Abstract

We propose a new Ge waveguide platform on Si substrates using F- and Y-based insulator cladding such as CaF2 and Y2O3 , which have a small refractive index, broad transparency range, and high thermal conductivity. First, we verified the platform by optical mode simulation, showing that Mid-infrared (MID-IR) light is well confined in the proposed Ge waveguide due to the large differences in the refractive indexes of Ge and the insulators. We also investigated the thermal aspects of the platform in order to quickly dissipate the heat for stable light source integration. It was found that our platform provided better thermal dissipation than conventional SOI platforms due to large thermal conductivity of CaF2 and Y2O3. Furthermore, we provide a fabrication method for a Ge-on-insulator (GOI) platform using wafer bonding and splitting techniques. Finally, the optical transparency of the materials used in the platform were characterized at the MID-IR wavelength range and demonstrate that the platform can cover at wide wavelength range of up to at least 13 μm.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

2016 (8)

U. Younis, S. K. Vanga, A. E. Lim, P. G. Lo, A. A. Bettiol, and K.-W. Ang, “Germanium-on-SOI waveguides for mid-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11987–11993 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, E. Baudet, L. Bodiou, J. Lemaitre, I. Hardy, F. Faijan, B. Bureau, V. Nazabal, and J. Charrier, “Optical characterization at 7.7 µm of an integrated platform based on chalcogenide waveguides for sensing applications in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 24(20), 23109–23117 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kang, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Novel Ge waveguide platform on Ge-on-insulator wafer for mid-infrared photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11855–11864 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Takagi, M. Noguchi, M. Kim, S.-H. Kim, C.-Y. Chang, M. Yokoyama, K. Nishi, R. Zhang, M. Ke, and M. Takenaka, “III-V/Ge MOS device technologies for low power integrated systems,” Solid-State Electron. 125, 82–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Spott, J. Peters, M. L. Davenport, E. J. Stanton, C. D. Merritt, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, C. S. Kim, J. R. Meyer, J. Kirch, L. J. Mawst, D. Botez, and J. E. Bowers, “Quantum cascade laser on silicon,” Optica 3(5), 545–551 (2016).
[Crossref]

D.-S. Kim, C. Holloway, B. Han, and A. Bar-Cohen, “Method for predicting junction temperature distribution in a high-power laser diode bar,” Appl. Opt. 55(27), 7487–7496 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.-M. Geum, M.-S. Park, J. Y. Lim, H.-D. Yang, J. D. Song, C. Z. Kim, E. Yoon, S. Kim, and W. J. Choi, “Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (8)

C. Zhang, D. Liang, G. Kurczveil, J. E. Bowers, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Thermal Management of Hybrid Silicon Ring Lasers for High Temperature Operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1502307 (2015).

M.-S. Park, D.-M. Geum, J. H. Kyhm, J. D. Song, S. Kim, and W. J. Choi, “InGaP/GaAs heterojunction phototransistors transferred to a Si substrate by metal wafer bonding combined with epitaxial lift-off,” Opt. Express 23(21), 26888–26894 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 2600214 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Maeda, T. Maeda, N. Miyata, T. Yasuda, Y. Kurashima, A. Maeda, H. Takagi, T. Aoki, T. Yamamoto, O. Ichikawa, T. Osada, M. Hata, A. Ogawa, T. Kikuchi, and Y. Kunii, “Wafer-scale layer transfer of GaAs and Ge onto Si wafers using patterned epitaxial lift-off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(3), 036505 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovi’c, T. Dominguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-Grating-Coupled Low-Loss Ge-on-Si Rib Waveguides and Multimode Interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Carletti, M. Sinobad, P. Ma, Y. Yu, D. Allioux, R. Orobtchouk, M. Brun, S. Ortiz, P. Labeye, J. M. Hartmann, S. Nicoletti, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, D. J. Moss, C. Monat, and C. Grillet, “Mid-infrared nonlinear optical response of Si-Ge waveguides with ultra-short optical pulses,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32202–32214 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Sigrist, “Mid-infrared laser-spectroscopic sensing of chemical species,” J. Adv. Res. 6(3), 529–533 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fathpour, “Emerging heterogeneous integrated photonic platforms on silicon,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 143–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

J. Chiles and S. Fathpour, “Mid-infrared integrated waveguide modulators based on silicon-on-lithium-niobate photonics,” Optica 1(5), 350–355 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Soler Penadés, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, L. A. Boodhoo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended SOI waveguide with sub-wavelength grating cladding for mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5661–5664 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. A. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sulé-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9(8), 1771–1791 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, X. Gai, P. Ma, D.-Y. Choi, Z. Yang, R. Wang, S. Debbarma, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “A broadband, quasi-continuous, mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in a chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 792–798 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, S. Kozacik, M. Murakowski, D. Prather, P. T. Lin, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Hu, “Demonstration of high-Q mid-infrared chalcogenide glass-on-silicon resonators,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1470–1472 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Chip-scale Mid-Infrared chemical sensors using air-clad pedestal silicon waveguides,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2161–2166 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wnag, Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, and J.-B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Chiles, S. Khan, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “High-contrast, all-silicon waveguiding platform for ultra-broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid- and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121104 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

M. N. Sysak, D. Liang, R. Jones, G. Kurczveil, M. Piels, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid Silicon Laser Technology: A Thermal Perspective,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1490–1498 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (6)

I.-S. Chung and J. Mork, “Silicon-photonics light source realized by III–V/Si-grating-mirror laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151113 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12127–12135 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 492–494 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Adler, P. Masłowski, A. Foltynowicz, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Mid-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy with a broadband frequency comb,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21861–21872 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

P. Ahmet, K. Nakagawa, K. Kakushima, H. Nohira, K. Tsutsui, N. Sugii, T. Hattori, and H. Iwai, “Electrical characteristics of MOSFETs with La2O3/Y2O3 gate stack,” Microelectron. Reliab. 48(11), 1769–1771 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Andrijasevic, M. Austerer, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Hybrid integration of GaAs quantum cascade lasers with Si substrates by thermocompression bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051117 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

D. Dai and S. He, “Analysis of characteristics of bent rib waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(1), 113–121 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Hering, P. R. Innocent, and P. I. Haris, “Towards developing a protein infrared spectra databank (PISD) for proteomics research,” Proteomics 4(8), 2310–2319 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

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2001 (1)

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1987 (1)

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W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).
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S. K. Samanta, S. Maikap, L. K. Bera, H. D. Banerjee, and C. K. Maiti, “Effect of post-oxidation annealing on the electrical properties of deposited oxide and oxynitride films on strained-Si0.82Ge0.18 layers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 16(8), 704–707 (2001).
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C. Zhang, D. Liang, G. Kurczveil, J. E. Bowers, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Thermal Management of Hybrid Silicon Ring Lasers for High Temperature Operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1502307 (2015).

M. N. Sysak, D. Liang, R. Jones, G. Kurczveil, M. Piels, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid Silicon Laser Technology: A Thermal Perspective,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1490–1498 (2011).
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Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
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Cheng, Z.

X. Wnag, Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, and J.-B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).
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Chiles, J.

J. Chiles and S. Fathpour, “Mid-infrared integrated waveguide modulators based on silicon-on-lithium-niobate photonics,” Optica 1(5), 350–355 (2014).
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J. Chiles, S. Khan, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “High-contrast, all-silicon waveguiding platform for ultra-broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151106 (2013).
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S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid- and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121104 (2013).
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Y. Yu, X. Gai, P. Ma, D.-Y. Choi, Z. Yang, R. Wang, S. Debbarma, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “A broadband, quasi-continuous, mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in a chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 792–798 (2014).
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Choi, W. J.

D.-M. Geum, M.-S. Park, J. Y. Lim, H.-D. Yang, J. D. Song, C. Z. Kim, E. Yoon, S. Kim, and W. J. Choi, “Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20610 (2016).
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M.-S. Park, D.-M. Geum, J. H. Kyhm, J. D. Song, S. Kim, and W. J. Choi, “InGaP/GaAs heterojunction phototransistors transferred to a Si substrate by metal wafer bonding combined with epitaxial lift-off,” Opt. Express 23(21), 26888–26894 (2015).
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I.-S. Chung and J. Mork, “Silicon-photonics light source realized by III–V/Si-grating-mirror laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151113 (2010).
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Detz, H.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
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Dominguez Bucio, T.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovi’c, T. Dominguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-Grating-Coupled Low-Loss Ge-on-Si Rib Waveguides and Multimode Interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
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M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. A. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sulé-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9(8), 1771–1791 (2014).
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V. Emiliani, A. M. Frisch, C. Goletti, N. Esser, W. Richter, and B. O. Fimland, “Ge growth on GaAs(001) surfaces studied by reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 66(8), 085305 (2002).
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Esser, N.

V. Emiliani, A. M. Frisch, C. Goletti, N. Esser, W. Richter, and B. O. Fimland, “Ge growth on GaAs(001) surfaces studied by reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 66(8), 085305 (2002).
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S. Fathpour, “Emerging heterogeneous integrated photonic platforms on silicon,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 143–164 (2015).
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J. Chiles and S. Fathpour, “Mid-infrared integrated waveguide modulators based on silicon-on-lithium-niobate photonics,” Optica 1(5), 350–355 (2014).
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J. Chiles, S. Khan, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “High-contrast, all-silicon waveguiding platform for ultra-broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151106 (2013).
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S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid- and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121104 (2013).
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M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. A. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sulé-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9(8), 1771–1791 (2014).
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Fimland, B. O.

V. Emiliani, A. M. Frisch, C. Goletti, N. Esser, W. Richter, and B. O. Fimland, “Ge growth on GaAs(001) surfaces studied by reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 66(8), 085305 (2002).
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Fiorentino, M.

M. N. Sysak, D. Liang, R. Jones, G. Kurczveil, M. Piels, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid Silicon Laser Technology: A Thermal Perspective,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1490–1498 (2011).
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Fogarty, S. W.

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. A. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sulé-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9(8), 1771–1791 (2014).
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Foltynowicz, A.

Fried, A.

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, and F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 75(2-3), 281–288 (2002).
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Frigerio, J.

Frisch, A. M.

V. Emiliani, A. M. Frisch, C. Goletti, N. Esser, W. Richter, and B. O. Fimland, “Ge growth on GaAs(001) surfaces studied by reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 66(8), 085305 (2002).
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Fullwood, N. J.

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. A. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sulé-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9(8), 1771–1791 (2014).
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Gai, X.

Y. Yu, X. Gai, P. Ma, D.-Y. Choi, Z. Yang, R. Wang, S. Debbarma, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “A broadband, quasi-continuous, mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in a chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 792–798 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovi’c, T. Dominguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-Grating-Coupled Low-Loss Ge-on-Si Rib Waveguides and Multimode Interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gardner, P.

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. A. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sulé-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9(8), 1771–1791 (2014).
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Geum, D.-M.

D.-M. Geum, M.-S. Park, J. Y. Lim, H.-D. Yang, J. D. Song, C. Z. Kim, E. Yoon, S. Kim, and W. J. Choi, “Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-S. Park, D.-M. Geum, J. H. Kyhm, J. D. Song, S. Kim, and W. J. Choi, “InGaP/GaAs heterojunction phototransistors transferred to a Si substrate by metal wafer bonding combined with epitaxial lift-off,” Opt. Express 23(21), 26888–26894 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilles, C.

Gluck, N. S.

Goletti, C.

V. Emiliani, A. M. Frisch, C. Goletti, N. Esser, W. Richter, and B. O. Fimland, “Ge growth on GaAs(001) surfaces studied by reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 66(8), 085305 (2002).
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Grillot, F.

Gunning, W. J.

Guo, X.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).
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Han, B.

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J. A. Hering, P. R. Innocent, and P. I. Haris, “Towards developing a protein infrared spectra databank (PISD) for proteomics research,” Proteomics 4(8), 2310–2319 (2004).
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Hattori, T.

P. Ahmet, K. Nakagawa, K. Kakushima, H. Nohira, K. Tsutsui, N. Sugii, T. Hattori, and H. Iwai, “Electrical characteristics of MOSFETs with La2O3/Y2O3 gate stack,” Microelectron. Reliab. 48(11), 1769–1771 (2008).
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He, S.

Hensley, J.

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Chip-scale Mid-Infrared chemical sensors using air-clad pedestal silicon waveguides,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2161–2166 (2013).
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J. A. Hering, P. R. Innocent, and P. I. Haris, “Towards developing a protein infrared spectra databank (PISD) for proteomics research,” Proteomics 4(8), 2310–2319 (2004).
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M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. A. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sulé-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9(8), 1771–1791 (2014).
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H. Onoda, M. Sasaki, T. Katoh, and N. Hirashita, “Si-Gate CMOS Devices on a Si/CaF2/Si Structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 34(11), 2280–2285 (1987).
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Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
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H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, S. Kozacik, M. Murakowski, D. Prather, P. T. Lin, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Hu, “Demonstration of high-Q mid-infrared chalcogenide glass-on-silicon resonators,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1470–1472 (2013).
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Hu, T.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).
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W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).
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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The schematic image of suggested GOI rib waveguide platform and (b) Refractive index of Ge, Y2O3, and CaF2 as a function of wavelength. (c) Electric field distribution of fundamental TE mode in Ge waveguide on CaF2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Contour map of neff of the fundamental TE mode in Ge slab waveguide on CaF2 as a parameter of W and H of Ge waveguide at tslab of 80 nm. (b) neff of first two TE mode in Ge waveguide with H of 1 μm and tslab of 80 nm as a function of W. (c) neff of the fundamental TE mode in Ge waveguide as a function of wavelength. (d) tslab dependence of neff of the fundamental TE mode in Ge waveguide with W of 5 μm and H of 1 μm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Logarithmic plot of the light propagation loss of Ge waveguide on GOI platform as a function of BOX (CaF2) thickness for wavelengths of (a) 5 μm, (b) 8 μm, and (c) 12 μm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Simulated bending loss as a function of the bending radius for the 2-μm and 5-μm-width waveguide with 1-μm height. Simulated Light propagation for (b) 5-μm and (c) 2-μm-width waveguide with 1-μm height.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Temperature distribution at thermal equilibrium state with a heat source (light source) on the top of (a) conventional SOI platform, (b) GOI platform with CaF2 BOX, and (c) GOI platform with Y2O3 BOX.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Temperature increase with an increase of the power of heat source in SOI and GOI platform. (b) Rth values in different waveguide platform. Inset shows the thermal conductivity of each material.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Fabrication flow of GOI structure using wafer bonding and layer splitting by selective etching of SiO2 from commercial GOI substrate.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Cross-sectional SEM image of fabricated GOI substrates by wafer bonding and splitting techniques. (b) Enlarged SEM image of (a). (c) EDX mapping image of the same sample.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Fabrication flow of GOI structure using wafer bonding and layer splitting by selective etching of SiO2 from commercial GOI substrate.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Transmittance of CaF2/Ge, CaF2/Ge (deposited at 120°C), Y2O3/Ge, SiO2/Ge, and only Ge substrates measured by FTIR measurement system. Insulator deposition was carried out by EB evaporation.

Equations (1)

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ρ C p T t =( kT )+Q

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