Abstract

Novel polymer optical sensors for detecting effective anti-inflammatory concentrations of peimine as fritillaria alkaloid drugs are successfully designed and fabricated by the metal-printing directly defined active waveguide technique. The erbium-containing cross-linked copolymer and the organic–inorganic grafting PMMA material are used as a sensing core layer and cladding window, respectively. Multi-hydrogen-bonding affinity interactions between the tested drug and the sensing polymer layer are analyzed by the molecular docking model. The multimode interference (MMI) waveguide sensor structure is optimized to design. The sensitivity included of the bulk and surface parts for the waveguide optical sensor is analyzed. The optical transmission field of the device is simulated based on the refractive indices of different peimine concentrations. The sensitivity of the device is measured as 2 × 103 RIU−1. The resolution and detection limit of the sensor are characterized to be 2.5 × 10−4 and 1.3 × 10−7 RIU, respectively. The effective anti-inflammatory concentration range (10-25 mg/L) of the peimine solution could be efficiently detected in the scope of 5 dB corresponding to the maximum output optical power change. Relative optical gain of the chip is obtained as 3 dB for achieving calibration of the sensor. The technique could realize a simple, rapid and controlled process with high sensitivity for detecting effective anti-inflammatory concentration of alkaloid drugs in traditional Chinese medicine.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

X.-Y. Zhang, J.-J. Xu, J.-Y. Wu, F. Shan, X.-D. Ma, Y.-Z. Chena, and T. Zhang, “Seeds triggered massive synthesis and multi-step room temperature post-processing of silver nanoink—application for paper electronics,” RSC Advances 7(1), 8–19 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

M. Kuma, A. Kumar, and R. Dwivedi, “Ultra high sensitive integrated optical waveguide refractive index sensor based on multimode interference,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 222, 556–561 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zheng, C. Chen, J. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Cai, X. Sun, F. Wang, Z. Cui, and D. Zhang, “Fluorinated photopolymer waveguide thermo-optic switches with loss-compensation function based on erbium-containing cladding structure,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(36), 25553–25559 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (3)

2013 (3)

C. Chen, C. Han, L. Wang, H. Zhang, X. Sun, F. Wang, and D. Zhang, “650 nm all-polymer Thermo-optic waveguide switch arrays based on novel organic-inorganic grafting PMMA materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49(5), 61–66 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. F. Yi, Y. C. Wu, H. B. Dong, Y. Guo, Q. Wei, C. Zhang, Z. Song, Q. Q. Qin, S. Lv, S. C. Wu, and B. D. Fu, “Peimine impairs pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion through the inhibition of the activation of NF-κB and MAPK in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages,” Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 35(5), 567–572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Li, H. T. Zhang, H. Luo, L. T. Zhang, Y. Xiong, and Z. B. Jia, “Establishment of High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Intracellular Adenosines Analysis and Its Applications,” Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics 40, 273–280 (2013).

2012 (6)

D. Duval, A. B. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, J. Osmond, R. Monge, L. J. Fernández, K. E. Zinoviev, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Lab Chip 12(11), 1987–1994 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, X. Sun, F. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Cui, and D. Zhang, “Electro-Optic Modulator Based on Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nonlinear Optical Materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(1), 61–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, L. Hakalahti, P. Karioja, and R. Myllylä, “Highly sensitive biosensor based on UV-imprinted layered polymeric-inorganic composite waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20309–20317 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Song and K. J. Peters, “Self-repairing, interferometric waveguide sensor with a large strain range,” Appl. Opt. 51(28), 6886–6895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hiltunen, J. Hiltunen, P. Stenberg, J. Petäjä, E. Heinonen, P. Vahimaa, and P. Karioja, “Polymeric slot waveguide at visible wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4449–4451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a- chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

K. E. Zinoviev, A. Gonz’alez-guerrero, C. Dom’ınguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated bimodal waveguide interferometricbiosensor for label-free analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(13), 1926–1930 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, J. Zhu, S. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Ou, D. Wei, and X. Li, “Antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory alkaloids from Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae,” Fitoterapia 82(8), 1290–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, C. Yu, Y. Pan, J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Ye, S. Yang, H. Zhang, X. Li, and G. Liang, “A novel compound C12 inhibits inflammatory cytokine production and protects from inflammatory injury in vivo,” PLoS One 6(9), e24377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

T. Smallie, G. Ricchetti, N. J. Horwood, M. Feldmann, A. R. Clark, and L. M. Williams, “IL-10 inhibits transcription elongation of the human TNF gene in primary macrophages,” J. Exp. Med. 207(10), 2081–2088 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, X. Geng, G. Pi, R. Shi, Z. Yuan, and C. Wang, “Preparative separation of four individual flavonoids in Scutellaria barbata D. Don based on high selectivity polymeric adsorbents with different polarities,” J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 878(32), 3375–3381 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J.-K. Hong and S.-S. Lee, “1 x 2 Wavelength Multiplexer With High Transmittances Using Extraneous Self-Imaging Phenomenon,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 25(5), 1264–1268 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

N. O. Can, G. Altiokka, and H. Y. Aboul-Enein, “Determination of cefuroxime axetil in tablets and biological fluids using liquid chromatography and flow injection analysis,” Anal. Chim. Acta 576(2), 246–252 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, H. Ji, B. Q. Lin, Y. Jiang, and P. Li, “The effects of five alkaloids from Bulbus Fritillariae on the concentration of cAMP in HEK cells transfected with muscarinic M(2) receptor plasmid,” Am. J. Chin. Med. 34(5), 901–910 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aboul-Enein, H. Y.

N. O. Can, G. Altiokka, and H. Y. Aboul-Enein, “Determination of cefuroxime axetil in tablets and biological fluids using liquid chromatography and flow injection analysis,” Anal. Chim. Acta 576(2), 246–252 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altiokka, G.

N. O. Can, G. Altiokka, and H. Y. Aboul-Enein, “Determination of cefuroxime axetil in tablets and biological fluids using liquid chromatography and flow injection analysis,” Anal. Chim. Acta 576(2), 246–252 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alvarez, M.

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a- chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ba, J.

J. Ba, N. Zhang, L. Yao, N. Ma, and C. Wang, “Separation of Rebaudiana A from Steviol glycoside using a polymeric adsorbent with multi-hydrogen bonding in a non-aqueous system,” J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 971, 141–149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruck, R.

Cai, Z.

Y. Zheng, C. Chen, J. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Cai, X. Sun, F. Wang, Z. Cui, and D. Zhang, “Fluorinated photopolymer waveguide thermo-optic switches with loss-compensation function based on erbium-containing cladding structure,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(36), 25553–25559 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Can, N. O.

N. O. Can, G. Altiokka, and H. Y. Aboul-Enein, “Determination of cefuroxime axetil in tablets and biological fluids using liquid chromatography and flow injection analysis,” Anal. Chim. Acta 576(2), 246–252 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charlton, M.

Chau, L.-K.

H.-Y. Li, W.-C. Hsu, K.-C. Liu, Y.-L. Chen, L.-K. Chau, S. Hsieh, and W.-H. Hsieh, “A low cost, label-free biosensor based on a novel double-sided grating waveguide coupler with sub-surface cavities,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 206, 371–380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

Y. Zheng, C. Chen, J. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Cai, X. Sun, F. Wang, Z. Cui, and D. Zhang, “Fluorinated photopolymer waveguide thermo-optic switches with loss-compensation function based on erbium-containing cladding structure,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(36), 25553–25559 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, C. Han, L. Wang, H. Zhang, X. Sun, F. Wang, and D. Zhang, “650 nm all-polymer Thermo-optic waveguide switch arrays based on novel organic-inorganic grafting PMMA materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49(5), 61–66 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, X. Sun, F. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Cui, and D. Zhang, “Electro-Optic Modulator Based on Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nonlinear Optical Materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(1), 61–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-L.

H.-Y. Li, W.-C. Hsu, K.-C. Liu, Y.-L. Chen, L.-K. Chau, S. Hsieh, and W.-H. Hsieh, “A low cost, label-free biosensor based on a novel double-sided grating waveguide coupler with sub-surface cavities,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 206, 371–380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chena, Y.-Z.

X.-Y. Zhang, J.-J. Xu, J.-Y. Wu, F. Shan, X.-D. Ma, Y.-Z. Chena, and T. Zhang, “Seeds triggered massive synthesis and multi-step room temperature post-processing of silver nanoink—application for paper electronics,” RSC Advances 7(1), 8–19 (2017).
[Crossref]

Clark, A. R.

T. Smallie, G. Ricchetti, N. J. Horwood, M. Feldmann, A. R. Clark, and L. M. Williams, “IL-10 inhibits transcription elongation of the human TNF gene in primary macrophages,” J. Exp. Med. 207(10), 2081–2088 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Z.

Y. Zheng, C. Chen, J. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Cai, X. Sun, F. Wang, Z. Cui, and D. Zhang, “Fluorinated photopolymer waveguide thermo-optic switches with loss-compensation function based on erbium-containing cladding structure,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(36), 25553–25559 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, X. Sun, F. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Cui, and D. Zhang, “Electro-Optic Modulator Based on Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nonlinear Optical Materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(1), 61–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dante, S.

D. Duval, A. B. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, J. Osmond, R. Monge, L. J. Fernández, K. E. Zinoviev, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Lab Chip 12(11), 1987–1994 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dom’inguez, C.

Domínguez, C.

D. Duval, A. B. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, J. Osmond, R. Monge, L. J. Fernández, K. E. Zinoviev, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Lab Chip 12(11), 1987–1994 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, H. B.

P. F. Yi, Y. C. Wu, H. B. Dong, Y. Guo, Q. Wei, C. Zhang, Z. Song, Q. Q. Qin, S. Lv, S. C. Wu, and B. D. Fu, “Peimine impairs pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion through the inhibition of the activation of NF-κB and MAPK in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages,” Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 35(5), 567–572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duval, D.

D. Duval, A. B. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, J. Osmond, R. Monge, L. J. Fernández, K. E. Zinoviev, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Lab Chip 12(11), 1987–1994 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dwivedi, R.

M. Kuma, A. Kumar, and R. Dwivedi, “Ultra high sensitive integrated optical waveguide refractive index sensor based on multimode interference,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 222, 556–561 (2016).
[Crossref]

Estevez, M. C.

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a- chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feldmann, M.

T. Smallie, G. Ricchetti, N. J. Horwood, M. Feldmann, A. R. Clark, and L. M. Williams, “IL-10 inhibits transcription elongation of the human TNF gene in primary macrophages,” J. Exp. Med. 207(10), 2081–2088 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernández, L. J.

D. Duval, A. B. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, J. Osmond, R. Monge, L. J. Fernández, K. E. Zinoviev, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Lab Chip 12(11), 1987–1994 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, B. D.

P. F. Yi, Y. C. Wu, H. B. Dong, Y. Guo, Q. Wei, C. Zhang, Z. Song, Q. Q. Qin, S. Lv, S. C. Wu, and B. D. Fu, “Peimine impairs pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion through the inhibition of the activation of NF-κB and MAPK in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages,” Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 35(5), 567–572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gabrielli, L. H.

Geng, X.

P. Wang, X. Geng, G. Pi, R. Shi, Z. Yuan, and C. Wang, “Preparative separation of four individual flavonoids in Scutellaria barbata D. Don based on high selectivity polymeric adsorbents with different polarities,” J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 878(32), 3375–3381 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonz’alez-guerrero, A.

González-Guerrero, A. B.

D. Duval, A. B. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, J. Osmond, R. Monge, L. J. Fernández, K. E. Zinoviev, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Lab Chip 12(11), 1987–1994 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, Z.

Guo, Y.

P. F. Yi, Y. C. Wu, H. B. Dong, Y. Guo, Q. Wei, C. Zhang, Z. Song, Q. Q. Qin, S. Lv, S. C. Wu, and B. D. Fu, “Peimine impairs pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion through the inhibition of the activation of NF-κB and MAPK in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages,” Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 35(5), 567–572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hainberger, R.

Hakalahti, L.

Han, C.

C. Chen, C. Han, L. Wang, H. Zhang, X. Sun, F. Wang, and D. Zhang, “650 nm all-polymer Thermo-optic waveguide switch arrays based on novel organic-inorganic grafting PMMA materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49(5), 61–66 (2013).
[Crossref]

Heinonen, E.

Hernandez-Figueroa, H. E.

Hiltunen, J.

Hiltunen, M.

Hong, J.-K.

J.-K. Hong and S.-S. Lee, “1 x 2 Wavelength Multiplexer With High Transmittances Using Extraneous Self-Imaging Phenomenon,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 25(5), 1264–1268 (2007).
[Crossref]

Horwood, N. J.

T. Smallie, G. Ricchetti, N. J. Horwood, M. Feldmann, A. R. Clark, and L. M. Williams, “IL-10 inhibits transcription elongation of the human TNF gene in primary macrophages,” J. Exp. Med. 207(10), 2081–2088 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsieh, S.

H.-Y. Li, W.-C. Hsu, K.-C. Liu, Y.-L. Chen, L.-K. Chau, S. Hsieh, and W.-H. Hsieh, “A low cost, label-free biosensor based on a novel double-sided grating waveguide coupler with sub-surface cavities,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 206, 371–380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, W.-H.

H.-Y. Li, W.-C. Hsu, K.-C. Liu, Y.-L. Chen, L.-K. Chau, S. Hsieh, and W.-H. Hsieh, “A low cost, label-free biosensor based on a novel double-sided grating waveguide coupler with sub-surface cavities,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 206, 371–380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hsu, W.-C.

H.-Y. Li, W.-C. Hsu, K.-C. Liu, Y.-L. Chen, L.-K. Chau, S. Hsieh, and W.-H. Hsieh, “A low cost, label-free biosensor based on a novel double-sided grating waveguide coupler with sub-surface cavities,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 206, 371–380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ji, H.

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N. Li, H. T. Zhang, H. Luo, L. T. Zhang, Y. Xiong, and Z. B. Jia, “Establishment of High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Intracellular Adenosines Analysis and Its Applications,” Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics 40, 273–280 (2013).

Jiang, Y.

Y. Zhou, H. Ji, B. Q. Lin, Y. Jiang, and P. Li, “The effects of five alkaloids from Bulbus Fritillariae on the concentration of cAMP in HEK cells transfected with muscarinic M(2) receptor plasmid,” Am. J. Chin. Med. 34(5), 901–910 (2006).
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H.-Y. Li, W.-C. Hsu, K.-C. Liu, Y.-L. Chen, L.-K. Chau, S. Hsieh, and W.-H. Hsieh, “A low cost, label-free biosensor based on a novel double-sided grating waveguide coupler with sub-surface cavities,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 206, 371–380 (2015).
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Y. Wang, C. Yu, Y. Pan, J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Ye, S. Yang, H. Zhang, X. Li, and G. Liang, “A novel compound C12 inhibits inflammatory cytokine production and protects from inflammatory injury in vivo,” PLoS One 6(9), e24377 (2011).
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Li, N.

N. Li, H. T. Zhang, H. Luo, L. T. Zhang, Y. Xiong, and Z. B. Jia, “Establishment of High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Intracellular Adenosines Analysis and Its Applications,” Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics 40, 273–280 (2013).

Li, P.

Y. Zhou, H. Ji, B. Q. Lin, Y. Jiang, and P. Li, “The effects of five alkaloids from Bulbus Fritillariae on the concentration of cAMP in HEK cells transfected with muscarinic M(2) receptor plasmid,” Am. J. Chin. Med. 34(5), 901–910 (2006).
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Li, X.

D. Wang, J. Zhu, S. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Ou, D. Wei, and X. Li, “Antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory alkaloids from Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae,” Fitoterapia 82(8), 1290–1294 (2011).
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Y. Wang, C. Yu, Y. Pan, J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Ye, S. Yang, H. Zhang, X. Li, and G. Liang, “A novel compound C12 inhibits inflammatory cytokine production and protects from inflammatory injury in vivo,” PLoS One 6(9), e24377 (2011).
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Liang, G.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, Y. Pan, J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Ye, S. Yang, H. Zhang, X. Li, and G. Liang, “A novel compound C12 inhibits inflammatory cytokine production and protects from inflammatory injury in vivo,” PLoS One 6(9), e24377 (2011).
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Liedert, C.

Lin, B. Q.

Y. Zhou, H. Ji, B. Q. Lin, Y. Jiang, and P. Li, “The effects of five alkaloids from Bulbus Fritillariae on the concentration of cAMP in HEK cells transfected with muscarinic M(2) receptor plasmid,” Am. J. Chin. Med. 34(5), 901–910 (2006).
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Liu, K.-C.

H.-Y. Li, W.-C. Hsu, K.-C. Liu, Y.-L. Chen, L.-K. Chau, S. Hsieh, and W.-H. Hsieh, “A low cost, label-free biosensor based on a novel double-sided grating waveguide coupler with sub-surface cavities,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 206, 371–380 (2015).
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Liu, Q.

Luo, H.

N. Li, H. T. Zhang, H. Luo, L. T. Zhang, Y. Xiong, and Z. B. Jia, “Establishment of High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Intracellular Adenosines Analysis and Its Applications,” Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics 40, 273–280 (2013).

Lv, S.

P. F. Yi, Y. C. Wu, H. B. Dong, Y. Guo, Q. Wei, C. Zhang, Z. Song, Q. Q. Qin, S. Lv, S. C. Wu, and B. D. Fu, “Peimine impairs pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion through the inhibition of the activation of NF-κB and MAPK in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages,” Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 35(5), 567–572 (2013).
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Ma, N.

J. Ba, N. Zhang, L. Yao, N. Ma, and C. Wang, “Separation of Rebaudiana A from Steviol glycoside using a polymeric adsorbent with multi-hydrogen bonding in a non-aqueous system,” J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 971, 141–149 (2014).
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X.-Y. Zhang, J.-J. Xu, J.-Y. Wu, F. Shan, X.-D. Ma, Y.-Z. Chena, and T. Zhang, “Seeds triggered massive synthesis and multi-step room temperature post-processing of silver nanoink—application for paper electronics,” RSC Advances 7(1), 8–19 (2017).
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Mizutani, A.

Monge, R.

D. Duval, A. B. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, J. Osmond, R. Monge, L. J. Fernández, K. E. Zinoviev, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Lab Chip 12(11), 1987–1994 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Myllylä, R.

Osmond, J.

D. Duval, A. B. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, J. Osmond, R. Monge, L. J. Fernández, K. E. Zinoviev, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Lab Chip 12(11), 1987–1994 (2012).
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Ou, Y.

D. Wang, J. Zhu, S. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Ou, D. Wei, and X. Li, “Antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory alkaloids from Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae,” Fitoterapia 82(8), 1290–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, Y.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, Y. Pan, J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Ye, S. Yang, H. Zhang, X. Li, and G. Liang, “A novel compound C12 inhibits inflammatory cytokine production and protects from inflammatory injury in vivo,” PLoS One 6(9), e24377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, M. K.

Pearce, S.

Petäjä, J.

Peters, K. J.

Pi, G.

P. Wang, X. Geng, G. Pi, R. Shi, Z. Yuan, and C. Wang, “Preparative separation of four individual flavonoids in Scutellaria barbata D. Don based on high selectivity polymeric adsorbents with different polarities,” J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 878(32), 3375–3381 (2010).
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Qin, Q. Q.

P. F. Yi, Y. C. Wu, H. B. Dong, Y. Guo, Q. Wei, C. Zhang, Z. Song, Q. Q. Qin, S. Lv, S. C. Wu, and B. D. Fu, “Peimine impairs pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion through the inhibition of the activation of NF-κB and MAPK in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages,” Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 35(5), 567–572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramirez, J. C.

Ricchetti, G.

T. Smallie, G. Ricchetti, N. J. Horwood, M. Feldmann, A. R. Clark, and L. M. Williams, “IL-10 inhibits transcription elongation of the human TNF gene in primary macrophages,” J. Exp. Med. 207(10), 2081–2088 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shan, F.

X.-Y. Zhang, J.-J. Xu, J.-Y. Wu, F. Shan, X.-D. Ma, Y.-Z. Chena, and T. Zhang, “Seeds triggered massive synthesis and multi-step room temperature post-processing of silver nanoink—application for paper electronics,” RSC Advances 7(1), 8–19 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shi, R.

P. Wang, X. Geng, G. Pi, R. Shi, Z. Yuan, and C. Wang, “Preparative separation of four individual flavonoids in Scutellaria barbata D. Don based on high selectivity polymeric adsorbents with different polarities,” J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 878(32), 3375–3381 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, Z.

Y. Zheng, C. Chen, J. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Cai, X. Sun, F. Wang, Z. Cui, and D. Zhang, “Fluorinated photopolymer waveguide thermo-optic switches with loss-compensation function based on erbium-containing cladding structure,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(36), 25553–25559 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, X. Sun, F. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Cui, and D. Zhang, “Electro-Optic Modulator Based on Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nonlinear Optical Materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(1), 61–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Smallie, T.

T. Smallie, G. Ricchetti, N. J. Horwood, M. Feldmann, A. R. Clark, and L. M. Williams, “IL-10 inhibits transcription elongation of the human TNF gene in primary macrophages,” J. Exp. Med. 207(10), 2081–2088 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Y. J.

Song, Z.

P. F. Yi, Y. C. Wu, H. B. Dong, Y. Guo, Q. Wei, C. Zhang, Z. Song, Q. Q. Qin, S. Lv, S. C. Wu, and B. D. Fu, “Peimine impairs pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion through the inhibition of the activation of NF-κB and MAPK in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages,” Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 35(5), 567–572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stenberg, P.

Sun, X.

Y. Zheng, C. Chen, J. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Cai, X. Sun, F. Wang, Z. Cui, and D. Zhang, “Fluorinated photopolymer waveguide thermo-optic switches with loss-compensation function based on erbium-containing cladding structure,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(36), 25553–25559 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, C. Han, L. Wang, H. Zhang, X. Sun, F. Wang, and D. Zhang, “650 nm all-polymer Thermo-optic waveguide switch arrays based on novel organic-inorganic grafting PMMA materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49(5), 61–66 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, X. Sun, F. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Cui, and D. Zhang, “Electro-Optic Modulator Based on Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nonlinear Optical Materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(1), 61–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Urakawa, S.

Vahimaa, P.

Wang, C.

J. Ba, N. Zhang, L. Yao, N. Ma, and C. Wang, “Separation of Rebaudiana A from Steviol glycoside using a polymeric adsorbent with multi-hydrogen bonding in a non-aqueous system,” J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 971, 141–149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, X. Geng, G. Pi, R. Shi, Z. Yuan, and C. Wang, “Preparative separation of four individual flavonoids in Scutellaria barbata D. Don based on high selectivity polymeric adsorbents with different polarities,” J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 878(32), 3375–3381 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

D. Wang, J. Zhu, S. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Ou, D. Wei, and X. Li, “Antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory alkaloids from Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae,” Fitoterapia 82(8), 1290–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

Y. Zheng, C. Chen, J. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Cai, X. Sun, F. Wang, Z. Cui, and D. Zhang, “Fluorinated photopolymer waveguide thermo-optic switches with loss-compensation function based on erbium-containing cladding structure,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(36), 25553–25559 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, C. Han, L. Wang, H. Zhang, X. Sun, F. Wang, and D. Zhang, “650 nm all-polymer Thermo-optic waveguide switch arrays based on novel organic-inorganic grafting PMMA materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49(5), 61–66 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, X. Sun, F. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Cui, and D. Zhang, “Electro-Optic Modulator Based on Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nonlinear Optical Materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(1), 61–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

C. Chen, X. Sun, F. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Cui, and D. Zhang, “Electro-Optic Modulator Based on Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nonlinear Optical Materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(1), 61–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Y. Zheng, C. Chen, J. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Cai, X. Sun, F. Wang, Z. Cui, and D. Zhang, “Fluorinated photopolymer waveguide thermo-optic switches with loss-compensation function based on erbium-containing cladding structure,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(36), 25553–25559 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

C. Chen, C. Han, L. Wang, H. Zhang, X. Sun, F. Wang, and D. Zhang, “650 nm all-polymer Thermo-optic waveguide switch arrays based on novel organic-inorganic grafting PMMA materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49(5), 61–66 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

Wang, P.

P. Wang, X. Geng, G. Pi, R. Shi, Z. Yuan, and C. Wang, “Preparative separation of four individual flavonoids in Scutellaria barbata D. Don based on high selectivity polymeric adsorbents with different polarities,” J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 878(32), 3375–3381 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

D. Wang, J. Zhu, S. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Ou, D. Wei, and X. Li, “Antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory alkaloids from Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae,” Fitoterapia 82(8), 1290–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

D. Wang, J. Zhu, S. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Ou, D. Wei, and X. Li, “Antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory alkaloids from Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae,” Fitoterapia 82(8), 1290–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, Y. Pan, J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Ye, S. Yang, H. Zhang, X. Li, and G. Liang, “A novel compound C12 inhibits inflammatory cytokine production and protects from inflammatory injury in vivo,” PLoS One 6(9), e24377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, D.

D. Wang, J. Zhu, S. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Ou, D. Wei, and X. Li, “Antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory alkaloids from Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae,” Fitoterapia 82(8), 1290–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, Q.

P. F. Yi, Y. C. Wu, H. B. Dong, Y. Guo, Q. Wei, C. Zhang, Z. Song, Q. Q. Qin, S. Lv, S. C. Wu, and B. D. Fu, “Peimine impairs pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion through the inhibition of the activation of NF-κB and MAPK in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages,” Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 35(5), 567–572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, L. M.

T. Smallie, G. Ricchetti, N. J. Horwood, M. Feldmann, A. R. Clark, and L. M. Williams, “IL-10 inhibits transcription elongation of the human TNF gene in primary macrophages,” J. Exp. Med. 207(10), 2081–2088 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.-Y.

X.-Y. Zhang, J.-J. Xu, J.-Y. Wu, F. Shan, X.-D. Ma, Y.-Z. Chena, and T. Zhang, “Seeds triggered massive synthesis and multi-step room temperature post-processing of silver nanoink—application for paper electronics,” RSC Advances 7(1), 8–19 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. C.

P. F. Yi, Y. C. Wu, H. B. Dong, Y. Guo, Q. Wei, C. Zhang, Z. Song, Q. Q. Qin, S. Lv, S. C. Wu, and B. D. Fu, “Peimine impairs pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion through the inhibition of the activation of NF-κB and MAPK in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages,” Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 35(5), 567–572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y. C.

P. F. Yi, Y. C. Wu, H. B. Dong, Y. Guo, Q. Wei, C. Zhang, Z. Song, Q. Q. Qin, S. Lv, S. C. Wu, and B. D. Fu, “Peimine impairs pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion through the inhibition of the activation of NF-κB and MAPK in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages,” Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 35(5), 567–572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, Y.

N. Li, H. T. Zhang, H. Luo, L. T. Zhang, Y. Xiong, and Z. B. Jia, “Establishment of High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Intracellular Adenosines Analysis and Its Applications,” Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics 40, 273–280 (2013).

Xu, J.-J.

X.-Y. Zhang, J.-J. Xu, J.-Y. Wu, F. Shan, X.-D. Ma, Y.-Z. Chena, and T. Zhang, “Seeds triggered massive synthesis and multi-step room temperature post-processing of silver nanoink—application for paper electronics,” RSC Advances 7(1), 8–19 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, Y. Pan, J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Ye, S. Yang, H. Zhang, X. Li, and G. Liang, “A novel compound C12 inhibits inflammatory cytokine production and protects from inflammatory injury in vivo,” PLoS One 6(9), e24377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, L.

J. Ba, N. Zhang, L. Yao, N. Ma, and C. Wang, “Separation of Rebaudiana A from Steviol glycoside using a polymeric adsorbent with multi-hydrogen bonding in a non-aqueous system,” J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 971, 141–149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, F.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, Y. Pan, J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Ye, S. Yang, H. Zhang, X. Li, and G. Liang, “A novel compound C12 inhibits inflammatory cytokine production and protects from inflammatory injury in vivo,” PLoS One 6(9), e24377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, P. F.

P. F. Yi, Y. C. Wu, H. B. Dong, Y. Guo, Q. Wei, C. Zhang, Z. Song, Q. Q. Qin, S. Lv, S. C. Wu, and B. D. Fu, “Peimine impairs pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion through the inhibition of the activation of NF-κB and MAPK in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages,” Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 35(5), 567–572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, C.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, Y. Pan, J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Ye, S. Yang, H. Zhang, X. Li, and G. Liang, “A novel compound C12 inhibits inflammatory cytokine production and protects from inflammatory injury in vivo,” PLoS One 6(9), e24377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, Z.

P. Wang, X. Geng, G. Pi, R. Shi, Z. Yuan, and C. Wang, “Preparative separation of four individual flavonoids in Scutellaria barbata D. Don based on high selectivity polymeric adsorbents with different polarities,” J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 878(32), 3375–3381 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

P. F. Yi, Y. C. Wu, H. B. Dong, Y. Guo, Q. Wei, C. Zhang, Z. Song, Q. Q. Qin, S. Lv, S. C. Wu, and B. D. Fu, “Peimine impairs pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion through the inhibition of the activation of NF-κB and MAPK in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages,” Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 35(5), 567–572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

Y. Zheng, C. Chen, J. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Cai, X. Sun, F. Wang, Z. Cui, and D. Zhang, “Fluorinated photopolymer waveguide thermo-optic switches with loss-compensation function based on erbium-containing cladding structure,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(36), 25553–25559 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, C. Han, L. Wang, H. Zhang, X. Sun, F. Wang, and D. Zhang, “650 nm all-polymer Thermo-optic waveguide switch arrays based on novel organic-inorganic grafting PMMA materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49(5), 61–66 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, X. Sun, F. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Cui, and D. Zhang, “Electro-Optic Modulator Based on Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nonlinear Optical Materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(1), 61–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

C. Chen, X. Sun, F. Wang, F. Zhang, H. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Cui, and D. Zhang, “Electro-Optic Modulator Based on Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nonlinear Optical Materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(1), 61–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

C. Chen, C. Han, L. Wang, H. Zhang, X. Sun, F. Wang, and D. Zhang, “650 nm all-polymer Thermo-optic waveguide switch arrays based on novel organic-inorganic grafting PMMA materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49(5), 61–66 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, C. Yu, Y. Pan, J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Ye, S. Yang, H. Zhang, X. Li, and G. Liang, “A novel compound C12 inhibits inflammatory cytokine production and protects from inflammatory injury in vivo,” PLoS One 6(9), e24377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. T.

N. Li, H. T. Zhang, H. Luo, L. T. Zhang, Y. Xiong, and Z. B. Jia, “Establishment of High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Intracellular Adenosines Analysis and Its Applications,” Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics 40, 273–280 (2013).

Zhang, L. T.

N. Li, H. T. Zhang, H. Luo, L. T. Zhang, Y. Xiong, and Z. B. Jia, “Establishment of High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Intracellular Adenosines Analysis and Its Applications,” Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics 40, 273–280 (2013).

Zhang, N.

J. Ba, N. Zhang, L. Yao, N. Ma, and C. Wang, “Separation of Rebaudiana A from Steviol glycoside using a polymeric adsorbent with multi-hydrogen bonding in a non-aqueous system,” J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 971, 141–149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, T.

X.-Y. Zhang, J.-J. Xu, J.-Y. Wu, F. Shan, X.-D. Ma, Y.-Z. Chena, and T. Zhang, “Seeds triggered massive synthesis and multi-step room temperature post-processing of silver nanoink—application for paper electronics,” RSC Advances 7(1), 8–19 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-Y.

X.-Y. Zhang, J.-J. Xu, J.-Y. Wu, F. Shan, X.-D. Ma, Y.-Z. Chena, and T. Zhang, “Seeds triggered massive synthesis and multi-step room temperature post-processing of silver nanoink—application for paper electronics,” RSC Advances 7(1), 8–19 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, Y. Pan, J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Ye, S. Yang, H. Zhang, X. Li, and G. Liang, “A novel compound C12 inhibits inflammatory cytokine production and protects from inflammatory injury in vivo,” PLoS One 6(9), e24377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y.

Y. Zheng, C. Chen, J. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Cai, X. Sun, F. Wang, Z. Cui, and D. Zhang, “Fluorinated photopolymer waveguide thermo-optic switches with loss-compensation function based on erbium-containing cladding structure,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(36), 25553–25559 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, H. Ji, B. Q. Lin, Y. Jiang, and P. Li, “The effects of five alkaloids from Bulbus Fritillariae on the concentration of cAMP in HEK cells transfected with muscarinic M(2) receptor plasmid,” Am. J. Chin. Med. 34(5), 901–910 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

D. Wang, J. Zhu, S. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Ou, D. Wei, and X. Li, “Antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory alkaloids from Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae,” Fitoterapia 82(8), 1290–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Molecular structures of (a) Peimine, (b) GETPM, and (c) organic–inorganic grafting PMMA. (d) Molecular docking model simulated between GETPM and Peimine.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Structural analysis (a) cross-sectional profile of the metal-printing defined waveguide sensing region and (b) single-mode distribution calculated based on the effective index method.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Waveguide mode analyzed (a) Relations between the core thickness b and the effective refractive Neff and (b) varied curves between the core thickness b and birefringenceΔNeff.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The relation between the mode effective index Neff and refractive index ns of different Peimine concentration. (b) The schematic view of the structural model of the MMI sensor.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The simulation of the optical field transmission for the device with the change of the Peimine concentrations.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The bulk and the surface sensitivity of the sensor simulated (a) the relation between the bulk sensitivities and the refractive indices of the Peimine solutions with the different thickness of sensing layers; (b) the correlation between the surface sensitivities and the thickness of sensing layers with the refractive indices of the Peimine solutions.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Adhesion characteristics on liquid/solid interface between Peimine ethanol solution and polymer GETPM sensing layer in (a) horizontal, (b) vertical and (c) inverted states. Contact angles of Peimine ethanol solution on the surfaces of (d) GETPM sensing layer, (e) grafting PMMA layer and (f) Si layer.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Surface morphology from the Au strip measured by AFM and (b) structural patterns of Au strips and waveguide section by microscope ( × 500).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Schematic overview of sensing measurement system. (b) The output optical intensity with different Peimine concentrations at 1546 nm wavelength. (c) The relationship between the output optical power and refractive indices of different Peimine concentrations at 1546 nm wavelength. (d) The transmission spectra change with the wavelength range from 1530 nm to 1590 nm.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Refractive indices of Peimine ethanol solution with different concentrations

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Table 2 Comparison with other publish results for 1 × 1 MMI waveguide sensor.

Equations (10)

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k 0 ( n 1 2 N 1 2 ) 1 / 2 b = n π + arc tan n 1 2 ( N 1 2 n 2 2 ) 1 / 2 n 2 2 ( n 1 2 N 1 2 ) 1 / 2 + arc tan n 1 2 ( N 1 2 n 3 2 ) δ 3 n 3 2 ( n 1 2 N 1 2 ) 1 / 2 ( n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ... ), δ 3 = 1 + ε 3 ( N 1 2 n 4 2 ) 1 / 2 ε 4 ( N 1 2 n 3 2 ) 1 / 2 ε 3 ( N 1 2 n 4 2 ) + ε 4 ( N 1 2 n 3 2 ) 1 / 2 exp [ 2 k 0 ( N 1 2 n 3 2 ) 1 / 2 h ) 1 ε 3 ( N 1 2 n 4 2 ) 1 / 2 ε 4 ( N 1 2 n 3 2 ) 1 / 2 ε 3 ( N 1 2 n 4 2 ) 1 / 2 + ε 4 ( N 1 2 n 3 2 ) 1 / 2 exp [ 2 k 0 ( N 1 2 n 3 2 ) 1 / 2 h ) ,
k 0 ( n 1 2 N 2 2 ) 1 / 2 b = n π + arc tan n 1 2 ( N 2 2 n 2 2 ) 1 / 2 n 2 2 ( n 1 2 N 2 2 ) 1 / 2 + arc tan n 1 2 ( N 2 2 n 4 2 ) 1 / 2 n 4 2 ( n 1 2 N 2 2 ) 1 / 2 ( n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ... ),
k 0 ( N 1 2 N 2 ) 1 / 2 a = m π + 2 arc tan N 1 2 ( N 2 N 2 2 ) 1 / 2 N 2 2 ( N 1 2 N 2 ) 1 / 2 ( m = 0, 1, 2, 3, ... ) .
L = 4 N e f f W 2 3 λ .
η b u l k = ( Δ n e f f ) n s ,
Δ φ = 2 π Δ n e f f L λ ,
S b u l k = ( Δ φ ) n s 2 π L λ η b u l k .
η s u r f = ( Δ n e f f ) b ,
S s u r f = ( Δ φ ) b = 2 π L λ η s u r f .
α = 1 δ = 2 π λ ( n e f f 2 n s 2 ) 1 / 2 .

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