Abstract

Intense 2.7 μm emission of Er3+ was achieved in transparent glass ceramics containing orthorhombic Vernier phase lutetium oxyfluoride nanocrystals, which was prepared through conventional melt-quenching and a subsequent thermal treatment method. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis confirmed the precipitation of orthorhombic Vernier phase lutetium oxyfluoride nanocrystals in glass ceramics. The preferential incorporation of Er3+ ions into nanocrystals was evidenced by TEM element mapping, stark-split absorption band, and prolongation of luminescence lifetimes. Upon 980 nm laser excitation, enhanced 2.7 μm emission originating from Er3+:4I11/24I13∕2 transition was obtained in glass ceramics via increasing the heat treatment temperature, which resulted from the inhibited non-radiative relaxation from 4I11/2 level and favored energy transfer upconversion process between the localized Er3+ ions. Our results indicate that lutetium oxyfluoride nanocrystal embedded glass ceramic is a promising candidate for 2.7 μm laser.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  28. L. Guo, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Zhang, P. Dong, and W. Zeng, “Structure, enhancement and white luminescence of multifunctional Lu6O5F8:20%Yb3+,1%Er3+(Tm3+) nanoparticles via further doping with Li+ under different excitation sources,” Nanoscale 5(6), 2491–2504 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  33. J. P. Zhang, W. J. Zhang, J. Yuan, Q. Qian, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Enhanced 2.0 μm emission and lowered upconversion emission in fluorogermanate glass-ceramic containing LaF3:Ho3+/Yb3+ by codoping Ce3+ ions,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(12), 3836–3841 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  34. P. Golding, S. Jackson, T. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62(2), 856–864 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  35. C. Labbe, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, R. Moncorgé, and M. Thuau, “The 2.8 μm laser properties of Er3+ doped CaF2 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 209(1–3), 193–199 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  36. Y. Yu, Z. Shan, D. Chen, P. Huang, H. Lin, and Y. Wang, “Improving Er3+ 1.53 μm luminescence by CeF3 nanocrystallization in aluminosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123523 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  37. X. Qiao, X. Fan, M. Wang, J.-L. Adam, and X. Zhang, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped 50SiO2–20Al2O3–30CaF2 glass and glass ceramics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(29), 6937–6951 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. H. Lu, W. P. Gillin, and I. Hernández, “Concentration dependence of the up- and down-conversion emission colours of Er3+-doped Y2O3: a time-resolved spectroscopy analysis,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(38), 20957–20963 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. R. Wang, X. Meng, F. Yin, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Heavily erbium-doped low-hydroxyl fluorotellurite glasses for 2.7 μm laser applications,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1127–1136 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  41. S. Hubert, D. Meichenin, B. W. Zhou, and F. Auzel, “Emission properties, oscillator strengths and laser parameters of Er3+ in LiYF4 at 2.7 μm,” J. Lumin. 50(1), 7–15 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  42. F. Huang, Y. Guo, Y. Ma, L. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “Highly Er3+-doped ZrF4-based fluoride glasses for 2.7 μm laser materials,” Appl. Opt. 52(7), 1399–1403 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. Y. Wang, J. Li, Z. Zhu, Z. You, J. Xu, and C. Tu, “Mid-infrared emission in Dy: YAlO3 crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(6), 1104–1111 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

J. Cao, X. Wang, X. Li, Y. Wei, L. Chen, and H. Guo, “Enhanced emissions in Tb3+-doped oxyfluoride scintillating glass ceramics containing KLu2F7 nano-crystals,” J. Lumin. 170, 207–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Cao, L. Chen, W. Chen, D. Xu, X. Sun, and H. Guo, “Enhanced emissions in self-crystallized oxyfluoride scintillating glass ceramics containing KTb2F7 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(7), 2201–2206 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

T. Xue, L. Zhang, L. Wen, M. Liao, and L. Hu, “Er3+-doped fluorogallate glass for mid-infrared applications,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 13(8), 081602(2015).
[Crossref]

X. Shang, P. Chen, T. Jia, D. Feng, S. Zhang, Z. Sun, and J. Qiu, “Upconversion luminescence mechanisms of Er3+ ions under excitation of an 800 nm laser,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(17), 11481–11489 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Chen, Y. Zhou, Z. Wan, H. Yu, H. Lu, Z. Ji, and P. Huang, “Tunable upconversion luminescence in self-crystallized Er3+:K(Y1-xYbx)3F10 nano-glass-ceramics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(11), 7100–7103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhao, B. Ai, C. Liu, Q. Yin, M. Xia, X. Zhao, and Y. Jiang, “Er3+ Ions-Doped Germano-Gallate Oxyfluoride Glass-Ceramics Containing BaF2 Nanocrystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98(7), 2117–2121 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

F. Huang, X. Liu, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer parameters of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and oxyfluoroaluminate glasses,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5053 (2014).
[PubMed]

F. F. Zhang, W. J. Zhang, J. Yuan, D. D. Chen, Q. Qian, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Enhanced 2.7 μm emission from Er3+ doped oxyfluoride tellurite glasses for a diode-pump mid-infrared laser,” AIP Adv. 4(4), 047101 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Lu, W. P. Gillin, and I. Hernández, “Concentration dependence of the up- and down-conversion emission colours of Er3+-doped Y2O3: a time-resolved spectroscopy analysis,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(38), 20957–20963 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lisha, C. Haohong, L. Biqiu, Z. Hui, T. Bin, F. Xianjuan, S. Zhijia, and Z. Jingtai, “Synthesis, structure and luminescent properties of a new Vernier phase Lu7O6F9 doped by Eu3+ as potential scintillator with unique lath tube architectur,” J. Rare Earths 32(8), 686–690 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, J. Li, Z. Zhu, Z. You, J. Xu, and C. Tu, “Mid-infrared emission in Dy: YAlO3 crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(6), 1104–1111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wei, X. Li, and H. Guo, “Enhanced upconversion in novel KLu2F7:Er3+ transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(7), 1367–1372 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

F. Huang, Y. Guo, Y. Ma, L. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “Highly Er3+-doped ZrF4-based fluoride glasses for 2.7 μm laser materials,” Appl. Opt. 52(7), 1399–1403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Kamma, M. Mbila, K. E. Steege Gall, and B. R. Reddy, “Spectroscopic characterization of erbium doped glass ceramic,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(6), 884–892 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Wang, X. Meng, F. Yin, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Heavily erbium-doped low-hydroxyl fluorotellurite glasses for 2.7 μm laser applications,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1127–1136 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Wu, S. Fan, Y. Zhang, G. Chai, Z. Ma, M. Peng, J. Qiu, and G. Dong, “2.7 μm emission in Er3+:CaF2 nanocrystals embedded oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Opt. Lett. 38(16), 3071–3074 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Zhang, W. J. Zhang, J. Yuan, Q. Qian, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Enhanced 2.0 μm emission and lowered upconversion emission in fluorogermanate glass-ceramic containing LaF3:Ho3+/Yb3+ by codoping Ce3+ ions,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(12), 3836–3841 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, Y. Wei, R. Wei, J. Yang, and H. Guo, “Elaboration, structure, and luminescence of Eu3+‐doped BaLuF5‐based transparent glass‐ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(3), 798–800 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Luo, Y. Wang, Y. Chen, T. Wen, M. Liu, Y. Wang, F. Liao, and J. Lin, “The synthesis, crystal structure and multicolour up-conversion fluorescence of Yb3+/Ln3+(Ln= Ho, Er, Tm) codoped orthorhombic lutetium oxyfluorides,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(36), 5711–5717 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Guo, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Zhang, P. Dong, and W. Zeng, “Structure, enhancement and white luminescence of multifunctional Lu6O5F8:20%Yb3+,1%Er3+(Tm3+) nanoparticles via further doping with Li+ under different excitation sources,” Nanoscale 5(6), 2491–2504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

R. Xu, Y. Tian, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Origin of 2.7 μm luminescence and energy transfer process of Er3+: 4I11/2→4I13/2 transition in Er3+/Yb3+ doped germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033524 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. D. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 423–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Passuello, F. Piccinelli, M. Trevisani, M. Giarola, G. Mariotto, L. Marciniak, D. Hreniak, M. Guzik, M. Fasoli, A. Vedda, V. Jary, M. Nikl, V. Causin, M. Bettinelli, and A. Speghini, “Structural and optical properties of Vernier phase lutetium oxyfluorides doped with lanthanide ions: interesting candidates as scintillators and X-ray phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(21), 10639–10649 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Huang, Q. Gao, and M. Gu, “Enhanced luminescence in transparent glass ceramics containing BaYF5: Ce3+ nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 750–754 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

N. Hu, H. Yu, M. Zhang, P. Zhang, Y. Wang, and L. Zhao, “The tetragonal structure of nanocrystals in rare-earth doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(4), 1499–1505 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sanamyan, M. Kanskar, Y. Xiao, D. Kedlaya, and M. Dubinskii, “High power diode-pumped 2.7-μm Er3+:Y2O3 laser with nearly quantum defect-limited efficiency,” Opt. Express 19(S5), A1082–A1087 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Fan, X. Yuan, R. Li, H. Dong, J. Wang, and L. Zhang, “Intense photoluminescence at 2.7 μm in transparent Er 3+:CaF2-fluorophosphate glass microcomposite,” Opt. Lett. 36(22), 4347–4349 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, Y. Sun, T. Yang, W. Feng, C. Li, and F. Li, “Sub-10 nm Hexagonal lanthanide-doped NaLuF4 upconversion nanocrystals for sensitive bioimaging in vivo,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(43), 17122–17125 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

W. J. Chung, K. H. Kim, B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, and Y. G. Choi, “Radiative Emission at Mid-Infrared Wavelengths from Rare-Earth Ions Via Nanocrystal Formation in Oxyfluoride Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(10), 2952–2955 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, “High-power ZBLAN glass fiber lasers: Review and prospect,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2010, 501956 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, Z. Shan, D. Chen, P. Huang, H. Lin, and Y. Wang, “Improving Er3+ 1.53 μm luminescence by CeF3 nanocrystallization in aluminosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123523 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Godard, “Infrared (2–12 μm) solid-state laser sources: a review,” C. R. Phys. 8(10), 1100–1128 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

V. K. Tikhomirov, J. Mendez-Ramos, V. D. Rodriguez, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, “Laser and gain parameters at 2.7 μm of Er3+-doped oxyfluoride transparent glass-ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 28(10), 1143–1146 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Qiao, X. Fan, M. Wang, J.-L. Adam, and X. Zhang, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped 50SiO2–20Al2O3–30CaF2 glass and glass ceramics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(29), 6937–6951 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

V. Sudesh and K. Asai, “Spectroscopic and diode-pumped-laser properties of Tm, Ho:YLF; Tm, Ho:LuLF; and Tm, Ho:LuAG crystals: a comparative study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(9), 1829–1837 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Goutaland, P. Jander, W. Brocklesby, and G. Dai, “Crystallisation effects on rare earth dopants in oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 22(4), 383–390 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, “Diode-pumped fiber lasers: A new clinical tool?” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 184–190 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Maunier, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Growth, spectroscopic characterization, and laser performance of Nd:LuVO4, a new infrared laser material that is suitable for diode pumping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(8), 1794–1800 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Labbe, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, R. Moncorgé, and M. Thuau, “The 2.8 μm laser properties of Er3+ doped CaF2 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 209(1–3), 193–199 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. Mortier, P. Goldner, C. Chateau, and M. Genotelle, “Erbium doped glass–ceramics: concentration effect on crystal structure and energy transfer between active ions,” J. Alloys Compd. 323–324(0), 245–249 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. Golding, S. Jackson, T. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62(2), 856–864 (2000).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

S. Hubert, D. Meichenin, B. W. Zhou, and F. Auzel, “Emission properties, oscillator strengths and laser parameters of Er3+ in LiYF4 at 2.7 μm,” J. Lumin. 50(1), 7–15 (1991).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

R. Shannon, “Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides,” Acta Crystallogr. A 32(5), 751–767 (1976).
[Crossref]

Adam, J.-L.

X. Qiao, X. Fan, M. Wang, J.-L. Adam, and X. Zhang, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped 50SiO2–20Al2O3–30CaF2 glass and glass ceramics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(29), 6937–6951 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J. T.

W. J. Chung, K. H. Kim, B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, and Y. G. Choi, “Radiative Emission at Mid-Infrared Wavelengths from Rare-Earth Ions Via Nanocrystal Formation in Oxyfluoride Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(10), 2952–2955 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ai, B.

Z. Zhao, B. Ai, C. Liu, Q. Yin, M. Xia, X. Zhao, and Y. Jiang, “Er3+ Ions-Doped Germano-Gallate Oxyfluoride Glass-Ceramics Containing BaF2 Nanocrystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98(7), 2117–2121 (2015).
[Crossref]

Asai, K.

Auzel, F.

S. Hubert, D. Meichenin, B. W. Zhou, and F. Auzel, “Emission properties, oscillator strengths and laser parameters of Er3+ in LiYF4 at 2.7 μm,” J. Lumin. 50(1), 7–15 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bettinelli, M.

T. Passuello, F. Piccinelli, M. Trevisani, M. Giarola, G. Mariotto, L. Marciniak, D. Hreniak, M. Guzik, M. Fasoli, A. Vedda, V. Jary, M. Nikl, V. Causin, M. Bettinelli, and A. Speghini, “Structural and optical properties of Vernier phase lutetium oxyfluorides doped with lanthanide ions: interesting candidates as scintillators and X-ray phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(21), 10639–10649 (2012).
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L. Lisha, C. Haohong, L. Biqiu, Z. Hui, T. Bin, F. Xianjuan, S. Zhijia, and Z. Jingtai, “Synthesis, structure and luminescent properties of a new Vernier phase Lu7O6F9 doped by Eu3+ as potential scintillator with unique lath tube architectur,” J. Rare Earths 32(8), 686–690 (2014).
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Biqiu, L.

L. Lisha, C. Haohong, L. Biqiu, Z. Hui, T. Bin, F. Xianjuan, S. Zhijia, and Z. Jingtai, “Synthesis, structure and luminescent properties of a new Vernier phase Lu7O6F9 doped by Eu3+ as potential scintillator with unique lath tube architectur,” J. Rare Earths 32(8), 686–690 (2014).
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F. Goutaland, P. Jander, W. Brocklesby, and G. Dai, “Crystallisation effects on rare earth dopants in oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 22(4), 383–390 (2003).
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Camy, P.

C. Labbe, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, R. Moncorgé, and M. Thuau, “The 2.8 μm laser properties of Er3+ doped CaF2 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 209(1–3), 193–199 (2002).
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Cao, J.

J. Cao, X. Wang, X. Li, Y. Wei, L. Chen, and H. Guo, “Enhanced emissions in Tb3+-doped oxyfluoride scintillating glass ceramics containing KLu2F7 nano-crystals,” J. Lumin. 170, 207–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Cao, L. Chen, W. Chen, D. Xu, X. Sun, and H. Guo, “Enhanced emissions in self-crystallized oxyfluoride scintillating glass ceramics containing KTb2F7 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(7), 2201–2206 (2016).
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T. Passuello, F. Piccinelli, M. Trevisani, M. Giarola, G. Mariotto, L. Marciniak, D. Hreniak, M. Guzik, M. Fasoli, A. Vedda, V. Jary, M. Nikl, V. Causin, M. Bettinelli, and A. Speghini, “Structural and optical properties of Vernier phase lutetium oxyfluorides doped with lanthanide ions: interesting candidates as scintillators and X-ray phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(21), 10639–10649 (2012).
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Chai, G.

Chateau, C.

M. Mortier, P. Goldner, C. Chateau, and M. Genotelle, “Erbium doped glass–ceramics: concentration effect on crystal structure and energy transfer between active ions,” J. Alloys Compd. 323–324(0), 245–249 (2001).
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Chen, D.

D. Chen, Y. Zhou, Z. Wan, H. Yu, H. Lu, Z. Ji, and P. Huang, “Tunable upconversion luminescence in self-crystallized Er3+:K(Y1-xYbx)3F10 nano-glass-ceramics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(11), 7100–7103 (2015).
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F. Huang, X. Liu, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer parameters of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and oxyfluoroaluminate glasses,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5053 (2014).
[PubMed]

Y. Yu, Z. Shan, D. Chen, P. Huang, H. Lin, and Y. Wang, “Improving Er3+ 1.53 μm luminescence by CeF3 nanocrystallization in aluminosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123523 (2010).
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Chen, D. D.

F. F. Zhang, W. J. Zhang, J. Yuan, D. D. Chen, Q. Qian, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Enhanced 2.7 μm emission from Er3+ doped oxyfluoride tellurite glasses for a diode-pump mid-infrared laser,” AIP Adv. 4(4), 047101 (2014).
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Chen, L.

J. Cao, X. Wang, X. Li, Y. Wei, L. Chen, and H. Guo, “Enhanced emissions in Tb3+-doped oxyfluoride scintillating glass ceramics containing KLu2F7 nano-crystals,” J. Lumin. 170, 207–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Cao, L. Chen, W. Chen, D. Xu, X. Sun, and H. Guo, “Enhanced emissions in self-crystallized oxyfluoride scintillating glass ceramics containing KTb2F7 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(7), 2201–2206 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

X. Shang, P. Chen, T. Jia, D. Feng, S. Zhang, Z. Sun, and J. Qiu, “Upconversion luminescence mechanisms of Er3+ ions under excitation of an 800 nm laser,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(17), 11481–11489 (2015).
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Chen, W.

Chen, Y.

W. Luo, Y. Wang, Y. Chen, T. Wen, M. Liu, Y. Wang, F. Liao, and J. Lin, “The synthesis, crystal structure and multicolour up-conversion fluorescence of Yb3+/Ln3+(Ln= Ho, Er, Tm) codoped orthorhombic lutetium oxyfluorides,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(36), 5711–5717 (2013).
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W. J. Chung, K. H. Kim, B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, and Y. G. Choi, “Radiative Emission at Mid-Infrared Wavelengths from Rare-Earth Ions Via Nanocrystal Formation in Oxyfluoride Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(10), 2952–2955 (2010).
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Chung, W. J.

W. J. Chung, K. H. Kim, B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, and Y. G. Choi, “Radiative Emission at Mid-Infrared Wavelengths from Rare-Earth Ions Via Nanocrystal Formation in Oxyfluoride Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(10), 2952–2955 (2010).
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Dai, G.

F. Goutaland, P. Jander, W. Brocklesby, and G. Dai, “Crystallisation effects on rare earth dopants in oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 22(4), 383–390 (2003).
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Dong, G.

Dong, H.

Dong, P.

L. Guo, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Zhang, P. Dong, and W. Zeng, “Structure, enhancement and white luminescence of multifunctional Lu6O5F8:20%Yb3+,1%Er3+(Tm3+) nanoparticles via further doping with Li+ under different excitation sources,” Nanoscale 5(6), 2491–2504 (2013).
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Dubinskii, M.

Fan, J.

Fan, S.

Fan, X.

X. Qiao, X. Fan, M. Wang, J.-L. Adam, and X. Zhang, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped 50SiO2–20Al2O3–30CaF2 glass and glass ceramics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(29), 6937–6951 (2006).
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T. Passuello, F. Piccinelli, M. Trevisani, M. Giarola, G. Mariotto, L. Marciniak, D. Hreniak, M. Guzik, M. Fasoli, A. Vedda, V. Jary, M. Nikl, V. Causin, M. Bettinelli, and A. Speghini, “Structural and optical properties of Vernier phase lutetium oxyfluorides doped with lanthanide ions: interesting candidates as scintillators and X-ray phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(21), 10639–10649 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

X. Shang, P. Chen, T. Jia, D. Feng, S. Zhang, Z. Sun, and J. Qiu, “Upconversion luminescence mechanisms of Er3+ ions under excitation of an 800 nm laser,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(17), 11481–11489 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, W.

Q. Liu, Y. Sun, T. Yang, W. Feng, C. Li, and F. Li, “Sub-10 nm Hexagonal lanthanide-doped NaLuF4 upconversion nanocrystals for sensitive bioimaging in vivo,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(43), 17122–17125 (2011).
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Feng, Y.

Furniss, D.

V. K. Tikhomirov, J. Mendez-Ramos, V. D. Rodriguez, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, “Laser and gain parameters at 2.7 μm of Er3+-doped oxyfluoride transparent glass-ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 28(10), 1143–1146 (2006).
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Gao, Q.

S. Huang, Q. Gao, and M. Gu, “Enhanced luminescence in transparent glass ceramics containing BaYF5: Ce3+ nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 750–754 (2012).
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Genotelle, M.

M. Mortier, P. Goldner, C. Chateau, and M. Genotelle, “Erbium doped glass–ceramics: concentration effect on crystal structure and energy transfer between active ions,” J. Alloys Compd. 323–324(0), 245–249 (2001).
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Giarola, M.

T. Passuello, F. Piccinelli, M. Trevisani, M. Giarola, G. Mariotto, L. Marciniak, D. Hreniak, M. Guzik, M. Fasoli, A. Vedda, V. Jary, M. Nikl, V. Causin, M. Bettinelli, and A. Speghini, “Structural and optical properties of Vernier phase lutetium oxyfluorides doped with lanthanide ions: interesting candidates as scintillators and X-ray phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(21), 10639–10649 (2012).
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Gillin, W. P.

H. Lu, W. P. Gillin, and I. Hernández, “Concentration dependence of the up- and down-conversion emission colours of Er3+-doped Y2O3: a time-resolved spectroscopy analysis,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(38), 20957–20963 (2014).
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P. Golding, S. Jackson, T. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62(2), 856–864 (2000).
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Goldner, P.

M. Mortier, P. Goldner, C. Chateau, and M. Genotelle, “Erbium doped glass–ceramics: concentration effect on crystal structure and energy transfer between active ions,” J. Alloys Compd. 323–324(0), 245–249 (2001).
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Goutaland, F.

F. Goutaland, P. Jander, W. Brocklesby, and G. Dai, “Crystallisation effects on rare earth dopants in oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 22(4), 383–390 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gu, M.

S. Huang, Q. Gao, and M. Gu, “Enhanced luminescence in transparent glass ceramics containing BaYF5: Ce3+ nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 750–754 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guo, H.

J. Cao, X. Wang, X. Li, Y. Wei, L. Chen, and H. Guo, “Enhanced emissions in Tb3+-doped oxyfluoride scintillating glass ceramics containing KLu2F7 nano-crystals,” J. Lumin. 170, 207–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Cao, L. Chen, W. Chen, D. Xu, X. Sun, and H. Guo, “Enhanced emissions in self-crystallized oxyfluoride scintillating glass ceramics containing KTb2F7 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(7), 2201–2206 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wei, X. Li, and H. Guo, “Enhanced upconversion in novel KLu2F7:Er3+ transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(7), 1367–1372 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, Y. Wei, R. Wei, J. Yang, and H. Guo, “Elaboration, structure, and luminescence of Eu3+‐doped BaLuF5‐based transparent glass‐ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(3), 798–800 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guo, L.

L. Guo, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Zhang, P. Dong, and W. Zeng, “Structure, enhancement and white luminescence of multifunctional Lu6O5F8:20%Yb3+,1%Er3+(Tm3+) nanoparticles via further doping with Li+ under different excitation sources,” Nanoscale 5(6), 2491–2504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Y.

Guzik, M.

T. Passuello, F. Piccinelli, M. Trevisani, M. Giarola, G. Mariotto, L. Marciniak, D. Hreniak, M. Guzik, M. Fasoli, A. Vedda, V. Jary, M. Nikl, V. Causin, M. Bettinelli, and A. Speghini, “Structural and optical properties of Vernier phase lutetium oxyfluorides doped with lanthanide ions: interesting candidates as scintillators and X-ray phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(21), 10639–10649 (2012).
[Crossref]

Haohong, C.

L. Lisha, C. Haohong, L. Biqiu, Z. Hui, T. Bin, F. Xianjuan, S. Zhijia, and Z. Jingtai, “Synthesis, structure and luminescent properties of a new Vernier phase Lu7O6F9 doped by Eu3+ as potential scintillator with unique lath tube architectur,” J. Rare Earths 32(8), 686–690 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hernández, I.

H. Lu, W. P. Gillin, and I. Hernández, “Concentration dependence of the up- and down-conversion emission colours of Er3+-doped Y2O3: a time-resolved spectroscopy analysis,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(38), 20957–20963 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hreniak, D.

T. Passuello, F. Piccinelli, M. Trevisani, M. Giarola, G. Mariotto, L. Marciniak, D. Hreniak, M. Guzik, M. Fasoli, A. Vedda, V. Jary, M. Nikl, V. Causin, M. Bettinelli, and A. Speghini, “Structural and optical properties of Vernier phase lutetium oxyfluorides doped with lanthanide ions: interesting candidates as scintillators and X-ray phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(21), 10639–10649 (2012).
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Hu, L.

T. Xue, L. Zhang, L. Wen, M. Liao, and L. Hu, “Er3+-doped fluorogallate glass for mid-infrared applications,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 13(8), 081602(2015).
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F. Huang, X. Liu, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer parameters of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and oxyfluoroaluminate glasses,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5053 (2014).
[PubMed]

R. Xu, Y. Tian, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Origin of 2.7 μm luminescence and energy transfer process of Er3+: 4I11/2→4I13/2 transition in Er3+/Yb3+ doped germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033524 (2012).
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Hu, N.

N. Hu, H. Yu, M. Zhang, P. Zhang, Y. Wang, and L. Zhao, “The tetragonal structure of nanocrystals in rare-earth doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(4), 1499–1505 (2011).
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Huang, F.

F. Huang, X. Liu, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer parameters of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and oxyfluoroaluminate glasses,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5053 (2014).
[PubMed]

F. Huang, Y. Guo, Y. Ma, L. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “Highly Er3+-doped ZrF4-based fluoride glasses for 2.7 μm laser materials,” Appl. Opt. 52(7), 1399–1403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, P.

D. Chen, Y. Zhou, Z. Wan, H. Yu, H. Lu, Z. Ji, and P. Huang, “Tunable upconversion luminescence in self-crystallized Er3+:K(Y1-xYbx)3F10 nano-glass-ceramics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(11), 7100–7103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, Z. Shan, D. Chen, P. Huang, H. Lin, and Y. Wang, “Improving Er3+ 1.53 μm luminescence by CeF3 nanocrystallization in aluminosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123523 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.

S. Huang, Q. Gao, and M. Gu, “Enhanced luminescence in transparent glass ceramics containing BaYF5: Ce3+ nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 750–754 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hubert, S.

S. Hubert, D. Meichenin, B. W. Zhou, and F. Auzel, “Emission properties, oscillator strengths and laser parameters of Er3+ in LiYF4 at 2.7 μm,” J. Lumin. 50(1), 7–15 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hui, Z.

L. Lisha, C. Haohong, L. Biqiu, Z. Hui, T. Bin, F. Xianjuan, S. Zhijia, and Z. Jingtai, “Synthesis, structure and luminescent properties of a new Vernier phase Lu7O6F9 doped by Eu3+ as potential scintillator with unique lath tube architectur,” J. Rare Earths 32(8), 686–690 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jackson, S.

P. Golding, S. Jackson, T. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62(2), 856–864 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jackson, S. D.

S. D. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 423–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, “Diode-pumped fiber lasers: A new clinical tool?” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 184–190 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jander, P.

F. Goutaland, P. Jander, W. Brocklesby, and G. Dai, “Crystallisation effects on rare earth dopants in oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 22(4), 383–390 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jary, V.

T. Passuello, F. Piccinelli, M. Trevisani, M. Giarola, G. Mariotto, L. Marciniak, D. Hreniak, M. Guzik, M. Fasoli, A. Vedda, V. Jary, M. Nikl, V. Causin, M. Bettinelli, and A. Speghini, “Structural and optical properties of Vernier phase lutetium oxyfluorides doped with lanthanide ions: interesting candidates as scintillators and X-ray phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(21), 10639–10649 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ji, Z.

D. Chen, Y. Zhou, Z. Wan, H. Yu, H. Lu, Z. Ji, and P. Huang, “Tunable upconversion luminescence in self-crystallized Er3+:K(Y1-xYbx)3F10 nano-glass-ceramics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(11), 7100–7103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, T.

X. Shang, P. Chen, T. Jia, D. Feng, S. Zhang, Z. Sun, and J. Qiu, “Upconversion luminescence mechanisms of Er3+ ions under excitation of an 800 nm laser,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(17), 11481–11489 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, Y.

Z. Zhao, B. Ai, C. Liu, Q. Yin, M. Xia, X. Zhao, and Y. Jiang, “Er3+ Ions-Doped Germano-Gallate Oxyfluoride Glass-Ceramics Containing BaF2 Nanocrystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98(7), 2117–2121 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jingtai, Z.

L. Lisha, C. Haohong, L. Biqiu, Z. Hui, T. Bin, F. Xianjuan, S. Zhijia, and Z. Jingtai, “Synthesis, structure and luminescent properties of a new Vernier phase Lu7O6F9 doped by Eu3+ as potential scintillator with unique lath tube architectur,” J. Rare Earths 32(8), 686–690 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kamma, I.

Kanskar, M.

Kedlaya, D.

Kim, K. H.

W. J. Chung, K. H. Kim, B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, and Y. G. Choi, “Radiative Emission at Mid-Infrared Wavelengths from Rare-Earth Ions Via Nanocrystal Formation in Oxyfluoride Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(10), 2952–2955 (2010).
[Crossref]

King, T.

P. Golding, S. Jackson, T. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62(2), 856–864 (2000).
[Crossref]

Labbe, C.

C. Labbe, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, R. Moncorgé, and M. Thuau, “The 2.8 μm laser properties of Er3+ doped CaF2 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 209(1–3), 193–199 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lauto, A.

S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, “Diode-pumped fiber lasers: A new clinical tool?” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 184–190 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.

Q. Liu, Y. Sun, T. Yang, W. Feng, C. Li, and F. Li, “Sub-10 nm Hexagonal lanthanide-doped NaLuF4 upconversion nanocrystals for sensitive bioimaging in vivo,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(43), 17122–17125 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, F.

Q. Liu, Y. Sun, T. Yang, W. Feng, C. Li, and F. Li, “Sub-10 nm Hexagonal lanthanide-doped NaLuF4 upconversion nanocrystals for sensitive bioimaging in vivo,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(43), 17122–17125 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Li, R.

Li, X.

J. Cao, X. Wang, X. Li, Y. Wei, L. Chen, and H. Guo, “Enhanced emissions in Tb3+-doped oxyfluoride scintillating glass ceramics containing KLu2F7 nano-crystals,” J. Lumin. 170, 207–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wei, X. Li, and H. Guo, “Enhanced upconversion in novel KLu2F7:Er3+ transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(7), 1367–1372 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liao, F.

W. Luo, Y. Wang, Y. Chen, T. Wen, M. Liu, Y. Wang, F. Liao, and J. Lin, “The synthesis, crystal structure and multicolour up-conversion fluorescence of Yb3+/Ln3+(Ln= Ho, Er, Tm) codoped orthorhombic lutetium oxyfluorides,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(36), 5711–5717 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liao, M.

Lin, H.

Y. Yu, Z. Shan, D. Chen, P. Huang, H. Lin, and Y. Wang, “Improving Er3+ 1.53 μm luminescence by CeF3 nanocrystallization in aluminosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123523 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

W. Luo, Y. Wang, Y. Chen, T. Wen, M. Liu, Y. Wang, F. Liao, and J. Lin, “The synthesis, crystal structure and multicolour up-conversion fluorescence of Yb3+/Ln3+(Ln= Ho, Er, Tm) codoped orthorhombic lutetium oxyfluorides,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(36), 5711–5717 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lisha, L.

L. Lisha, C. Haohong, L. Biqiu, Z. Hui, T. Bin, F. Xianjuan, S. Zhijia, and Z. Jingtai, “Synthesis, structure and luminescent properties of a new Vernier phase Lu7O6F9 doped by Eu3+ as potential scintillator with unique lath tube architectur,” J. Rare Earths 32(8), 686–690 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

Z. Zhao, B. Ai, C. Liu, Q. Yin, M. Xia, X. Zhao, and Y. Jiang, “Er3+ Ions-Doped Germano-Gallate Oxyfluoride Glass-Ceramics Containing BaF2 Nanocrystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98(7), 2117–2121 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

W. Luo, Y. Wang, Y. Chen, T. Wen, M. Liu, Y. Wang, F. Liao, and J. Lin, “The synthesis, crystal structure and multicolour up-conversion fluorescence of Yb3+/Ln3+(Ln= Ho, Er, Tm) codoped orthorhombic lutetium oxyfluorides,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(36), 5711–5717 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

Q. Liu, Y. Sun, T. Yang, W. Feng, C. Li, and F. Li, “Sub-10 nm Hexagonal lanthanide-doped NaLuF4 upconversion nanocrystals for sensitive bioimaging in vivo,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(43), 17122–17125 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

F. Huang, X. Liu, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer parameters of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and oxyfluoroaluminate glasses,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5053 (2014).
[PubMed]

X. Liu, Y. Wei, R. Wei, J. Yang, and H. Guo, “Elaboration, structure, and luminescence of Eu3+‐doped BaLuF5‐based transparent glass‐ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(3), 798–800 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, H.

D. Chen, Y. Zhou, Z. Wan, H. Yu, H. Lu, Z. Ji, and P. Huang, “Tunable upconversion luminescence in self-crystallized Er3+:K(Y1-xYbx)3F10 nano-glass-ceramics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(11), 7100–7103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lu, W. P. Gillin, and I. Hernández, “Concentration dependence of the up- and down-conversion emission colours of Er3+-doped Y2O3: a time-resolved spectroscopy analysis,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(38), 20957–20963 (2014).
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X. Liu, Y. Wei, R. Wei, J. Yang, and H. Guo, “Elaboration, structure, and luminescence of Eu3+‐doped BaLuF5‐based transparent glass‐ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(3), 798–800 (2013).
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Yin, Q.

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Yu, Z. Shan, D. Chen, P. Huang, H. Lin, and Y. Wang, “Improving Er3+ 1.53 μm luminescence by CeF3 nanocrystallization in aluminosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123523 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yuan, J.

F. F. Zhang, W. J. Zhang, J. Yuan, D. D. Chen, Q. Qian, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Enhanced 2.7 μm emission from Er3+ doped oxyfluoride tellurite glasses for a diode-pump mid-infrared laser,” AIP Adv. 4(4), 047101 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. P. Zhang, W. J. Zhang, J. Yuan, Q. Qian, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Enhanced 2.0 μm emission and lowered upconversion emission in fluorogermanate glass-ceramic containing LaF3:Ho3+/Yb3+ by codoping Ce3+ ions,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(12), 3836–3841 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X.

Zeng, W.

L. Guo, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Zhang, P. Dong, and W. Zeng, “Structure, enhancement and white luminescence of multifunctional Lu6O5F8:20%Yb3+,1%Er3+(Tm3+) nanoparticles via further doping with Li+ under different excitation sources,” Nanoscale 5(6), 2491–2504 (2013).
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F. F. Zhang, W. J. Zhang, J. Yuan, D. D. Chen, Q. Qian, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Enhanced 2.7 μm emission from Er3+ doped oxyfluoride tellurite glasses for a diode-pump mid-infrared laser,” AIP Adv. 4(4), 047101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

L. Guo, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Zhang, P. Dong, and W. Zeng, “Structure, enhancement and white luminescence of multifunctional Lu6O5F8:20%Yb3+,1%Er3+(Tm3+) nanoparticles via further doping with Li+ under different excitation sources,” Nanoscale 5(6), 2491–2504 (2013).
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J. P. Zhang, W. J. Zhang, J. Yuan, Q. Qian, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Enhanced 2.0 μm emission and lowered upconversion emission in fluorogermanate glass-ceramic containing LaF3:Ho3+/Yb3+ by codoping Ce3+ ions,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(12), 3836–3841 (2013).
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Zhang, M.

N. Hu, H. Yu, M. Zhang, P. Zhang, Y. Wang, and L. Zhao, “The tetragonal structure of nanocrystals in rare-earth doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(4), 1499–1505 (2011).
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N. Hu, H. Yu, M. Zhang, P. Zhang, Y. Wang, and L. Zhao, “The tetragonal structure of nanocrystals in rare-earth doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(4), 1499–1505 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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F. F. Zhang, W. J. Zhang, J. Yuan, D. D. Chen, Q. Qian, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Enhanced 2.7 μm emission from Er3+ doped oxyfluoride tellurite glasses for a diode-pump mid-infrared laser,” AIP Adv. 4(4), 047101 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. P. Zhang, W. J. Zhang, J. Yuan, Q. Qian, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Enhanced 2.0 μm emission and lowered upconversion emission in fluorogermanate glass-ceramic containing LaF3:Ho3+/Yb3+ by codoping Ce3+ ions,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(12), 3836–3841 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

X. Shang, P. Chen, T. Jia, D. Feng, S. Zhang, Z. Sun, and J. Qiu, “Upconversion luminescence mechanisms of Er3+ ions under excitation of an 800 nm laser,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(17), 11481–11489 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W. J.

F. F. Zhang, W. J. Zhang, J. Yuan, D. D. Chen, Q. Qian, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Enhanced 2.7 μm emission from Er3+ doped oxyfluoride tellurite glasses for a diode-pump mid-infrared laser,” AIP Adv. 4(4), 047101 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. P. Zhang, W. J. Zhang, J. Yuan, Q. Qian, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Enhanced 2.0 μm emission and lowered upconversion emission in fluorogermanate glass-ceramic containing LaF3:Ho3+/Yb3+ by codoping Ce3+ ions,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(12), 3836–3841 (2013).
[Crossref]

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X. Qiao, X. Fan, M. Wang, J.-L. Adam, and X. Zhang, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped 50SiO2–20Al2O3–30CaF2 glass and glass ceramics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(29), 6937–6951 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, L.

N. Hu, H. Yu, M. Zhang, P. Zhang, Y. Wang, and L. Zhao, “The tetragonal structure of nanocrystals in rare-earth doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(4), 1499–1505 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, X.

Z. Zhao, B. Ai, C. Liu, Q. Yin, M. Xia, X. Zhao, and Y. Jiang, “Er3+ Ions-Doped Germano-Gallate Oxyfluoride Glass-Ceramics Containing BaF2 Nanocrystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98(7), 2117–2121 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

Z. Zhao, B. Ai, C. Liu, Q. Yin, M. Xia, X. Zhao, and Y. Jiang, “Er3+ Ions-Doped Germano-Gallate Oxyfluoride Glass-Ceramics Containing BaF2 Nanocrystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98(7), 2117–2121 (2015).
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Zhijia, S.

L. Lisha, C. Haohong, L. Biqiu, Z. Hui, T. Bin, F. Xianjuan, S. Zhijia, and Z. Jingtai, “Synthesis, structure and luminescent properties of a new Vernier phase Lu7O6F9 doped by Eu3+ as potential scintillator with unique lath tube architectur,” J. Rare Earths 32(8), 686–690 (2014).
[Crossref]

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S. Hubert, D. Meichenin, B. W. Zhou, and F. Auzel, “Emission properties, oscillator strengths and laser parameters of Er3+ in LiYF4 at 2.7 μm,” J. Lumin. 50(1), 7–15 (1991).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

D. Chen, Y. Zhou, Z. Wan, H. Yu, H. Lu, Z. Ji, and P. Huang, “Tunable upconversion luminescence in self-crystallized Er3+:K(Y1-xYbx)3F10 nano-glass-ceramics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(11), 7100–7103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, “High-power ZBLAN glass fiber lasers: Review and prospect,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2010, 501956 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 XRD patterns and photograph of the PG and GC samples.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) TEM image and SAED pattern, (b) HRTEM image of an individual LOF nanocrystal and (c) particle size distribution of nanocrystals in GC570; (d-i) STEM-HAADF image and associated Lu, F, Er, O, and Na two-dimensional element mapping, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Absorption spectra of PG and GC samples. The inset shows the zoomed-in figure of the absorption band in the region from 1400 to 1650 nm of all samples.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Emission spectra of the PG and GC samples in the (a) 2.7 μm and (b) 1.5 μm region excited by 980 nm LD. The inset of (b) shows the intensity of 1.5 μm as a function of heat treatment temperature.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simplified energy-level diagram of Er3+ and possible mid-infrared and upconversion mechanism excited with 980 nm LD.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Dependence of lifetime values on heat treatment temperature for Er3+:4I13/2 and 4I11/2 levels. Decay curves corresponding to (b) 4I13/2 and (c) 4I11/2 levels in PG and GC samples excited with 808 nm LD.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Upconversion emission spectra in the range of 450-750 nm, and decay curves corresponding to the (b) Er3+:4S3/2 and (c) 4F9/2 states of PG and GC samples excited by 980 nm LD.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Calculated absorption and emission cross-section spectra, and (b) gain cross sections with various P values corresponding to the Er3+:4I11/24I13/2 transition in GC560 sample.

Equations (1)

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G(λ)=P× σ em (λ)(1P)× σ ab (λ)

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