Abstract

We report on fabrication of depressed cladding optical waveguides buried in lithium niobate crystal with shaped femtosecond laser pulses. Depressed cladding waveguides of variable mode-field sizes are fabricated by forming the four sides of the cladding using a slit-beam shaping technique. We show that the waveguides fabricated by our technique allows single-mode propagation of the light polarized in both vertical and horizontal directions.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  2. K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers—reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(4), e149 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. Choudhury, J. R. Macdonald, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription: perspectives on future integrated applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 827–846 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. G. Okhrimchuk, A. V. Shestakov, I. Khrushchev, and J. Mitchell, “Depressed cladding, buried waveguide laser formed in a YAG:Nd3+ crystal by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2248–2250 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. F. Chen and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1840–1842 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(2), 165–170 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: Summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  13. L. Arizmendi, “Photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 201(2), 253–283 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Jin, F. M. Liu, P. Xu, J. L. Xia, M. L. Zhong, Y. Yuan, J. W. Zhou, Y. X. Gong, W. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “On-chip generation and manipulation of entangled photons based on reconfigurable lithium-niobate waveguide circuits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 103601 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. L. Gui, B. Xu, and T. C. Chong, “Microstructure in lithium niobate by use of focused femtosecond laser pulses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1337–1339 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laserwritten waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081108 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. Liao, J. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Zhou, F. He, H. Sun, J. Song, X. Wang, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Electro-optic integration of embedded electrodes and waveguides in LiNbO3 using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2281–2283 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. R. He, Q. An, Y. Jia, G. R. Castillo-Vega, J. R. Vzquez de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser micromachining of lithium niobate depressed cladding waveguides,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1378–1384 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Kroesen, W. Horn, J. Imbrock, and C. Denz, “Electro-optical tunable waveguide embedded multiscan Bragg gratings in lithium niobate by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23339–23348 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. A. Okhrimchuk, V. Mezentsev, A. Shestakov, and I. Bennion, “Low loss depressed cladding waveguide inscribed in YAG:Nd single crystal by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3832–3843 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. P. S. Salter, A. Jesacher, J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, N. Thomas-Peter, R. D. Simmonds, N. K. Langford, I. A. Walmsley, and M. J. Booth, “Adaptive slit beam shaping for direct laser written waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 470–472 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. Y. Liao, J. Qi, P. Wang, W. Chu, Z. Wang, L. Qiao, and Y. Cheng, “Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with slit-shaped femtosecond laser beams,” Nature 6, 28790 (2016).
  23. R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 89(1), 127–132 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

Y. Liao, J. Qi, P. Wang, W. Chu, Z. Wang, L. Qiao, and Y. Cheng, “Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with slit-shaped femtosecond laser beams,” Nature 6, 28790 (2016).

2014 (5)

F. Chen and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers—reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(4), e149 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Choudhury, J. R. Macdonald, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription: perspectives on future integrated applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 827–846 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Jin, F. M. Liu, P. Xu, J. L. Xia, M. L. Zhong, Y. Yuan, J. W. Zhou, Y. X. Gong, W. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “On-chip generation and manipulation of entangled photons based on reconfigurable lithium-niobate waveguide circuits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 103601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kroesen, W. Horn, J. Imbrock, and C. Denz, “Electro-optical tunable waveguide embedded multiscan Bragg gratings in lithium niobate by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23339–23348 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2009 (2)

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laserwritten waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081108 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(2), 165–170 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1840–1842 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Arizmendi, “Photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 201(2), 253–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Gui, B. Xu, and T. C. Chong, “Microstructure in lithium niobate by use of focused femtosecond laser pulses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1337–1339 (2004).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1985 (2)

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
[Crossref]

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: Summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
[Crossref]

Ams, M.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, Q.

Arizmendi, L.

L. Arizmendi, “Photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 201(2), 253–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bennion, I.

Booth, M. J.

Burghoff, J.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(2), 165–170 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laserwritten waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Castillo-Vega, G. R.

Chen, F.

F. Chen and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. He, Q. An, Y. Jia, G. R. Castillo-Vega, J. R. Vzquez de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser micromachining of lithium niobate depressed cladding waveguides,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1378–1384 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

Y. Liao, J. Qi, P. Wang, W. Chu, Z. Wang, L. Qiao, and Y. Cheng, “Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with slit-shaped femtosecond laser beams,” Nature 6, 28790 (2016).

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers—reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(4), e149 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, J. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Zhou, F. He, H. Sun, J. Song, X. Wang, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Electro-optic integration of embedded electrodes and waveguides in LiNbO3 using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2281–2283 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chong, T. C.

L. Gui, B. Xu, and T. C. Chong, “Microstructure in lithium niobate by use of focused femtosecond laser pulses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1337–1339 (2004).
[Crossref]

Choudhury, D.

D. Choudhury, J. R. Macdonald, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription: perspectives on future integrated applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 827–846 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chu, W.

Y. Liao, J. Qi, P. Wang, W. Chu, Z. Wang, L. Qiao, and Y. Cheng, “Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with slit-shaped femtosecond laser beams,” Nature 6, 28790 (2016).

Davis, K. M.

Dekker, P.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denz, C.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gaylord, T. K.

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: Summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
[Crossref]

Gong, Y. X.

H. Jin, F. M. Liu, P. Xu, J. L. Xia, M. L. Zhong, Y. Yuan, J. W. Zhou, Y. X. Gong, W. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “On-chip generation and manipulation of entangled photons based on reconfigurable lithium-niobate waveguide circuits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 103601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grebing, C.

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laserwritten waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gui, L.

L. Gui, B. Xu, and T. C. Chong, “Microstructure in lithium niobate by use of focused femtosecond laser pulses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1337–1339 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hartung, H.

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(2), 165–170 (2006).
[Crossref]

He, F.

He, R.

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horn, W.

Imbrock, J.

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jesacher, A.

Jia, Y.

Jin, H.

H. Jin, F. M. Liu, P. Xu, J. L. Xia, M. L. Zhong, Y. Yuan, J. W. Zhou, Y. X. Gong, W. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “On-chip generation and manipulation of entangled photons based on reconfigurable lithium-niobate waveguide circuits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 103601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kar, A. K.

D. Choudhury, J. R. Macdonald, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription: perspectives on future integrated applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 827–846 (2014).
[Crossref]

Khrushchev, I.

Kroesen, S.

Langford, N. K.

Liao, Y.

Y. Liao, J. Qi, P. Wang, W. Chu, Z. Wang, L. Qiao, and Y. Cheng, “Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with slit-shaped femtosecond laser beams,” Nature 6, 28790 (2016).

Y. Liao, J. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Zhou, F. He, H. Sun, J. Song, X. Wang, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Electro-optic integration of embedded electrodes and waveguides in LiNbO3 using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2281–2283 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, F. M.

H. Jin, F. M. Liu, P. Xu, J. L. Xia, M. L. Zhong, Y. Yuan, J. W. Zhou, Y. X. Gong, W. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “On-chip generation and manipulation of entangled photons based on reconfigurable lithium-niobate waveguide circuits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 103601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez, C.

Macdonald, J. R.

D. Choudhury, J. R. Macdonald, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription: perspectives on future integrated applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 827–846 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marshall, G. D.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matthews, J. C. F.

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

Metcalf, B. J.

Mezentsev, V.

Midorikawa, K.

Mitchell, J.

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nolte, S.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laserwritten waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081108 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(2), 165–170 (2006).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, J. L.

Okhrimchuk, A.

Okhrimchuk, A. G.

Piper, J. A.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Politi, A.

Qi, J.

Y. Liao, J. Qi, P. Wang, W. Chu, Z. Wang, L. Qiao, and Y. Cheng, “Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with slit-shaped femtosecond laser beams,” Nature 6, 28790 (2016).

Qiao, L.

Y. Liao, J. Qi, P. Wang, W. Chu, Z. Wang, L. Qiao, and Y. Cheng, “Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with slit-shaped femtosecond laser beams,” Nature 6, 28790 (2016).

Qiu, J. R.

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Regener, R.

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
[Crossref]

Richardson, K.

Richardson, M.

Salter, P. S.

Shestakov, A.

Shestakov, A. V.

Simmonds, R. D.

Sohler, W.

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

Spring, J. B.

Sugimoto, N.

Sugioka, K.

Sun, H.

Thomas-Peter, N.

Tünnermann, A.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laserwritten waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081108 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(2), 165–170 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vazquez de Aldana, J. R.

F. Chen and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vzquez de Aldana, J. R.

Walmsley, I. A.

Wang, P.

Y. Liao, J. Qi, P. Wang, W. Chu, Z. Wang, L. Qiao, and Y. Cheng, “Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with slit-shaped femtosecond laser beams,” Nature 6, 28790 (2016).

Wang, W.

H. Jin, F. M. Liu, P. Xu, J. L. Xia, M. L. Zhong, Y. Yuan, J. W. Zhou, Y. X. Gong, W. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “On-chip generation and manipulation of entangled photons based on reconfigurable lithium-niobate waveguide circuits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 103601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Wang, Z.

Y. Liao, J. Qi, P. Wang, W. Chu, Z. Wang, L. Qiao, and Y. Cheng, “Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with slit-shaped femtosecond laser beams,” Nature 6, 28790 (2016).

Weis, R. S.

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: Summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
[Crossref]

Withford, M. J.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, J. L.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of the experimental setup. POL: polarizer. CCD: charge coupled device. OBJ: objective lens. PC: personal computer. L1, L2, L3, and L4 are the lenses of different focal lengths which are described in the main text. Coordinates are indicated in the figure. Inset: Example phase masks for writing the vertical and horizontal sides of the cladding, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (first row) Transmitted light microscope images of the different waveguide geometries with a cross-section size of ~13 × 13 μm2 referred to as (a1) vertical double lines, (b1) horizontal double lines, (c1) quadrate four lines. Corresponding mode profiles and insertion loss for (second row) s-, and (third row) p- polarization at λ = 1.55μm, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (first row) Transmitted light microscope images of the different waveguide geometries with a cross-section size of ~18 × 18 μm2 referred to as (a1) vertical double lines, (b1) horizontal double lines, (c1) quadrate four lines. Corresponding mode profiles and insertion loss for (second row) s-, and (third row) p- polarization at λ = 1.55μm, respectively.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Writing parameters for vertical and horizontal tracks of the cladding waveguides

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