Abstract

We characterized the photoalignment anchoring energy of photocrosslinkable liquid crystalline polymers (PLCPs) doped in a liquid crystal (LC). PLCP-doped LC cells with homogeneous alignment were fabricated using rubbed polyimide (PI) films. The PLCP-doped LC cells were exposed to a linearly polarized ultraviolet laser beam, and were then annealed. As a result, the PLCP-doped LCs were realigned owing to the axis-selective photocrosslink reaction. We investigated the relationship between the surface anchoring strength of the rubbed PI films and the realignment direction. The result suggested that the photoalignment anchoring strength of the PLCP in the LC is higher than 4 × 102 J/m3 at the maximum. The photoalignment realized substantial realignment in the LC cell with the surface anchoring strength of 10−4 J/m2.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  9. B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating Switchable and Reconfigurable Optical Vortices via Photopatterning of Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
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    [Crossref]
  26. T. Sasaki, T. Shoho, K. Goto, M. Sakamoto, K. Noda, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Polarization axis-selective realignment of a photoreactive liquid crystalline composite with homogeneous alignment,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(6), 586 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  27. N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawatsuki, and T. Yamamoto, “Reversion of alignment direction in the thermally enhanced photoorientation of photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystal films,” Macromolecules 35(3), 706–713 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  28. N. Kawatsuki, R. Tsutsumi, A. Hiraiwa, H. Takatsuka, and T. Sakai, “Thermally enhanced photoinduced in-plane reorientation in photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystalline films and its application to linear polarizer,” J. Polym. Sci. A 46(14), 4712–4718 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  29. Y. Sato, K. Sato, and T. Uchida, “Relationship between rubbing strength and surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L579–L581 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  30. X. Tong, D. H. Rei, S. Kobayashi, and Y. Iimura, “Measurement of azimuthal anchoring energy at liquid crystal/photopolymer interface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(2), L432–L434 (1997).
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    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (2)

Y. H. Lee, L. Wang, H. Yang, and S. T. Wu, “Photo-induced handedness inversion with opposite-handed cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22658–22666 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sasaki, T. Shoho, K. Goto, K. Noda, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Photoalignment and resulting holographic vector grating formation in composites of low molecular weight liquid crystals and photoreactive liquid crystalline polymers,” Appl. Phys. B 120(2), 217–222 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating Switchable and Reconfigurable Optical Vortices via Photopatterning of Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

O. Yaroshchuk and Y. Reznikov, “Photoalignment of liquid crystals: basics and current trends,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(2), 286–300 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-C. Chen, S.-Y. Huang, and K.-T. Cheng, “Binary liquid crystal alignments based on photoalignment in azo dye-doped liquid crystals and their application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051103 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

I. C. Khoo, “Nonlinear optics of liquid crystalline materials,” Phys. Rep. 471(5–6), 221–267 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

T. Sasaki, H. Ono, and N. Kawatsuki, “Three-dimensional vector holograms in anisotropic photoreactive liquid-crystal composites,” Appl. Opt. 47(13), 2192–2200 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sasaki, H. Ono, and N. Kawatsuki, “Anisotropic photonic structures induced by three-dimensional vector holography in dye-doped liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043524 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Kawatsuki, R. Tsutsumi, A. Hiraiwa, H. Takatsuka, and T. Sakai, “Thermally enhanced photoinduced in-plane reorientation in photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystalline films and its application to linear polarizer,” J. Polym. Sci. A 46(14), 4712–4718 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. P. Aldred, A. E. A. Contoret, S. R. Farrar, S. M. Kelly, D. Mathieson, M. O’Neill, W. C. Tsoi, and P. Vlachos, “A full-color electroluminescent device and patterned photoalignment using light-emitting liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1368–1372 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev. 102(11), 4139–4176 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawatsuki, and T. Yamamoto, “Reversion of alignment direction in the thermally enhanced photoorientation of photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystal films,” Macromolecules 35(3), 706–713 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced surface alignment for liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D 33(10), R67–R84 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Ichimura, “Photoalignment of liquid-crystal systems,” Chem. Rev. 100(5), 1847–1874 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

F. Simoni and O. Francescangeli, “Effects of light on molecular orientation of liquid crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11(41), R439–R487 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

I. Jánossy and L. Szabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(4), 4598–4604 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

N. Kawatsuki, H. Ono, H. Takeshita, T. Yamamoto, and O. Sangen, “Liquid crystal alignment on photoreactive side-chain liquid-crystalline polymer generated by linearly polarized UV light,” Macromolecules 30(21), 6680–6682 (1997).
[Crossref]

X. Tong, D. H. Rei, S. Kobayashi, and Y. Iimura, “Measurement of azimuthal anchoring energy at liquid crystal/photopolymer interface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(2), L432–L434 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

T. Akahane, H. Kaneko, and M. Kimura, “Novel method of measuring surface torsional anchoring strength of nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(8), 4434–4437 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-Induced Parallel Alignment of Liquid Crystals by Linearly Polymerized Photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

Y. Sato, K. Sato, and T. Uchida, “Relationship between rubbing strength and surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L579–L581 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

W. G. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[Crossref]

1972 (2)

J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 173–174 (1972).
[Crossref]

D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and the alignment of an adjacent nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[Crossref]

Akahane, T.

T. Akahane, H. Kaneko, and M. Kimura, “Novel method of measuring surface torsional anchoring strength of nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(8), 4434–4437 (1996).
[Crossref]

Aldred, M. P.

M. P. Aldred, A. E. A. Contoret, S. R. Farrar, S. M. Kelly, D. Mathieson, M. O’Neill, W. C. Tsoi, and P. Vlachos, “A full-color electroluminescent device and patterned photoalignment using light-emitting liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1368–1372 (2005).
[Crossref]

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and the alignment of an adjacent nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.-C.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-C. Chen, S.-Y. Huang, and K.-T. Cheng, “Binary liquid crystal alignments based on photoalignment in azo dye-doped liquid crystals and their application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheng, K.-T.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-C. Chen, S.-Y. Huang, and K.-T. Cheng, “Binary liquid crystal alignments based on photoalignment in azo dye-doped liquid crystals and their application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chigrinov, V.

B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating Switchable and Reconfigurable Optical Vortices via Photopatterning of Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-Induced Parallel Alignment of Liquid Crystals by Linearly Polymerized Photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

Contoret, A. E. A.

M. P. Aldred, A. E. A. Contoret, S. R. Farrar, S. M. Kelly, D. Mathieson, M. O’Neill, W. C. Tsoi, and P. Vlachos, “A full-color electroluminescent device and patterned photoalignment using light-emitting liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1368–1372 (2005).
[Crossref]

Farrar, S. R.

M. P. Aldred, A. E. A. Contoret, S. R. Farrar, S. M. Kelly, D. Mathieson, M. O’Neill, W. C. Tsoi, and P. Vlachos, “A full-color electroluminescent device and patterned photoalignment using light-emitting liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1368–1372 (2005).
[Crossref]

Francescangeli, O.

F. Simoni and O. Francescangeli, “Effects of light on molecular orientation of liquid crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11(41), R439–R487 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-C. Chen, S.-Y. Huang, and K.-T. Cheng, “Binary liquid crystal alignments based on photoalignment in azo dye-doped liquid crystals and their application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gibbons, W. G.

W. G. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[Crossref]

Goto, K.

T. Sasaki, T. Shoho, K. Goto, M. Sakamoto, K. Noda, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Polarization axis-selective realignment of a photoreactive liquid crystalline composite with homogeneous alignment,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(6), 586 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Sasaki, T. Shoho, K. Goto, K. Noda, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Photoalignment and resulting holographic vector grating formation in composites of low molecular weight liquid crystals and photoreactive liquid crystalline polymers,” Appl. Phys. B 120(2), 217–222 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawatsuki, and T. Yamamoto, “Reversion of alignment direction in the thermally enhanced photoorientation of photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystal films,” Macromolecules 35(3), 706–713 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hiraiwa, A.

N. Kawatsuki, R. Tsutsumi, A. Hiraiwa, H. Takatsuka, and T. Sakai, “Thermally enhanced photoinduced in-plane reorientation in photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystalline films and its application to linear polarizer,” J. Polym. Sci. A 46(14), 4712–4718 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating Switchable and Reconfigurable Optical Vortices via Photopatterning of Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S.-Y.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-C. Chen, S.-Y. Huang, and K.-T. Cheng, “Binary liquid crystal alignments based on photoalignment in azo dye-doped liquid crystals and their application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ichimura, K.

K. Ichimura, “Photoalignment of liquid-crystal systems,” Chem. Rev. 100(5), 1847–1874 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iimura, Y.

X. Tong, D. H. Rei, S. Kobayashi, and Y. Iimura, “Measurement of azimuthal anchoring energy at liquid crystal/photopolymer interface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(2), L432–L434 (1997).
[Crossref]

Janning, J. L.

J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 173–174 (1972).
[Crossref]

Jánossy, I.

I. Jánossy and L. Szabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(4), 4598–4604 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kaneko, H.

T. Akahane, H. Kaneko, and M. Kimura, “Novel method of measuring surface torsional anchoring strength of nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(8), 4434–4437 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kang, S.-W.

Kawatsuki, N.

T. M. Tien, T. Sasaki, M. Sakamoto, K. Noda, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Three-dimensional vector holograms formed in twisted-nematic azo-dye-doped polymer liquid-crystal composite,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(2), 286–291 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Sakamoto, T. Sasaki, K. Noda, T. M. Tien, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Three-dimensional vector recording in polarization sensitive liquid crystal composites by using axisymmetrically polarized beam,” Opt. Lett. 41(3), 642–645 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sasaki, T. Shoho, K. Goto, M. Sakamoto, K. Noda, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Polarization axis-selective realignment of a photoreactive liquid crystalline composite with homogeneous alignment,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(6), 586 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Sasaki, T. Shoho, K. Goto, K. Noda, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Photoalignment and resulting holographic vector grating formation in composites of low molecular weight liquid crystals and photoreactive liquid crystalline polymers,” Appl. Phys. B 120(2), 217–222 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Kawatsuki, R. Tsutsumi, A. Hiraiwa, H. Takatsuka, and T. Sakai, “Thermally enhanced photoinduced in-plane reorientation in photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystalline films and its application to linear polarizer,” J. Polym. Sci. A 46(14), 4712–4718 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Sasaki, H. Ono, and N. Kawatsuki, “Three-dimensional vector holograms in anisotropic photoreactive liquid-crystal composites,” Appl. Opt. 47(13), 2192–2200 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sasaki, H. Ono, and N. Kawatsuki, “Anisotropic photonic structures induced by three-dimensional vector holography in dye-doped liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043524 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawatsuki, and T. Yamamoto, “Reversion of alignment direction in the thermally enhanced photoorientation of photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystal films,” Macromolecules 35(3), 706–713 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Kawatsuki, H. Ono, H. Takeshita, T. Yamamoto, and O. Sangen, “Liquid crystal alignment on photoreactive side-chain liquid-crystalline polymer generated by linearly polarized UV light,” Macromolecules 30(21), 6680–6682 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kawatsuki, T.

N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawatsuki, and T. Yamamoto, “Reversion of alignment direction in the thermally enhanced photoorientation of photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystal films,” Macromolecules 35(3), 706–713 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kelly, S. M.

M. P. Aldred, A. E. A. Contoret, S. R. Farrar, S. M. Kelly, D. Mathieson, M. O’Neill, W. C. Tsoi, and P. Vlachos, “A full-color electroluminescent device and patterned photoalignment using light-emitting liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1368–1372 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced surface alignment for liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D 33(10), R67–R84 (2000).
[Crossref]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, “Nonlinear optics of liquid crystalline materials,” Phys. Rep. 471(5–6), 221–267 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kimura, M.

T. Akahane, H. Kaneko, and M. Kimura, “Novel method of measuring surface torsional anchoring strength of nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(8), 4434–4437 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, S.

X. Tong, D. H. Rei, S. Kobayashi, and Y. Iimura, “Measurement of azimuthal anchoring energy at liquid crystal/photopolymer interface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(2), L432–L434 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kozinkov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-Induced Parallel Alignment of Liquid Crystals by Linearly Polymerized Photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kundu, S.

Lee, Y. H.

Lu, Y.-Q.

B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating Switchable and Reconfigurable Optical Vortices via Photopatterning of Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mathieson, D.

M. P. Aldred, A. E. A. Contoret, S. R. Farrar, S. M. Kelly, D. Mathieson, M. O’Neill, W. C. Tsoi, and P. Vlachos, “A full-color electroluminescent device and patterned photoalignment using light-emitting liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1368–1372 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ming, Y.

B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating Switchable and Reconfigurable Optical Vortices via Photopatterning of Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Natansohn, A.

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev. 102(11), 4139–4176 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noda, K.

T. Sasaki, T. Shoho, K. Goto, M. Sakamoto, K. Noda, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Polarization axis-selective realignment of a photoreactive liquid crystalline composite with homogeneous alignment,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(6), 586 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Sakamoto, T. Sasaki, K. Noda, T. M. Tien, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Three-dimensional vector recording in polarization sensitive liquid crystal composites by using axisymmetrically polarized beam,” Opt. Lett. 41(3), 642–645 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Tien, T. Sasaki, M. Sakamoto, K. Noda, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Three-dimensional vector holograms formed in twisted-nematic azo-dye-doped polymer liquid-crystal composite,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(2), 286–291 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Sasaki, T. Shoho, K. Goto, K. Noda, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Photoalignment and resulting holographic vector grating formation in composites of low molecular weight liquid crystals and photoreactive liquid crystalline polymers,” Appl. Phys. B 120(2), 217–222 (2015).
[Crossref]

O’Neill, M.

M. P. Aldred, A. E. A. Contoret, S. R. Farrar, S. M. Kelly, D. Mathieson, M. O’Neill, W. C. Tsoi, and P. Vlachos, “A full-color electroluminescent device and patterned photoalignment using light-emitting liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1368–1372 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced surface alignment for liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D 33(10), R67–R84 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ono, H.

T. Sasaki, T. Shoho, K. Goto, M. Sakamoto, K. Noda, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Polarization axis-selective realignment of a photoreactive liquid crystalline composite with homogeneous alignment,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(6), 586 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Sakamoto, T. Sasaki, K. Noda, T. M. Tien, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Three-dimensional vector recording in polarization sensitive liquid crystal composites by using axisymmetrically polarized beam,” Opt. Lett. 41(3), 642–645 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Tien, T. Sasaki, M. Sakamoto, K. Noda, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Three-dimensional vector holograms formed in twisted-nematic azo-dye-doped polymer liquid-crystal composite,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(2), 286–291 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Sasaki, T. Shoho, K. Goto, K. Noda, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Photoalignment and resulting holographic vector grating formation in composites of low molecular weight liquid crystals and photoreactive liquid crystalline polymers,” Appl. Phys. B 120(2), 217–222 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Sasaki, H. Ono, and N. Kawatsuki, “Anisotropic photonic structures induced by three-dimensional vector holography in dye-doped liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043524 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Sasaki, H. Ono, and N. Kawatsuki, “Three-dimensional vector holograms in anisotropic photoreactive liquid-crystal composites,” Appl. Opt. 47(13), 2192–2200 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kawatsuki, H. Ono, H. Takeshita, T. Yamamoto, and O. Sangen, “Liquid crystal alignment on photoreactive side-chain liquid-crystalline polymer generated by linearly polarized UV light,” Macromolecules 30(21), 6680–6682 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rei, D. H.

X. Tong, D. H. Rei, S. Kobayashi, and Y. Iimura, “Measurement of azimuthal anchoring energy at liquid crystal/photopolymer interface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(2), L432–L434 (1997).
[Crossref]

Reznikov, Y.

O. Yaroshchuk and Y. Reznikov, “Photoalignment of liquid crystals: basics and current trends,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(2), 286–300 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rochon, P.

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev. 102(11), 4139–4176 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rubin, S.

B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating Switchable and Reconfigurable Optical Vortices via Photopatterning of Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, T.

N. Kawatsuki, R. Tsutsumi, A. Hiraiwa, H. Takatsuka, and T. Sakai, “Thermally enhanced photoinduced in-plane reorientation in photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystalline films and its application to linear polarizer,” J. Polym. Sci. A 46(14), 4712–4718 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sakamoto, M.

Sangen, O.

N. Kawatsuki, H. Ono, H. Takeshita, T. Yamamoto, and O. Sangen, “Liquid crystal alignment on photoreactive side-chain liquid-crystalline polymer generated by linearly polarized UV light,” Macromolecules 30(21), 6680–6682 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, T.

T. Sasaki, T. Shoho, K. Goto, M. Sakamoto, K. Noda, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Polarization axis-selective realignment of a photoreactive liquid crystalline composite with homogeneous alignment,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(6), 586 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. M. Tien, T. Sasaki, M. Sakamoto, K. Noda, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Three-dimensional vector holograms formed in twisted-nematic azo-dye-doped polymer liquid-crystal composite,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(2), 286–291 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Sakamoto, T. Sasaki, K. Noda, T. M. Tien, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Three-dimensional vector recording in polarization sensitive liquid crystal composites by using axisymmetrically polarized beam,” Opt. Lett. 41(3), 642–645 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sasaki, T. Shoho, K. Goto, K. Noda, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Photoalignment and resulting holographic vector grating formation in composites of low molecular weight liquid crystals and photoreactive liquid crystalline polymers,” Appl. Phys. B 120(2), 217–222 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Sasaki, H. Ono, and N. Kawatsuki, “Anisotropic photonic structures induced by three-dimensional vector holography in dye-doped liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043524 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Sasaki, H. Ono, and N. Kawatsuki, “Three-dimensional vector holograms in anisotropic photoreactive liquid-crystal composites,” Appl. Opt. 47(13), 2192–2200 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sato, K.

Y. Sato, K. Sato, and T. Uchida, “Relationship between rubbing strength and surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L579–L581 (1992).
[Crossref]

Sato, Y.

Y. Sato, K. Sato, and T. Uchida, “Relationship between rubbing strength and surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L579–L581 (1992).
[Crossref]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-Induced Parallel Alignment of Liquid Crystals by Linearly Polymerized Photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, K.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-Induced Parallel Alignment of Liquid Crystals by Linearly Polymerized Photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

Schuster, A.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[Crossref]

Seiberle, H.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shannon, P. J.

W. G. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[Crossref]

Shoho, T.

T. Sasaki, T. Shoho, K. Goto, M. Sakamoto, K. Noda, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Polarization axis-selective realignment of a photoreactive liquid crystalline composite with homogeneous alignment,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(6), 586 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Sasaki, T. Shoho, K. Goto, K. Noda, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Photoalignment and resulting holographic vector grating formation in composites of low molecular weight liquid crystals and photoreactive liquid crystalline polymers,” Appl. Phys. B 120(2), 217–222 (2015).
[Crossref]

Simoni, F.

F. Simoni and O. Francescangeli, “Effects of light on molecular orientation of liquid crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11(41), R439–R487 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sun, S.-T.

W. G. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[Crossref]

Swetlin, B. J.

W. G. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[Crossref]

Szabados, L.

I. Jánossy and L. Szabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(4), 4598–4604 (1998).
[Crossref]

Takatsuka, H.

N. Kawatsuki, R. Tsutsumi, A. Hiraiwa, H. Takatsuka, and T. Sakai, “Thermally enhanced photoinduced in-plane reorientation in photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystalline films and its application to linear polarizer,” J. Polym. Sci. A 46(14), 4712–4718 (2008).
[Crossref]

Takeshita, H.

N. Kawatsuki, H. Ono, H. Takeshita, T. Yamamoto, and O. Sangen, “Liquid crystal alignment on photoreactive side-chain liquid-crystalline polymer generated by linearly polarized UV light,” Macromolecules 30(21), 6680–6682 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tien, T. M.

Tong, X.

X. Tong, D. H. Rei, S. Kobayashi, and Y. Iimura, “Measurement of azimuthal anchoring energy at liquid crystal/photopolymer interface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(2), L432–L434 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tsoi, W. C.

M. P. Aldred, A. E. A. Contoret, S. R. Farrar, S. M. Kelly, D. Mathieson, M. O’Neill, W. C. Tsoi, and P. Vlachos, “A full-color electroluminescent device and patterned photoalignment using light-emitting liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1368–1372 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tsutsumi, R.

N. Kawatsuki, R. Tsutsumi, A. Hiraiwa, H. Takatsuka, and T. Sakai, “Thermally enhanced photoinduced in-plane reorientation in photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystalline films and its application to linear polarizer,” J. Polym. Sci. A 46(14), 4712–4718 (2008).
[Crossref]

Uchida, T.

Y. Sato, K. Sato, and T. Uchida, “Relationship between rubbing strength and surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L579–L581 (1992).
[Crossref]

Vlachos, P.

M. P. Aldred, A. E. A. Contoret, S. R. Farrar, S. M. Kelly, D. Mathieson, M. O’Neill, W. C. Tsoi, and P. Vlachos, “A full-color electroluminescent device and patterned photoalignment using light-emitting liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1368–1372 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.-G.

B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating Switchable and Reconfigurable Optical Vortices via Photopatterning of Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Wei, B.-Y.

B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating Switchable and Reconfigurable Optical Vortices via Photopatterning of Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, S. T.

Xu, F.

B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating Switchable and Reconfigurable Optical Vortices via Photopatterning of Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, T.

N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawatsuki, and T. Yamamoto, “Reversion of alignment direction in the thermally enhanced photoorientation of photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystal films,” Macromolecules 35(3), 706–713 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Kawatsuki, H. Ono, H. Takeshita, T. Yamamoto, and O. Sangen, “Liquid crystal alignment on photoreactive side-chain liquid-crystalline polymer generated by linearly polarized UV light,” Macromolecules 30(21), 6680–6682 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

Yaroshchuk, O.

O. Yaroshchuk and Y. Reznikov, “Photoalignment of liquid crystals: basics and current trends,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(2), 286–300 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

M. P. Aldred, A. E. A. Contoret, S. R. Farrar, S. M. Kelly, D. Mathieson, M. O’Neill, W. C. Tsoi, and P. Vlachos, “A full-color electroluminescent device and patterned photoalignment using light-emitting liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1368–1372 (2005).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating Switchable and Reconfigurable Optical Vortices via Photopatterning of Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Sasaki, T. Shoho, K. Goto, K. Noda, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Photoalignment and resulting holographic vector grating formation in composites of low molecular weight liquid crystals and photoreactive liquid crystalline polymers,” Appl. Phys. B 120(2), 217–222 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-C. Chen, S.-Y. Huang, and K.-T. Cheng, “Binary liquid crystal alignments based on photoalignment in azo dye-doped liquid crystals and their application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051103 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 173–174 (1972).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

T. Sasaki, T. Shoho, K. Goto, M. Sakamoto, K. Noda, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Polarization axis-selective realignment of a photoreactive liquid crystalline composite with homogeneous alignment,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(6), 586 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (2)

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev. 102(11), 4139–4176 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ichimura, “Photoalignment of liquid-crystal systems,” Chem. Rev. 100(5), 1847–1874 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Sasaki, H. Ono, and N. Kawatsuki, “Anisotropic photonic structures induced by three-dimensional vector holography in dye-doped liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043524 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

O. Yaroshchuk and Y. Reznikov, “Photoalignment of liquid crystals: basics and current trends,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(2), 286–300 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

F. Simoni and O. Francescangeli, “Effects of light on molecular orientation of liquid crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11(41), R439–R487 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D (1)

M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced surface alignment for liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D 33(10), R67–R84 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Polym. Sci. A (1)

N. Kawatsuki, R. Tsutsumi, A. Hiraiwa, H. Takatsuka, and T. Sakai, “Thermally enhanced photoinduced in-plane reorientation in photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystalline films and its application to linear polarizer,” J. Polym. Sci. A 46(14), 4712–4718 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

Y. Sato, K. Sato, and T. Uchida, “Relationship between rubbing strength and surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L579–L581 (1992).
[Crossref]

X. Tong, D. H. Rei, S. Kobayashi, and Y. Iimura, “Measurement of azimuthal anchoring energy at liquid crystal/photopolymer interface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(2), L432–L434 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Akahane, H. Kaneko, and M. Kimura, “Novel method of measuring surface torsional anchoring strength of nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(8), 4434–4437 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-Induced Parallel Alignment of Liquid Crystals by Linearly Polymerized Photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

Macromolecules (2)

N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawatsuki, and T. Yamamoto, “Reversion of alignment direction in the thermally enhanced photoorientation of photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystal films,” Macromolecules 35(3), 706–713 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Kawatsuki, H. Ono, H. Takeshita, T. Yamamoto, and O. Sangen, “Liquid crystal alignment on photoreactive side-chain liquid-crystalline polymer generated by linearly polarized UV light,” Macromolecules 30(21), 6680–6682 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[Crossref]

W. G. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rep. (1)

I. C. Khoo, “Nonlinear optics of liquid crystalline materials,” Phys. Rep. 471(5–6), 221–267 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

I. Jánossy and L. Szabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(4), 4598–4604 (1998).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and the alignment of an adjacent nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

V. G. Chigrinov, V. M. Kozenkov, and H.-S. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials: Physics and Applications (Wiley, 2008).

T. Sasaki, K. Noda, H. Ono, and N. Kawatsuki, “Liquid crystal diffraction gratings using photocrosslinkable liquid crystalline polymer films as alignment layers,” in Liquid Crystalline Polymers: Processing and Applications, V. K. Thakur and M. R. Kessler, eds. (Springer, 2015).

P. Yeh and G. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Chemical structures of the PLCPs; (a) P1 and (b) P2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic illustration of the structure of the PLCP-doped LC cell. The rubbing direction of the PI films are parallel to the x-direction.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Polarizing optical microscope images of the unexposed cells with A ≈10−1 mJ/m2 and C = 5wt%; (a), (b) the P1-doped LC cell and (c), (d) the P2-doped LC cell. P is the transmission axis of the polarizer. A is the transmission axis of the analyzer. r is the rubbing direction.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Dependence of the degree of photoinduced realignment on the azimuth anchoring energy of the rubbed PI films (C = 5wt%). Filled and open circles represent the data for the P1- and P2-doped LC cells with annealing. The error bars are associated with the deviation of the Neel wall width.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Dependence on the polymer concentration (A ≈10−1 mJ/m2); (a) the photoalignment degree and (b) the photoalignment anchoring strength. Filled and open circles represent the data for the P1- and P2-doped LC cells with annealing. The error bars are associated with the deviation of the surface anchoring energy.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Dependence of the birefringence of the PLCP-doped LCs on the polymer concentration; (a) the P1-doped LC cell and (b) the P2-doped LC cell (A ≈10−1 mJ/m2 and C = 5wt%). Squares, triangles, and circles represent the data for the unexposed, unannealed exposed, and annealed exposed cell.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Dependence of the contrast ratio of the PLCP-doped LCs on the polymer concentration; (a) the P1-doped LC cell and (b) the P2-doped LC cell (A ≈10−1 mJ/m2 and C = 5wt%). Squares, triangles, and circles represent the data for the unexposed, unannealed exposed, and annealed exposed cell.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2 F PI = S A sin 2 ( φ φ e ) dS
F PLCP = V Ψ sin 2 ( φ φ e ) dV
F= F elas +2 F PI + F PLCP .
Ψ= Asin( ϕ ϕ e )cos( ϕ ϕ e ) dsin( ϕ e ϕ )cos( ϕ e ϕ )

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