Abstract

We demonstrate how to spatially localize the formation of octahedral arsenic oxide microcrystals in selective areas of highly doped n-type GaAs substrates during rapid digital projection photochemical (PC) etching with sulfuric acid. We captured a time lapse video that shows that these crystal-like octahedral structures grow to various sizes ranging from 5 µm to 100 µm. By conducting a series of different studies, we identified the etch rate, the area of illumination, the acid type, and the substrate quality as major factors that affect crystal formation. In particular, we observed that the structures only formed in the high etch rate illuminated regions of the wafer. Moreover, they only formed when the area of illumination was adequately large. The structures formed but then partially dissolved when hydrochloric acid was used. Lastly, we observed the growth of individual microcrystals for prime grade wafers but the formation of a network of microcrystalline features for mechanical grade wafers.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today 10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  2. K. Gurnett and T. Adams, “Ultra-thin semiconductor wafer applications and processes,” III–Vs Review 19(4), 38–40 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. Podlesnik, H. Gilgen, and R. Osgood., “Deep‐ultraviolet induced wet etching of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(5), 563–565 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. Wang, C. Edwards, S. Srivastava, and L. Goddard, “Fabrication of Gray-Scale Semiconductor Structures with Dynamic Digital Projection Photochemical Etching,” in CLEO: 2015, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper STh3G.2.
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  5. C. Youtsey, I. Adesida, and G. Bulman, “Highly anisotropic photoenhanced wet etching of n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2151–2153 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, “Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(9), e30 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. Edwards, K. Wang, R. Zhou, B. Bhaduri, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, “Digital projection photochemical etching defines gray-scale features,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13547–13554 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. E. H. Yi, M. A. Parker, E. H. Yi, and M. A. Parker, “Fabricating vertical sidewalls in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure using light-induced wet etching,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(7), 496–501 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. Edwards, K. Wang, B. Griffin, R. Zhou, B. Bhaduri, G. Popescu, and L. Goddard, “Fabrication of Diffractive Optical Elements with Digital Projection Photochemical Etching,” in CLEO: 2014, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper SM1H.4.
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  10. L. Edwards, K. Wang, C. Edwards, X. Yu, S. Srivastava, G. Liu, and L. Goddard, “Microfluidic Device Fabrication Utilizing Virtual Masks and Photochemical Etching,” in Frontiers in Optics 2015, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper FM2B.3.
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  11. F. W. Ostermayer, P. A. Kohl, and R. H. Burton, “Photo-chemical etching of integral lenses on InGaAsP/InP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(7), 642–644 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. V. Podlesnik, H. H. Gilgen, and R. M. Osgood., “Waveguiding effects in laser‐induced aqueous etching of semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(7), 496–498 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  13. N. J. Smeenk, J. Engel, P. Mulder, G. J. Bauhuis, G. M. M. W. Bissels, J. J. Schermer, E. Vlieg, and J. J. Kelly, “Arsenic formation on GaAs during etching in HF solutions: relevance for the epitaxial lift-off process,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(3), 58–65 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. X. Li and P. W. Bohn, “Arsenic oxide microcrystals in anodically processed GaAs electrochemical growth, spectroscopy, and morphology,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 147(5), 1740–1746 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. A. Bioud, A. Boucherif, A. Belarouci, E. Paradis, D. Drouin, and R. Arès, “Chemical Composition of Nanoporous Layer Formed by Electrochemical Etching of p-Type GaAs,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 11(1), 446 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Arsenic oxide Material Safety Data Sheet https://www.spectrumchemical.com/MSDS/A5880.pdf .
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

Y. A. Bioud, A. Boucherif, A. Belarouci, E. Paradis, D. Drouin, and R. Arès, “Chemical Composition of Nanoporous Layer Formed by Electrochemical Etching of p-Type GaAs,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 11(1), 446 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

N. J. Smeenk, J. Engel, P. Mulder, G. J. Bauhuis, G. M. M. W. Bissels, J. J. Schermer, E. Vlieg, and J. J. Kelly, “Arsenic formation on GaAs during etching in HF solutions: relevance for the epitaxial lift-off process,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(3), 58–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, “Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(9), e30 (2012).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today 10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

K. Gurnett and T. Adams, “Ultra-thin semiconductor wafer applications and processes,” III–Vs Review 19(4), 38–40 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. H. Yi, M. A. Parker, E. H. Yi, and M. A. Parker, “Fabricating vertical sidewalls in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure using light-induced wet etching,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(7), 496–501 (2006).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

X. Li and P. W. Bohn, “Arsenic oxide microcrystals in anodically processed GaAs electrochemical growth, spectroscopy, and morphology,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 147(5), 1740–1746 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

C. Youtsey, I. Adesida, and G. Bulman, “Highly anisotropic photoenhanced wet etching of n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2151–2153 (1997).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

D. Moutonnet, “Photochemical pattern on p-type GaAs,” Mater. Lett. 6(1–2), 34–36 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

D. V. Podlesnik, H. H. Gilgen, and R. M. Osgood., “Waveguiding effects in laser‐induced aqueous etching of semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(7), 496–498 (1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

D. Podlesnik, H. Gilgen, and R. Osgood., “Deep‐ultraviolet induced wet etching of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(5), 563–565 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (2)

F. W. Ostermayer, P. A. Kohl, and R. H. Burton, “Photo-chemical etching of integral lenses on InGaAsP/InP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(7), 642–644 (1983).
[Crossref]

M. Bafleur and A. Munoz-Yague, “Crystal, impurity-related and growth defects in molecular beam epitaxial GaAs layers,” Thin Solid Films 101(4), 299–310 (1983).
[Crossref]

Adams, T.

K. Gurnett and T. Adams, “Ultra-thin semiconductor wafer applications and processes,” III–Vs Review 19(4), 38–40 (2006).
[Crossref]

Adesida, I.

C. Youtsey, I. Adesida, and G. Bulman, “Highly anisotropic photoenhanced wet etching of n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2151–2153 (1997).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, A.

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, “Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(9), e30 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arès, R.

Y. A. Bioud, A. Boucherif, A. Belarouci, E. Paradis, D. Drouin, and R. Arès, “Chemical Composition of Nanoporous Layer Formed by Electrochemical Etching of p-Type GaAs,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 11(1), 446 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today 10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bafleur, M.

M. Bafleur and A. Munoz-Yague, “Crystal, impurity-related and growth defects in molecular beam epitaxial GaAs layers,” Thin Solid Films 101(4), 299–310 (1983).
[Crossref]

Bauhuis, G. J.

N. J. Smeenk, J. Engel, P. Mulder, G. J. Bauhuis, G. M. M. W. Bissels, J. J. Schermer, E. Vlieg, and J. J. Kelly, “Arsenic formation on GaAs during etching in HF solutions: relevance for the epitaxial lift-off process,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(3), 58–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

Belarouci, A.

Y. A. Bioud, A. Boucherif, A. Belarouci, E. Paradis, D. Drouin, and R. Arès, “Chemical Composition of Nanoporous Layer Formed by Electrochemical Etching of p-Type GaAs,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 11(1), 446 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhaduri, B.

Bioud, Y. A.

Y. A. Bioud, A. Boucherif, A. Belarouci, E. Paradis, D. Drouin, and R. Arès, “Chemical Composition of Nanoporous Layer Formed by Electrochemical Etching of p-Type GaAs,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 11(1), 446 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bissels, G. M. M. W.

N. J. Smeenk, J. Engel, P. Mulder, G. J. Bauhuis, G. M. M. W. Bissels, J. J. Schermer, E. Vlieg, and J. J. Kelly, “Arsenic formation on GaAs during etching in HF solutions: relevance for the epitaxial lift-off process,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(3), 58–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bohn, P. W.

X. Li and P. W. Bohn, “Arsenic oxide microcrystals in anodically processed GaAs electrochemical growth, spectroscopy, and morphology,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 147(5), 1740–1746 (2000).
[Crossref]

Boucherif, A.

Y. A. Bioud, A. Boucherif, A. Belarouci, E. Paradis, D. Drouin, and R. Arès, “Chemical Composition of Nanoporous Layer Formed by Electrochemical Etching of p-Type GaAs,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 11(1), 446 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brouckaert, J.

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today 10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bulman, G.

C. Youtsey, I. Adesida, and G. Bulman, “Highly anisotropic photoenhanced wet etching of n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2151–2153 (1997).
[Crossref]

Burton, R. H.

F. W. Ostermayer, P. A. Kohl, and R. H. Burton, “Photo-chemical etching of integral lenses on InGaAsP/InP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(7), 642–644 (1983).
[Crossref]

Di Cioccio, L.

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today 10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
[Crossref]

Drouin, D.

Y. A. Bioud, A. Boucherif, A. Belarouci, E. Paradis, D. Drouin, and R. Arès, “Chemical Composition of Nanoporous Layer Formed by Electrochemical Etching of p-Type GaAs,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 11(1), 446 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edwards, C.

C. Edwards, K. Wang, R. Zhou, B. Bhaduri, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, “Digital projection photochemical etching defines gray-scale features,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13547–13554 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, “Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(9), e30 (2012).
[Crossref]

Engel, J.

N. J. Smeenk, J. Engel, P. Mulder, G. J. Bauhuis, G. M. M. W. Bissels, J. J. Schermer, E. Vlieg, and J. J. Kelly, “Arsenic formation on GaAs during etching in HF solutions: relevance for the epitaxial lift-off process,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(3), 58–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J. M.

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today 10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gilgen, H.

D. Podlesnik, H. Gilgen, and R. Osgood., “Deep‐ultraviolet induced wet etching of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(5), 563–565 (1984).
[Crossref]

Gilgen, H. H.

D. V. Podlesnik, H. H. Gilgen, and R. M. Osgood., “Waveguiding effects in laser‐induced aqueous etching of semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(7), 496–498 (1986).
[Crossref]

Goddard, L. L.

C. Edwards, K. Wang, R. Zhou, B. Bhaduri, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, “Digital projection photochemical etching defines gray-scale features,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13547–13554 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, “Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(9), e30 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gurnett, K.

K. Gurnett and T. Adams, “Ultra-thin semiconductor wafer applications and processes,” III–Vs Review 19(4), 38–40 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hollinger, G.

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today 10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kazmierczak, A.

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today 10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kelly, J. J.

N. J. Smeenk, J. Engel, P. Mulder, G. J. Bauhuis, G. M. M. W. Bissels, J. J. Schermer, E. Vlieg, and J. J. Kelly, “Arsenic formation on GaAs during etching in HF solutions: relevance for the epitaxial lift-off process,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(3), 58–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kohl, P. A.

F. W. Ostermayer, P. A. Kohl, and R. H. Burton, “Photo-chemical etching of integral lenses on InGaAsP/InP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(7), 642–644 (1983).
[Crossref]

Lagahe-Blanchard, C.

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today 10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
[Crossref]

Letartre, X.

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today 10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

X. Li and P. W. Bohn, “Arsenic oxide microcrystals in anodically processed GaAs electrochemical growth, spectroscopy, and morphology,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 147(5), 1740–1746 (2000).
[Crossref]

Moutonnet, D.

D. Moutonnet, “Photochemical pattern on p-type GaAs,” Mater. Lett. 6(1–2), 34–36 (1987).
[Crossref]

Mulder, P.

N. J. Smeenk, J. Engel, P. Mulder, G. J. Bauhuis, G. M. M. W. Bissels, J. J. Schermer, E. Vlieg, and J. J. Kelly, “Arsenic formation on GaAs during etching in HF solutions: relevance for the epitaxial lift-off process,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(3), 58–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

Munoz-Yague, A.

M. Bafleur and A. Munoz-Yague, “Crystal, impurity-related and growth defects in molecular beam epitaxial GaAs layers,” Thin Solid Films 101(4), 299–310 (1983).
[Crossref]

Osgood, R.

D. Podlesnik, H. Gilgen, and R. Osgood., “Deep‐ultraviolet induced wet etching of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(5), 563–565 (1984).
[Crossref]

Osgood, R. M.

D. V. Podlesnik, H. H. Gilgen, and R. M. Osgood., “Waveguiding effects in laser‐induced aqueous etching of semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(7), 496–498 (1986).
[Crossref]

Ostermayer, F. W.

F. W. Ostermayer, P. A. Kohl, and R. H. Burton, “Photo-chemical etching of integral lenses on InGaAsP/InP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(7), 642–644 (1983).
[Crossref]

Paradis, E.

Y. A. Bioud, A. Boucherif, A. Belarouci, E. Paradis, D. Drouin, and R. Arès, “Chemical Composition of Nanoporous Layer Formed by Electrochemical Etching of p-Type GaAs,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 11(1), 446 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parker, M. A.

E. H. Yi, M. A. Parker, E. H. Yi, and M. A. Parker, “Fabricating vertical sidewalls in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure using light-induced wet etching,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(7), 496–501 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. H. Yi, M. A. Parker, E. H. Yi, and M. A. Parker, “Fabricating vertical sidewalls in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure using light-induced wet etching,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(7), 496–501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Podlesnik, D.

D. Podlesnik, H. Gilgen, and R. Osgood., “Deep‐ultraviolet induced wet etching of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(5), 563–565 (1984).
[Crossref]

Podlesnik, D. V.

D. V. Podlesnik, H. H. Gilgen, and R. M. Osgood., “Waveguiding effects in laser‐induced aqueous etching of semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(7), 496–498 (1986).
[Crossref]

Popescu, G.

C. Edwards, K. Wang, R. Zhou, B. Bhaduri, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, “Digital projection photochemical etching defines gray-scale features,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13547–13554 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, “Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(9), e30 (2012).
[Crossref]

Regreny, P.

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today 10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
[Crossref]

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today 10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
[Crossref]

Romeo, P. R.

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today 10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schermer, J. J.

N. J. Smeenk, J. Engel, P. Mulder, G. J. Bauhuis, G. M. M. W. Bissels, J. J. Schermer, E. Vlieg, and J. J. Kelly, “Arsenic formation on GaAs during etching in HF solutions: relevance for the epitaxial lift-off process,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(3), 58–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

Seassal, C.

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today 10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
[Crossref]

Smeenk, N. J.

N. J. Smeenk, J. Engel, P. Mulder, G. J. Bauhuis, G. M. M. W. Bissels, J. J. Schermer, E. Vlieg, and J. J. Kelly, “Arsenic formation on GaAs during etching in HF solutions: relevance for the epitaxial lift-off process,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(3), 58–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       In-situ visualization of the formation of the octahedral microcrystals during photochemical etching

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Sample surface of prime grade wafers after PC etching for (a) 40 minutes in etchant A, (b) 15 minutes in etchant A and then 30 minutes in etchant B, and (c) 35 minutes in etchant B. The slight differences in total etch time is not significant given the long total time and the slow microcrystal growth rate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 EDS spectra of different regions (red: microcrystal, black: PC etched, blue: dark etched) on a prime grade sample that produced microcrystals by being PC etched for 15 minutes in etchant A and 30 minutes in etchant B.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 SEM of prime grade sample surface etched for 15 minutes using etchant A followed by etching with etchant B for (a) 0, (b) 5, (c) 10, and (d) 15 minutes. Figure 3(a) was taken at a slight rotation compared to the other images.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 SEM of prime grade sample surface after PC etching with etchant A for 15 min and etchant B for 30 min for a projection of (a) a 4x5 array of white squares of 80 µm each, and (b) a 2x2 array of white circles of 230 µm each.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SEM of mechanical grade sample surface after PC etching with etchant B for 30 minutes.

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