Abstract

We describe a theoretical study of gradient metasurfaces that – unlike most theoretical designs requiring advanced fabrication techniques – could easily be produced by a simple patterning method, templated microlens lithography (TEMPL). We show here that positional gradients of identical microstructures can lead to a gradient of phase lag across the metasurface. Using a radial gradient in the pitch of a hexagonal array of identical microfabricated resonators, one could thus produce gradient metasurfaces with the ability to focus infrared light. We provide illustrative examples of devices and compare their theoretical capabilities.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  5. Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
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  6. N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
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  8. C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gonidec, M. M. Hamedi, A. Nemiroski, L. M. Rubio, C. Torres, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of nonperiodic metasurfaces by microlens projection lithography,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4125–4132 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Naserpour, C. J. Zapata-Rodríguez, C. Díaz-Aviñó, and M. Hashemi, “Metacoatings for wavelength-scale, high-numerical-aperture plano–concave focusing lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(10), 2120–2128 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J. P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: Controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dal Negro and S. V. Boriskina, “Deterministic aperiodic nanostructures for photonics and plasmonics applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(2), 178–218 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

B. Memarzadeh and H. Mosallaei, “Array of planar plasmonic scatterers functioning as light concentrator,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2569–2571 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Strong influence of packing density in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241108 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M.-H. Wu and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of two-dimensional micropatterns using microspheres as lenses for projection photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(16), 2273–2275 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 15299–15302 (2000).
[Crossref]

Adato, R.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J. P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: Controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aoust, G.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J. P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: Controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arju, N.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biswas, R.

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 15299–15302 (2000).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J. P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: Controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boriskina, S. V.

L. Dal Negro and S. V. Boriskina, “Deterministic aperiodic nanostructures for photonics and plasmonics applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(2), 178–218 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J. P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: Controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W. T.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chettiar, U. K.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dal Negro, L.

L. Dal Negro and S. V. Boriskina, “Deterministic aperiodic nanostructures for photonics and plasmonics applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(2), 178–218 (2012).
[Crossref]

Devlin, R. C.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Díaz-Aviñó, C.

El-Kady, I.

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 15299–15302 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fan, P.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J. P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: Controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genevet, P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J. P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: Controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonidec, M.

M. Gonidec, M. M. Hamedi, A. Nemiroski, L. M. Rubio, C. Torres, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of nonperiodic metasurfaces by microlens projection lithography,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4125–4132 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamedi, M. M.

M. Gonidec, M. M. Hamedi, A. Nemiroski, L. M. Rubio, C. Torres, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of nonperiodic metasurfaces by microlens projection lithography,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4125–4132 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hashemi, M.

Hasman, E.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, K. M.

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 15299–15302 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J. P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: Controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khanikaev, A. B.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khorasaninejad, M.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kita, S.

Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, D.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loncar, M.

Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mazur, E.

Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Memarzadeh, B.

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mosallaei, H.

Muñoz, P.

Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Naserpour, M.

Nemiroski, A.

M. Gonidec, M. M. Hamedi, A. Nemiroski, L. M. Rubio, C. Torres, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of nonperiodic metasurfaces by microlens projection lithography,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4125–4132 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, J.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, B.

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reshef, O.

Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rockstuhl, C.

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Strong influence of packing density in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rubio, L. M.

M. Gonidec, M. M. Hamedi, A. Nemiroski, L. M. Rubio, C. Torres, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of nonperiodic metasurfaces by microlens projection lithography,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4125–4132 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shvets, G.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sigalas, M. M.

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 15299–15302 (2000).
[Crossref]

Singh, R.

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Strong influence of packing density in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C. M.

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 15299–15302 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tetienne, J. P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J. P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: Controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tetienne, J.-P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torres, C.

M. Gonidec, M. M. Hamedi, A. Nemiroski, L. M. Rubio, C. Torres, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of nonperiodic metasurfaces by microlens projection lithography,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4125–4132 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vulis, D. I.

Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

M. Gonidec, M. M. Hamedi, A. Nemiroski, L. M. Rubio, C. Torres, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of nonperiodic metasurfaces by microlens projection lithography,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4125–4132 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-H. Wu and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of two-dimensional micropatterns using microspheres as lenses for projection photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(16), 2273–2275 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wong, L. M.

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, M.-H.

M.-H. Wu and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of two-dimensional micropatterns using microspheres as lenses for projection photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(16), 2273–2275 (2001).
[Crossref]

Xiong, Q.

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yanik, A. A.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, M.

Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J. P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: Controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zapata-Rodríguez, C. J.

Zhang, J.

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Strong influence of packing density in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, A. Y.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Strong influence of packing density in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241108 (2010).
[Crossref]

M.-H. Wu and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of two-dimensional micropatterns using microspheres as lenses for projection photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(16), 2273–2275 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J. P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: Controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

L. Dal Negro and S. V. Boriskina, “Deterministic aperiodic nanostructures for photonics and plasmonics applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(2), 178–218 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (4)

M. Gonidec, M. M. Hamedi, A. Nemiroski, L. M. Rubio, C. Torres, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of nonperiodic metasurfaces by microlens projection lithography,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4125–4132 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 15299–15302 (2000).
[Crossref]

Science (4)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

W. Cai and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials, Fundamentals and Applications (Springer-Verlag, 2010).

L. Dal Negro, Optics of aperiodic structures: Fundamentals and device applications (Pan Stanford, 2014).

J. Scheuer, “Metasurfaces-based holography and beam shaping: Engineering the phase profile of light,” in Nanophotonics (De Gruyter, 2016), p. 137.

L. Dal Negro, N. Lawrence, and J. Trevino, “Engineering the orbital angular momentum of light with plasmonic vogel spiral arrays,” in Singular and Chiral Nanoplasmonics, S. Boriskina, and N. I. Zheludev, eds. (Pan Stanford, 2014), pp. 335–374.

L. Dal Negro, N. Lawrence, and J. Trevino, “Engineering aperiodic spiral order in nanophotonics: Fundamentals and device applications,” in Nanodevices for Photonics and Electronics, P. Bettotti, ed. (Pan Stanford, 2015), pp. 57–125.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic representation of the TEMPL fabrication method (A) and unit cell representations of the simulated periodic materials consisting of silver bars (B) and crossbars (C) on a CaF2 substrate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Transmission (A) and phase (B) spectra for hexagonal arrays of silver microbars on CaF2 presenting two resonant frequencies that are both red shifted as the pitch varies between 5.25 µm and 11 μm in 0.25 µm increments and (C) phase and amplitude modulation at 35 THz – i.e. between the two resonant frequencies – as a function of the pitch of the arrays.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Hypothetical flat lens consisting of a gradient metasurface with local hexagonal symmetry but with a radial pitch modulation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Variations in transmission amplitude for the two resonant modes as a function of incident polarization for bar-shaped (A) and crossbar-shaped (B) micro-resonators for an incident polarization angle varying between 0 and 60° in 10° increments, with respect the longitudinal direction. The inserts correspond to the electric field intensity distribution for the two modes involved. (C-D) Comparison of the optical signature of hexagonal arrays of 3.5 µm bar-shaped microstructures and 4.0 µm cross-shaped microstructures (C) and the transmitted phase vs. pitch curves for such arrays (D).

Equations (1)

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φ(x,y)= 2π f 2 + x 2 y 2 λ 2π λ

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