interlayer coupling in multilayer MoS2,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 7(4), 268–273 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  24. B. Liu, M. Köpf, A. N. Abbas, X. Wang, Q. Guo, Y. Jia, F. Xia, R. Weihrich, F. Bachhuber, F. Pielnhofer, H. Wang, R. Dhall, S. B. Cronin, M. Ge, X. Fang, T. Nilges, and C. Zhou, “Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties,” Adv. Mater. 27(30), 4423–4429 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (11)

J. Kim, J.-U. Lee, J. Lee, H. J. Park, Z. Lee, C. Lee, and H. Cheong, “Anomalous polarization dependence of Raman scattering and crystallographic orientation of black phosphorus,” Nanoscale 7(44), 18708–18715 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Doganov, S. P. Koenig, Y. Yeo, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and B. Ozyilmaz, “Transport properties of ultrathin black phosphorus on hexagonal boron nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 083505 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Liu, M. Köpf, A. N. Abbas, X. Wang, Q. Guo, Y. Jia, F. Xia, R. Weihrich, F. Bachhuber, F. Pielnhofer, H. Wang, R. Dhall, S. B. Cronin, M. Ge, X. Fang, T. Nilges, and C. Zhou, “Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties,” Adv. Mater. 27(30), 4423–4429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Youngblood, C. Chen, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current,” Nat. Photonics 9, 247–252 (2015).

J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, Q. Cui, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Exceptional and Anisotropic Transport Properties of Photocarriers in Black Phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6436–6442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Luo, J. Maassen, Y. Deng, Y. Du, R. P. Garrelts, M. S. Lundstrom, P. D. Ye, and X. Xu, “Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity observed in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. B. Ribeiro, M. A. Pimenta, C. J. S. de Matos, R. L. Moreira, A. S. Rodin, J. D. Zapata, E. A. T. de Souza, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Unusual angular dependence of the Raman response in black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4270–4276 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, N. Mao, L. Xie, H. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Identifying the Crystalline Orientation of Black Phosphorus Using Angle-Resolved Polarized Raman Spectroscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(8), 2366–2369 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ling, L. Liang, S. Huang, A. A. Puretzky, D. B. Geohegan, B. G. Sumpter, J. Kong, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Low-frequency interlayer breathing modes in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4080–4088 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (9)

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Lu, H. Nan, J. Hong, Y. Chen, C. Zhu, Z. Liang, X. Ma, Z. Ni, C. Jin, and Z. Zhang, “Plasma-assisted fabrication of monolayer phosphorene and its Raman characterization,” Nano Res. 7(6), 853–859 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4651 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liang, J. Wang, W. Lin, B. G. Sumpter, V. Meunier, and M. Pan, “Electronic bandgap and edge reconstruction in phosphorene materials,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6400–6406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

S. Das and J. Appenzeller, “Screening and interlayer coupling in multilayer MoS2,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 7(4), 268–273 (2013).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

S. Narita, Y. Akahama, Y. Tsukiyama, K. Muro, S. Mori, S. Endo, M. Taniguchi, M. Seki, S. Suga, A. Mikuni, and H. Kanzakl, “Electrical and optical properties of black phosphorus single crystals,” Physica 117B-118B, 422–424 (1983).

Abbas, A. N.

B. Liu, M. Köpf, A. N. Abbas, X. Wang, Q. Guo, Y. Jia, F. Xia, R. Weihrich, F. Bachhuber, F. Pielnhofer, H. Wang, R. Dhall, S. B. Cronin, M. Ge, X. Fang, T. Nilges, and C. Zhou, “Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties,” Adv. Mater. 27(30), 4423–4429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akahama, Y.

S. Narita, Y. Akahama, Y. Tsukiyama, K. Muro, S. Mori, S. Endo, M. Taniguchi, M. Seki, S. Suga, A. Mikuni, and H. Kanzakl, “Electrical and optical properties of black phosphorus single crystals,” Physica 117B-118B, 422–424 (1983).

Alvarez, J. V.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appenzeller, J.

S. Das and J. Appenzeller, “Screening and interlayer coupling in multilayer MoS2,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 7(4), 268–273 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bachhuber, F.

B. Liu, M. Köpf, A. N. Abbas, X. Wang, Q. Guo, Y. Jia, F. Xia, R. Weihrich, F. Bachhuber, F. Pielnhofer, H. Wang, R. Dhall, S. B. Cronin, M. Ge, X. Fang, T. Nilges, and C. Zhou, “Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties,” Adv. Mater. 27(30), 4423–4429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellus, M. Z.

J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, Q. Cui, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Exceptional and Anisotropic Transport Properties of Photocarriers in Black Phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6436–6442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanter, S. I.

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bulovic, V.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buscema, M.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4651 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castellanos-Gomez, A.

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4651 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Castro Neto, A. H.

H. B. Ribeiro, M. A. Pimenta, C. J. S. de Matos, R. L. Moreira, A. S. Rodin, J. D. Zapata, E. A. T. de Souza, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Unusual angular dependence of the Raman response in black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4270–4276 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

N. Youngblood, C. Chen, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current,” Nat. Photonics 9, 247–252 (2015).

Chen, H.

S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. H.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

W. Lu, H. Nan, J. Hong, Y. Chen, C. Zhu, Z. Liang, X. Ma, Z. Ni, C. Jin, and Z. Zhang, “Plasma-assisted fabrication of monolayer phosphorene and its Raman characterization,” Nano Res. 7(6), 853–859 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheong, H.

J. Kim, J.-U. Lee, J. Lee, H. J. Park, Z. Lee, C. Lee, and H. Cheong, “Anomalous polarization dependence of Raman scattering and crystallographic orientation of black phosphorus,” Nanoscale 7(44), 18708–18715 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiu, H. Y.

J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, Q. Cui, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Exceptional and Anisotropic Transport Properties of Photocarriers in Black Phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6436–6442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cronin, S. B.

B. Liu, M. Köpf, A. N. Abbas, X. Wang, Q. Guo, Y. Jia, F. Xia, R. Weihrich, F. Bachhuber, F. Pielnhofer, H. Wang, R. Dhall, S. B. Cronin, M. Ge, X. Fang, T. Nilges, and C. Zhou, “Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties,” Adv. Mater. 27(30), 4423–4429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Q.

J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, Q. Cui, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Exceptional and Anisotropic Transport Properties of Photocarriers in Black Phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6436–6442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Das, P. M.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Das, S.

S. Das and J. Appenzeller, “Screening and interlayer coupling in multilayer MoS2,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 7(4), 268–273 (2013).
[Crossref]

de Matos, C. J. S.

H. B. Ribeiro, M. A. Pimenta, C. J. S. de Matos, R. L. Moreira, A. S. Rodin, J. D. Zapata, E. A. T. de Souza, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Unusual angular dependence of the Raman response in black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4270–4276 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Souza, E. A. T.

H. B. Ribeiro, M. A. Pimenta, C. J. S. de Matos, R. L. Moreira, A. S. Rodin, J. D. Zapata, E. A. T. de Souza, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Unusual angular dependence of the Raman response in black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4270–4276 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, Y.

Z. Luo, J. Maassen, Y. Deng, Y. Du, R. P. Garrelts, M. S. Lundstrom, P. D. Ye, and X. Xu, “Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity observed in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhall, R.

B. Liu, M. Köpf, A. N. Abbas, X. Wang, Q. Guo, Y. Jia, F. Xia, R. Weihrich, F. Bachhuber, F. Pielnhofer, H. Wang, R. Dhall, S. B. Cronin, M. Ge, X. Fang, T. Nilges, and C. Zhou, “Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties,” Adv. Mater. 27(30), 4423–4429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doganov, R. A.

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Dresselhaus, M. S.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
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X. Ling, L. Liang, S. Huang, A. A. Puretzky, D. B. Geohegan, B. G. Sumpter, J. Kong, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Low-frequency interlayer breathing modes in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4080–4088 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drndic, M.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
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Du, Y.

Z. Luo, J. Maassen, Y. Deng, Y. Du, R. P. Garrelts, M. S. Lundstrom, P. D. Ye, and X. Xu, “Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity observed in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Endo, S.

S. Narita, Y. Akahama, Y. Tsukiyama, K. Muro, S. Mori, S. Endo, M. Taniguchi, M. Seki, S. Suga, A. Mikuni, and H. Kanzakl, “Electrical and optical properties of black phosphorus single crystals,” Physica 117B-118B, 422–424 (1983).

Fang, X.

B. Liu, M. Köpf, A. N. Abbas, X. Wang, Q. Guo, Y. Jia, F. Xia, R. Weihrich, F. Bachhuber, F. Pielnhofer, H. Wang, R. Dhall, S. B. Cronin, M. Ge, X. Fang, T. Nilges, and C. Zhou, “Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties,” Adv. Mater. 27(30), 4423–4429 (2015).
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L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
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S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
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Z. Luo, J. Maassen, Y. Deng, Y. Du, R. P. Garrelts, M. S. Lundstrom, P. D. Ye, and X. Xu, “Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity observed in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8572 (2015).
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B. Liu, M. Köpf, A. N. Abbas, X. Wang, Q. Guo, Y. Jia, F. Xia, R. Weihrich, F. Bachhuber, F. Pielnhofer, H. Wang, R. Dhall, S. B. Cronin, M. Ge, X. Fang, T. Nilges, and C. Zhou, “Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties,” Adv. Mater. 27(30), 4423–4429 (2015).
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L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
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X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
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X. Ling, L. Liang, S. Huang, A. A. Puretzky, D. B. Geohegan, B. G. Sumpter, J. Kong, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Low-frequency interlayer breathing modes in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4080–4088 (2015).
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S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9590–9596 (2014).
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M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4651 (2014).
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M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
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B. Liu, M. Köpf, A. N. Abbas, X. Wang, Q. Guo, Y. Jia, F. Xia, R. Weihrich, F. Bachhuber, F. Pielnhofer, H. Wang, R. Dhall, S. B. Cronin, M. Ge, X. Fang, T. Nilges, and C. Zhou, “Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties,” Adv. Mater. 27(30), 4423–4429 (2015).
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X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
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J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, Q. Cui, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Exceptional and Anisotropic Transport Properties of Photocarriers in Black Phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6436–6442 (2015).
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J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, Q. Cui, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Exceptional and Anisotropic Transport Properties of Photocarriers in Black Phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6436–6442 (2015).
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Ho, J.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
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Hong, J.

W. Lu, H. Nan, J. Hong, Y. Chen, C. Zhu, Z. Liang, X. Ma, Z. Ni, C. Jin, and Z. Zhang, “Plasma-assisted fabrication of monolayer phosphorene and its Raman characterization,” Nano Res. 7(6), 853–859 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, B.

S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ling, L. Liang, S. Huang, A. A. Puretzky, D. B. Geohegan, B. G. Sumpter, J. Kong, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Low-frequency interlayer breathing modes in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4080–4088 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huo, N.

S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
[Crossref]

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A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jia, X.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

B. Liu, M. Köpf, A. N. Abbas, X. Wang, Q. Guo, Y. Jia, F. Xia, R. Weihrich, F. Bachhuber, F. Pielnhofer, H. Wang, R. Dhall, S. B. Cronin, M. Ge, X. Fang, T. Nilges, and C. Zhou, “Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties,” Adv. Mater. 27(30), 4423–4429 (2015).
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X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
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W. Lu, H. Nan, J. Hong, Y. Chen, C. Zhu, Z. Liang, X. Ma, Z. Ni, C. Jin, and Z. Zhang, “Plasma-assisted fabrication of monolayer phosphorene and its Raman characterization,” Nano Res. 7(6), 853–859 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jones, A. M.

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanzakl, H.

S. Narita, Y. Akahama, Y. Tsukiyama, K. Muro, S. Mori, S. Endo, M. Taniguchi, M. Seki, S. Suga, A. Mikuni, and H. Kanzakl, “Electrical and optical properties of black phosphorus single crystals,” Physica 117B-118B, 422–424 (1983).

Kim, J.

J. Kim, J.-U. Lee, J. Lee, H. J. Park, Z. Lee, C. Lee, and H. Cheong, “Anomalous polarization dependence of Raman scattering and crystallographic orientation of black phosphorus,” Nanoscale 7(44), 18708–18715 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koenig, S. P.

R. A. Doganov, S. P. Koenig, Y. Yeo, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and B. Ozyilmaz, “Transport properties of ultrathin black phosphorus on hexagonal boron nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 083505 (2015).
[Crossref]

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N. Youngblood, C. Chen, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current,” Nat. Photonics 9, 247–252 (2015).

Kong, J.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ling, L. Liang, S. Huang, A. A. Puretzky, D. B. Geohegan, B. G. Sumpter, J. Kong, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Low-frequency interlayer breathing modes in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4080–4088 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Köpf, M.

B. Liu, M. Köpf, A. N. Abbas, X. Wang, Q. Guo, Y. Jia, F. Xia, R. Weihrich, F. Bachhuber, F. Pielnhofer, H. Wang, R. Dhall, S. B. Cronin, M. Ge, X. Fang, T. Nilges, and C. Zhou, “Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties,” Adv. Mater. 27(30), 4423–4429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C.

J. Kim, J.-U. Lee, J. Lee, H. J. Park, Z. Lee, C. Lee, and H. Cheong, “Anomalous polarization dependence of Raman scattering and crystallographic orientation of black phosphorus,” Nanoscale 7(44), 18708–18715 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

J. Kim, J.-U. Lee, J. Lee, H. J. Park, Z. Lee, C. Lee, and H. Cheong, “Anomalous polarization dependence of Raman scattering and crystallographic orientation of black phosphorus,” Nanoscale 7(44), 18708–18715 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-U.

J. Kim, J.-U. Lee, J. Lee, H. J. Park, Z. Lee, C. Lee, and H. Cheong, “Anomalous polarization dependence of Raman scattering and crystallographic orientation of black phosphorus,” Nanoscale 7(44), 18708–18715 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Z.

J. Kim, J.-U. Lee, J. Lee, H. J. Park, Z. Lee, C. Lee, and H. Cheong, “Anomalous polarization dependence of Raman scattering and crystallographic orientation of black phosphorus,” Nanoscale 7(44), 18708–18715 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M.

N. Youngblood, C. Chen, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current,” Nat. Photonics 9, 247–252 (2015).

Li, W.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liang, L.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ling, L. Liang, S. Huang, A. A. Puretzky, D. B. Geohegan, B. G. Sumpter, J. Kong, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Low-frequency interlayer breathing modes in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4080–4088 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liang, J. Wang, W. Lin, B. G. Sumpter, V. Meunier, and M. Pan, “Electronic bandgap and edge reconstruction in phosphorene materials,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6400–6406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, Z.

W. Lu, H. Nan, J. Hong, Y. Chen, C. Zhu, Z. Liang, X. Ma, Z. Ni, C. Jin, and Z. Zhang, “Plasma-assisted fabrication of monolayer phosphorene and its Raman characterization,” Nano Res. 7(6), 853–859 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, W.

L. Liang, J. Wang, W. Lin, B. G. Sumpter, V. Meunier, and M. Pan, “Electronic bandgap and edge reconstruction in phosphorene materials,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6400–6406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ling, X.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ling, L. Liang, S. Huang, A. A. Puretzky, D. B. Geohegan, B. G. Sumpter, J. Kong, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Low-frequency interlayer breathing modes in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4080–4088 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, B.

B. Liu, M. Köpf, A. N. Abbas, X. Wang, Q. Guo, Y. Jia, F. Xia, R. Weihrich, F. Bachhuber, F. Pielnhofer, H. Wang, R. Dhall, S. B. Cronin, M. Ge, X. Fang, T. Nilges, and C. Zhou, “Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties,” Adv. Mater. 27(30), 4423–4429 (2015).
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Liu, H.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
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Liu, S.

S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, W.

W. Lu, H. Nan, J. Hong, Y. Chen, C. Zhu, Z. Liang, X. Ma, Z. Ni, C. Jin, and Z. Zhang, “Plasma-assisted fabrication of monolayer phosphorene and its Raman characterization,” Nano Res. 7(6), 853–859 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lundstrom, M. S.

Z. Luo, J. Maassen, Y. Deng, Y. Du, R. P. Garrelts, M. S. Lundstrom, P. D. Ye, and X. Xu, “Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity observed in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Z.

Z. Luo, J. Maassen, Y. Deng, Y. Du, R. P. Garrelts, M. S. Lundstrom, P. D. Ye, and X. Xu, “Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity observed in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, X.

W. Lu, H. Nan, J. Hong, Y. Chen, C. Zhu, Z. Liang, X. Ma, Z. Ni, C. Jin, and Z. Zhang, “Plasma-assisted fabrication of monolayer phosphorene and its Raman characterization,” Nano Res. 7(6), 853–859 (2014).
[Crossref]

Maassen, J.

Z. Luo, J. Maassen, Y. Deng, Y. Du, R. P. Garrelts, M. S. Lundstrom, P. D. Ye, and X. Xu, “Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity observed in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8572 (2015).
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Mao, N.

J. Wu, N. Mao, L. Xie, H. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Identifying the Crystalline Orientation of Black Phosphorus Using Angle-Resolved Polarized Raman Spectroscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(8), 2366–2369 (2015).
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X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ling, L. Liang, S. Huang, A. A. Puretzky, D. B. Geohegan, B. G. Sumpter, J. Kong, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Low-frequency interlayer breathing modes in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4080–4088 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liang, J. Wang, W. Lin, B. G. Sumpter, V. Meunier, and M. Pan, “Electronic bandgap and edge reconstruction in phosphorene materials,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6400–6406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mikuni, A.

S. Narita, Y. Akahama, Y. Tsukiyama, K. Muro, S. Mori, S. Endo, M. Taniguchi, M. Seki, S. Suga, A. Mikuni, and H. Kanzakl, “Electrical and optical properties of black phosphorus single crystals,” Physica 117B-118B, 422–424 (1983).

Moreira, R. L.

H. B. Ribeiro, M. A. Pimenta, C. J. S. de Matos, R. L. Moreira, A. S. Rodin, J. D. Zapata, E. A. T. de Souza, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Unusual angular dependence of the Raman response in black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4270–4276 (2015).
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Mori, S.

S. Narita, Y. Akahama, Y. Tsukiyama, K. Muro, S. Mori, S. Endo, M. Taniguchi, M. Seki, S. Suga, A. Mikuni, and H. Kanzakl, “Electrical and optical properties of black phosphorus single crystals,” Physica 117B-118B, 422–424 (1983).

Muro, K.

S. Narita, Y. Akahama, Y. Tsukiyama, K. Muro, S. Mori, S. Endo, M. Taniguchi, M. Seki, S. Suga, A. Mikuni, and H. Kanzakl, “Electrical and optical properties of black phosphorus single crystals,” Physica 117B-118B, 422–424 (1983).

Nan, H.

W. Lu, H. Nan, J. Hong, Y. Chen, C. Zhu, Z. Liang, X. Ma, Z. Ni, C. Jin, and Z. Zhang, “Plasma-assisted fabrication of monolayer phosphorene and its Raman characterization,” Nano Res. 7(6), 853–859 (2014).
[Crossref]

Narasimha-Acharya, K. L.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Narita, S.

S. Narita, Y. Akahama, Y. Tsukiyama, K. Muro, S. Mori, S. Endo, M. Taniguchi, M. Seki, S. Suga, A. Mikuni, and H. Kanzakl, “Electrical and optical properties of black phosphorus single crystals,” Physica 117B-118B, 422–424 (1983).

Neal, A. T.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nezich, D.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, Z.

W. Lu, H. Nan, J. Hong, Y. Chen, C. Zhu, Z. Liang, X. Ma, Z. Ni, C. Jin, and Z. Zhang, “Plasma-assisted fabrication of monolayer phosphorene and its Raman characterization,” Nano Res. 7(6), 853–859 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nilges, T.

B. Liu, M. Köpf, A. N. Abbas, X. Wang, Q. Guo, Y. Jia, F. Xia, R. Weihrich, F. Bachhuber, F. Pielnhofer, H. Wang, R. Dhall, S. B. Cronin, M. Ge, X. Fang, T. Nilges, and C. Zhou, “Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties,” Adv. Mater. 27(30), 4423–4429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nugraha, A. R. T.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ou, X.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozyilmaz, B.

R. A. Doganov, S. P. Koenig, Y. Yeo, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and B. Ozyilmaz, “Transport properties of ultrathin black phosphorus on hexagonal boron nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 083505 (2015).
[Crossref]

Palacios, J. J.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pan, M.

L. Liang, J. Wang, W. Lin, B. G. Sumpter, V. Meunier, and M. Pan, “Electronic bandgap and edge reconstruction in phosphorene materials,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6400–6406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, H. J.

J. Kim, J.-U. Lee, J. Lee, H. J. Park, Z. Lee, C. Lee, and H. Cheong, “Anomalous polarization dependence of Raman scattering and crystallographic orientation of black phosphorus,” Nanoscale 7(44), 18708–18715 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parkin, W. M.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pielnhofer, F.

B. Liu, M. Köpf, A. N. Abbas, X. Wang, Q. Guo, Y. Jia, F. Xia, R. Weihrich, F. Bachhuber, F. Pielnhofer, H. Wang, R. Dhall, S. B. Cronin, M. Ge, X. Fang, T. Nilges, and C. Zhou, “Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties,” Adv. Mater. 27(30), 4423–4429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pimenta, M. A.

H. B. Ribeiro, M. A. Pimenta, C. J. S. de Matos, R. L. Moreira, A. S. Rodin, J. D. Zapata, E. A. T. de Souza, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Unusual angular dependence of the Raman response in black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4270–4276 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prada, E.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Puretzky, A. A.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ling, L. Liang, S. Huang, A. A. Puretzky, D. B. Geohegan, B. G. Sumpter, J. Kong, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Low-frequency interlayer breathing modes in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4080–4088 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, Q.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reina, A.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ribeiro, H. B.

H. B. Ribeiro, M. A. Pimenta, C. J. S. de Matos, R. L. Moreira, A. S. Rodin, J. D. Zapata, E. A. T. de Souza, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Unusual angular dependence of the Raman response in black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4270–4276 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodin, A. S.

H. B. Ribeiro, M. A. Pimenta, C. J. S. de Matos, R. L. Moreira, A. S. Rodin, J. D. Zapata, E. A. T. de Souza, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Unusual angular dependence of the Raman response in black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4270–4276 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saito, R.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seki, M.

S. Narita, Y. Akahama, Y. Tsukiyama, K. Muro, S. Mori, S. Endo, M. Taniguchi, M. Seki, S. Suga, A. Mikuni, and H. Kanzakl, “Electrical and optical properties of black phosphorus single crystals,” Physica 117B-118B, 422–424 (1983).

Seyler, K. L.

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Son, H.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steele, G. A.

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4651 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Suga, S.

S. Narita, Y. Akahama, Y. Tsukiyama, K. Muro, S. Mori, S. Endo, M. Taniguchi, M. Seki, S. Suga, A. Mikuni, and H. Kanzakl, “Electrical and optical properties of black phosphorus single crystals,” Physica 117B-118B, 422–424 (1983).

Sumpter, B. G.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ling, L. Liang, S. Huang, A. A. Puretzky, D. B. Geohegan, B. G. Sumpter, J. Kong, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Low-frequency interlayer breathing modes in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4080–4088 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liang, J. Wang, W. Lin, B. G. Sumpter, V. Meunier, and M. Pan, “Electronic bandgap and edge reconstruction in phosphorene materials,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6400–6406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taniguchi, M.

S. Narita, Y. Akahama, Y. Tsukiyama, K. Muro, S. Mori, S. Endo, M. Taniguchi, M. Seki, S. Suga, A. Mikuni, and H. Kanzakl, “Electrical and optical properties of black phosphorus single crystals,” Physica 117B-118B, 422–424 (1983).

Taniguchi, T.

R. A. Doganov, S. P. Koenig, Y. Yeo, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and B. Ozyilmaz, “Transport properties of ultrathin black phosphorus on hexagonal boron nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 083505 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tatsumi, Y.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tománek, D.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tran, V.

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsukiyama, Y.

S. Narita, Y. Akahama, Y. Tsukiyama, K. Muro, S. Mori, S. Endo, M. Taniguchi, M. Seki, S. Suga, A. Mikuni, and H. Kanzakl, “Electrical and optical properties of black phosphorus single crystals,” Physica 117B-118B, 422–424 (1983).

van der Zant, H. S. J.

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4651 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vicarelli, L.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Liu, M. Köpf, A. N. Abbas, X. Wang, Q. Guo, Y. Jia, F. Xia, R. Weihrich, F. Bachhuber, F. Pielnhofer, H. Wang, R. Dhall, S. B. Cronin, M. Ge, X. Fang, T. Nilges, and C. Zhou, “Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties,” Adv. Mater. 27(30), 4423–4429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

L. Liang, J. Wang, W. Lin, B. G. Sumpter, V. Meunier, and M. Pan, “Electronic bandgap and edge reconstruction in phosphorene materials,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6400–6406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Liu, M. Köpf, A. N. Abbas, X. Wang, Q. Guo, Y. Jia, F. Xia, R. Weihrich, F. Bachhuber, F. Pielnhofer, H. Wang, R. Dhall, S. B. Cronin, M. Ge, X. Fang, T. Nilges, and C. Zhou, “Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties,” Adv. Mater. 27(30), 4423–4429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, Q. Cui, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Exceptional and Anisotropic Transport Properties of Photocarriers in Black Phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6436–6442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, K.

R. A. Doganov, S. P. Koenig, Y. Yeo, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and B. Ozyilmaz, “Transport properties of ultrathin black phosphorus on hexagonal boron nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 083505 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wei, Z.

S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
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Weihrich, R.

B. Liu, M. Köpf, A. N. Abbas, X. Wang, Q. Guo, Y. Jia, F. Xia, R. Weihrich, F. Bachhuber, F. Pielnhofer, H. Wang, R. Dhall, S. B. Cronin, M. Ge, X. Fang, T. Nilges, and C. Zhou, “Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties,” Adv. Mater. 27(30), 4423–4429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, N. Mao, L. Xie, H. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Identifying the Crystalline Orientation of Black Phosphorus Using Angle-Resolved Polarized Raman Spectroscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(8), 2366–2369 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, F.

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Liu, M. Köpf, A. N. Abbas, X. Wang, Q. Guo, Y. Jia, F. Xia, R. Weihrich, F. Bachhuber, F. Pielnhofer, H. Wang, R. Dhall, S. B. Cronin, M. Ge, X. Fang, T. Nilges, and C. Zhou, “Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties,” Adv. Mater. 27(30), 4423–4429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, L.

J. Wu, N. Mao, L. Xie, H. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Identifying the Crystalline Orientation of Black Phosphorus Using Angle-Resolved Polarized Raman Spectroscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(8), 2366–2369 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

J. Wu, N. Mao, L. Xie, H. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Identifying the Crystalline Orientation of Black Phosphorus Using Angle-Resolved Polarized Raman Spectroscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(8), 2366–2369 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, R.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

Z. Luo, J. Maassen, Y. Deng, Y. Du, R. P. Garrelts, M. S. Lundstrom, P. D. Ye, and X. Xu, “Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity observed in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, G. J.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, P. D.

Z. Luo, J. Maassen, Y. Deng, Y. Du, R. P. Garrelts, M. S. Lundstrom, P. D. Ye, and X. Xu, “Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity observed in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeo, Y.

R. A. Doganov, S. P. Koenig, Y. Yeo, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and B. Ozyilmaz, “Transport properties of ultrathin black phosphorus on hexagonal boron nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 083505 (2015).
[Crossref]

Youngblood, N.

N. Youngblood, C. Chen, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current,” Nat. Photonics 9, 247–252 (2015).

Yu, Y.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zandbergen, H. W.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zapata, J. D.

H. B. Ribeiro, M. A. Pimenta, C. J. S. de Matos, R. L. Moreira, A. S. Rodin, J. D. Zapata, E. A. T. de Souza, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Unusual angular dependence of the Raman response in black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4270–4276 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

J. Wu, N. Mao, L. Xie, H. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Identifying the Crystalline Orientation of Black Phosphorus Using Angle-Resolved Polarized Raman Spectroscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(8), 2366–2369 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. W.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

W. Lu, H. Nan, J. Hong, Y. Chen, C. Zhu, Z. Liang, X. Ma, Z. Ni, C. Jin, and Z. Zhang, “Plasma-assisted fabrication of monolayer phosphorene and its Raman characterization,” Nano Res. 7(6), 853–859 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, Q. Cui, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Exceptional and Anisotropic Transport Properties of Photocarriers in Black Phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6436–6442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

B. Liu, M. Köpf, A. N. Abbas, X. Wang, Q. Guo, Y. Jia, F. Xia, R. Weihrich, F. Bachhuber, F. Pielnhofer, H. Wang, R. Dhall, S. B. Cronin, M. Ge, X. Fang, T. Nilges, and C. Zhou, “Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties,” Adv. Mater. 27(30), 4423–4429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, C.

W. Lu, H. Nan, J. Hong, Y. Chen, C. Zhu, Z. Liang, X. Ma, Z. Ni, C. Jin, and Z. Zhang, “Plasma-assisted fabrication of monolayer phosphorene and its Raman characterization,” Nano Res. 7(6), 853–859 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2D Mater. (1)

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (4)

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, Q. Cui, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Exceptional and Anisotropic Transport Properties of Photocarriers in Black Phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6436–6442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. B. Ribeiro, M. A. Pimenta, C. J. S. de Matos, R. L. Moreira, A. S. Rodin, J. D. Zapata, E. A. T. de Souza, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Unusual angular dependence of the Raman response in black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4270–4276 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

B. Liu, M. Köpf, A. N. Abbas, X. Wang, Q. Guo, Y. Jia, F. Xia, R. Weihrich, F. Bachhuber, F. Pielnhofer, H. Wang, R. Dhall, S. B. Cronin, M. Ge, X. Fang, T. Nilges, and C. Zhou, “Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties,” Adv. Mater. 27(30), 4423–4429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

J. Wu, N. Mao, L. Xie, H. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Identifying the Crystalline Orientation of Black Phosphorus Using Angle-Resolved Polarized Raman Spectroscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(8), 2366–2369 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. A. Doganov, S. P. Koenig, Y. Yeo, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and B. Ozyilmaz, “Transport properties of ultrathin black phosphorus on hexagonal boron nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 083505 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (1)

S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (5)

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
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X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ling, L. Liang, S. Huang, A. A. Puretzky, D. B. Geohegan, B. G. Sumpter, J. Kong, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Low-frequency interlayer breathing modes in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4080–4088 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liang, J. Wang, W. Lin, B. G. Sumpter, V. Meunier, and M. Pan, “Electronic bandgap and edge reconstruction in phosphorene materials,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6400–6406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Res. (1)

W. Lu, H. Nan, J. Hong, Y. Chen, C. Zhu, Z. Liang, X. Ma, Z. Ni, C. Jin, and Z. Zhang, “Plasma-assisted fabrication of monolayer phosphorene and its Raman characterization,” Nano Res. 7(6), 853–859 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (1)

J. Kim, J.-U. Lee, J. Lee, H. J. Park, Z. Lee, C. Lee, and H. Cheong, “Anomalous polarization dependence of Raman scattering and crystallographic orientation of black phosphorus,” Nanoscale 7(44), 18708–18715 (2015).
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Nat. Commun. (3)

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
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M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4651 (2014).
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Z. Luo, J. Maassen, Y. Deng, Y. Du, R. P. Garrelts, M. S. Lundstrom, P. D. Ye, and X. Xu, “Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity observed in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8572 (2015).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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N. Youngblood, C. Chen, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current,” Nat. Photonics 9, 247–252 (2015).

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S. Das and J. Appenzeller, “Screening and interlayer coupling in multilayer MoS2,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 7(4), 268–273 (2013).
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Physica (1)

S. Narita, Y. Akahama, Y. Tsukiyama, K. Muro, S. Mori, S. Endo, M. Taniguchi, M. Seki, S. Suga, A. Mikuni, and H. Kanzakl, “Electrical and optical properties of black phosphorus single crystals,” Physica 117B-118B, 422–424 (1983).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Raman spectra from bP flakes with different thickness exfoliated on to SiO2/Si (normalized and offset). (b) Comparison of the thickness dependence on IA2g/IA1g and ISi/IA2g ratios.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Optical micrograph of exfoliated bP flake with 5 and 17 nm thick regions, measured by AFM. (b) Polarization dependent Raman spectra from a 5 nm thick bP flake offset for clarity. Plots of IB2g, IA1g and IA2g vs. polarization angle taken from the 5(normalized and offset) (c) and 17 nm (d) thick regions. Symbols are experimental data and dashed lines correspond to fits to Eq. (1) and Eq. (2).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Optical micrograph of bP radial FET. (b) AFM image of the 25 nm bP flake before device processing, insets show line scans taken across two edges used to measure thickness. (c) I-V characteristics across contacts 3 and 7 from Vg −20 to 20 V. (d) Transfer curves between contact 3 and 7 at Vds = 10 and 50 mV.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Orientation dependent transconductance (Gm) and field effect mobility (µFE) from a 25 nm thick bP FET. Gm and µFE were estimated from the linear portion of transfer curves take at Vds = 50mV. The inset shows the de-vice orientation. (b) Polarization dependent Raman intensity from the same 25 nm flake. The symbols represent experimental data and dashed line are fits to Eqs. (1) and (2). The plot shows the A2g and B2g intensities as a function of angle. The Raman data was shifted by + 12° in order to align with electrical measurements using the bottom edge as a reference, inset.

Equations (2)

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I A g α ( a * sin 2 ( θ ) + c * cos 2 ( θ ) ) 2
I B 2 g α sin 2 ( 2 θ )

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