Abstract

Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) was successfully fabricated by liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) method. By using the BP saturable absorber (SA), a passively Q-switched solid-state laser at the central wavelength of 1988 nm was demonstrated. Under an absorbed diode-pumped power of 3.38 W, an average power of 151 mW was generated with a minimum pulse width of 1.78 µs and repetition rate of 19.25 kHz, corresponding to pulse energy of 7.84 μJ. Our experimental results showed that BP could be used as an excellent SA for achieving mid-infrared solid-state pulsed lasers. To the best of our knowledge, it was the first time to obtain a Q-switched solid-state laser of 2 μm based on BP-SA.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (3)

2015 (9)

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, F. Lou, R. Zhao, J. He, J. Li, X. Su, J. Ning, and K. Yang, “Exfoliated layers of black phosphorus as saturable absorber for ultrafast solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3691–3694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3885–3888 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Kassani, R. Khazaeizhad, H. Jeong, T. Nazari, D. I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “All-fiber Er-doped Q-Switched laser based on Tungsten Disulfide saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(2), 373–379 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2.,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wu, D. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, X. Li, R. Wang, and J. Liu, “Passive Q-switching with GaAs or Bi-doped GaAs saturable absorber in Tm:LuAG laser operating at 2μm wavelength,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15469–15476 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hou, B. T. Zhang, X. C. Su, R. W. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, F. Lou, and J. L. He, “High efficient mode-locked Tm:YAP laser emitting at 1938 nm by SESAM,” Opt. Commun. 347, 88–91 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458–4463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. F. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(4), 1057–1110 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of grapheme,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 109–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended grapheme,” Solid State Commun. 146(9–10), 351–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, M. Mond, E. Heumann, G. Huber, H. Kretschmann, and S. Kück, “Efficient laser operation and continuous-wave diode pumping of Cr2+:ZnSe single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72(2), 253–255 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

Y. Akahama, M. Kobayashi, and H. Kawamura, “Raman study of black phosphorus up to 13 GPa,” Solid State Commun. 104(6), 311–315 (1997).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

Y. Takao, H. Asahina, and A. Morita, “Electronic structure of black phosphorus in tight binding approach,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50(10), 3362–3369 (1981).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K. M.

Akahama, Y.

Y. Akahama, M. Kobayashi, and H. Kawamura, “Raman study of black phosphorus up to 13 GPa,” Solid State Commun. 104(6), 311–315 (1997).
[Crossref]

Asahina, H.

Y. Takao, H. Asahina, and A. Morita, “Electronic structure of black phosphorus in tight binding approach,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50(10), 3362–3369 (1981).
[Crossref]

Balandin, A. A.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Q.

Bao, Q. L.

Bao, W.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bian, J.

Bolotin, K. I.

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended grapheme,” Solid State Commun. 146(9–10), 351–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Calizo, I.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro Neto, A. H.

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of grapheme,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 109–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

Chen, J.

Chen, S.

Chen, Y.

Cheng, X. A.

Du, J.

Fan, D.

Fan, D. Y.

Fan, Y.

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fudenberg, G.

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended grapheme,” Solid State Commun. 146(9–10), 351–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

Geim, A. K.

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of grapheme,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 109–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, S.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guinea, F.

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of grapheme,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 109–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guo, Z.

Guo, Z. N.

Hanna, D. C.

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

He, J.

He, J. L.

J. Hou, B. T. Zhang, X. C. Su, R. W. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, F. Lou, and J. L. He, “High efficient mode-locked Tm:YAP laser emitting at 1938 nm by SESAM,” Opt. Commun. 347, 88–91 (2015).
[Crossref]

Heumann, E.

A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, M. Mond, E. Heumann, G. Huber, H. Kretschmann, and S. Kück, “Efficient laser operation and continuous-wave diode pumping of Cr2+:ZnSe single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72(2), 253–255 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hone, J.

C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended grapheme,” Solid State Commun. 146(9–10), 351–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hou, J.

Z. Wang, R. Zhao, J. He, B. Zhang, J. Ning, Y. Wang, X. Su, J. Hou, F. Lou, K. Yang, Y. Fan, J. Bian, and J. Nie, “Multi-layered black phosphorus as saturable absorber for pulsed Cr:ZnSe laser at 2.4 μm,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1598–1603 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hou, B. T. Zhang, X. C. Su, R. W. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, F. Lou, and J. L. He, “High efficient mode-locked Tm:YAP laser emitting at 1938 nm by SESAM,” Opt. Commun. 347, 88–91 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hu, D.

S. Yan, B. Wang, Z. Wang, D. Hu, X. Xu, J. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Supercritical carbon dioxide-assisted rapid synthesis of few-layer black phosphorus for hydrogen peroxide sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 80, 34–38 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, G.

A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, M. Mond, E. Heumann, G. Huber, H. Kretschmann, and S. Kück, “Efficient laser operation and continuous-wave diode pumping of Cr2+:ZnSe single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72(2), 253–255 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jeong, H.

Jia, Y.

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458–4463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, G.

Jiang, T.

Jiang, Z.

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended grapheme,” Solid State Commun. 146(9–10), 351–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kassani, S. H.

Kawamura, H.

Y. Akahama, M. Kobayashi, and H. Kawamura, “Raman study of black phosphorus up to 13 GPa,” Solid State Commun. 104(6), 311–315 (1997).
[Crossref]

Khazaeizhad, R.

Kim, P.

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended grapheme,” Solid State Commun. 146(9–10), 351–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

Klima, M.

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended grapheme,” Solid State Commun. 146(9–10), 351–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, M.

Y. Akahama, M. Kobayashi, and H. Kawamura, “Raman study of black phosphorus up to 13 GPa,” Solid State Commun. 104(6), 311–315 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kowalczyk, M.

Kretschmann, H.

A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, M. Mond, E. Heumann, G. Huber, H. Kretschmann, and S. Kück, “Efficient laser operation and continuous-wave diode pumping of Cr2+:ZnSe single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72(2), 253–255 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kück, S.

A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, M. Mond, E. Heumann, G. Huber, H. Kretschmann, and S. Kück, “Efficient laser operation and continuous-wave diode pumping of Cr2+:ZnSe single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72(2), 253–255 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kuleshov, N. V.

A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, M. Mond, E. Heumann, G. Huber, H. Kretschmann, and S. Kück, “Efficient laser operation and continuous-wave diode pumping of Cr2+:ZnSe single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72(2), 253–255 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kysar, J. W.

C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lau, C. N.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C.

C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levchenko, V. I.

A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, M. Mond, E. Heumann, G. Huber, H. Kretschmann, and S. Kück, “Efficient laser operation and continuous-wave diode pumping of Cr2+:ZnSe single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72(2), 253–255 (2001).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

Li, J.

Li, X.

Liang, Y. F.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. F. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Loh, K. P.

Lou, F.

Lu, S. B.

Macherzynski, W.

Miao, F.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miao, L. L.

Mond, M.

A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, M. Mond, E. Heumann, G. Huber, H. Kretschmann, and S. Kück, “Efficient laser operation and continuous-wave diode pumping of Cr2+:ZnSe single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72(2), 253–255 (2001).
[Crossref]

Morita, A.

Y. Takao, H. Asahina, and A. Morita, “Electronic structure of black phosphorus in tight binding approach,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50(10), 3362–3369 (1981).
[Crossref]

Nazari, T.

Nie, J.

Ning, J.

Novoselov, K. S.

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of grapheme,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 109–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

O’Connor, M. V.

Oh, K.

Paletko, P.

Peres, N. M. R.

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of grapheme,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 109–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Podlipensky, A. V.

A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, M. Mond, E. Heumann, G. Huber, H. Kretschmann, and S. Kück, “Efficient laser operation and continuous-wave diode pumping of Cr2+:ZnSe single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72(2), 253–255 (2001).
[Crossref]

Qi, X.

Qi, X. L.

X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(4), 1057–1110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qian, L.

Qin, Z.

Shcherbitsky, V. G.

A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, M. Mond, E. Heumann, G. Huber, H. Kretschmann, and S. Kück, “Efficient laser operation and continuous-wave diode pumping of Cr2+:ZnSe single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72(2), 253–255 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shepherd, D. P.

Shi, Y.

S. Yan, B. Wang, Z. Wang, D. Hu, X. Xu, J. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Supercritical carbon dioxide-assisted rapid synthesis of few-layer black phosphorus for hydrogen peroxide sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 80, 34–38 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sikes, K. J.

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended grapheme,” Solid State Commun. 146(9–10), 351–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sobon, G.

Soklaski, R.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. F. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sotor, J.

Stormer, H. L.

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended grapheme,” Solid State Commun. 146(9–10), 351–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

Su, X.

Su, X. C.

J. Hou, B. T. Zhang, X. C. Su, R. W. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, F. Lou, and J. L. He, “High efficient mode-locked Tm:YAP laser emitting at 1938 nm by SESAM,” Opt. Commun. 347, 88–91 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Takao, Y.

Y. Takao, H. Asahina, and A. Morita, “Electronic structure of black phosphorus in tight binding approach,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50(10), 3362–3369 (1981).
[Crossref]

Tang, D.

Tang, D. Y.

Teweldebrhan, D.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tran, V.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. F. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, B.

S. Yan, B. Wang, Z. Wang, D. Hu, X. Xu, J. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Supercritical carbon dioxide-assisted rapid synthesis of few-layer black phosphorus for hydrogen peroxide sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 80, 34–38 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2.,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458–4463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

S. Yan, B. Wang, Z. Wang, D. Hu, X. Xu, J. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Supercritical carbon dioxide-assisted rapid synthesis of few-layer black phosphorus for hydrogen peroxide sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 80, 34–38 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2.,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R.

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, R. Zhao, J. He, B. Zhang, J. Ning, Y. Wang, X. Su, J. Hou, F. Lou, K. Yang, Y. Fan, J. Bian, and J. Nie, “Multi-layered black phosphorus as saturable absorber for pulsed Cr:ZnSe laser at 2.4 μm,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1598–1603 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yan, B. Wang, Z. Wang, D. Hu, X. Xu, J. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Supercritical carbon dioxide-assisted rapid synthesis of few-layer black phosphorus for hydrogen peroxide sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 80, 34–38 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. W.

J. Hou, B. T. Zhang, X. C. Su, R. W. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, F. Lou, and J. L. He, “High efficient mode-locked Tm:YAP laser emitting at 1938 nm by SESAM,” Opt. Commun. 347, 88–91 (2015).
[Crossref]

Watson, M. A.

Wei, X.

C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, S.

Wen, S. C.

Wu, K.

Wu, L.

Xia, F.

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458–4463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, G.

Xu, X.

S. Yan, B. Wang, Z. Wang, D. Hu, X. Xu, J. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Supercritical carbon dioxide-assisted rapid synthesis of few-layer black phosphorus for hydrogen peroxide sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 80, 34–38 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakimovich, V. N.

A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, M. Mond, E. Heumann, G. Huber, H. Kretschmann, and S. Kück, “Efficient laser operation and continuous-wave diode pumping of Cr2+:ZnSe single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72(2), 253–255 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yan, S.

S. Yan, B. Wang, Z. Wang, D. Hu, X. Xu, J. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Supercritical carbon dioxide-assisted rapid synthesis of few-layer black phosphorus for hydrogen peroxide sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 80, 34–38 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, K.

Yang, L.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. F. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yeom, D. I.

Yin, K.

Yu, H.

Yu, X.

Yuan, P.

Zhang, B.

Zhang, B. T.

J. Hou, B. T. Zhang, X. C. Su, R. W. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, F. Lou, and J. L. He, “High efficient mode-locked Tm:YAP laser emitting at 1938 nm by SESAM,” Opt. Commun. 347, 88–91 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, S. C.

X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(4), 1057–1110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhao, C.

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, L. M.

Zhao, R.

Zhao, R. W.

J. Hou, B. T. Zhang, X. C. Su, R. W. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, F. Lou, and J. L. He, “High efficient mode-locked Tm:YAP laser emitting at 1938 nm by SESAM,” Opt. Commun. 347, 88–91 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S.

Zheng, J.

Zheng, X.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, M. Mond, E. Heumann, G. Huber, H. Kretschmann, and S. Kück, “Efficient laser operation and continuous-wave diode pumping of Cr2+:ZnSe single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72(2), 253–255 (2001).
[Crossref]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

S. Yan, B. Wang, Z. Wang, D. Hu, X. Xu, J. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Supercritical carbon dioxide-assisted rapid synthesis of few-layer black phosphorus for hydrogen peroxide sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 80, 34–38 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

Y. Takao, H. Asahina, and A. Morita, “Electronic structure of black phosphorus in tight binding approach,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50(10), 3362–3369 (1981).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458–4463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Hou, B. T. Zhang, X. C. Su, R. W. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, F. Lou, and J. L. He, “High efficient mode-locked Tm:YAP laser emitting at 1938 nm by SESAM,” Opt. Commun. 347, 88–91 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

L. Wu, D. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, X. Li, R. Wang, and J. Liu, “Passive Q-switching with GaAs or Bi-doped GaAs saturable absorber in Tm:LuAG laser operating at 2μm wavelength,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15469–15476 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2.,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, R. Zhao, J. He, B. Zhang, J. Ning, Y. Wang, X. Su, J. Hou, F. Lou, K. Yang, Y. Fan, J. Bian, and J. Nie, “Multi-layered black phosphorus as saturable absorber for pulsed Cr:ZnSe laser at 2.4 μm,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1598–1603 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. F. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of grapheme,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 109–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(4), 1057–1110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun. (2)

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended grapheme,” Solid State Commun. 146(9–10), 351–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Akahama, M. Kobayashi, and H. Kawamura, “Raman study of black phosphorus up to 13 GPa,” Solid State Commun. 104(6), 311–315 (1997).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

A. C. Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. N. Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. Zant, Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus, 2D Mater. 1(2),025001 (2014).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Photograph of multilayer BP dispersed in NMP and Raman spectra of few-layered BP.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 AFM scan image of the BP surface and the typical height profiles of BP sheets.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Output power versus pump power for CW and Q-switched operation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Pulse repetition rate and pulse width versus the absorbed pump power.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The single pulse energy versus the absorbed pump power and the output spectra of passively Q-switched operation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Typical pulse trains of the Q-switched laser in different time scales.

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