Abstract

Precise measurements of the index of refraction for oriented single crystal samples of gallium nitride and aluminum nitride are reported. Dispersion and birefringence were determined from 450 to 1950 nm using internal reflection from a calibrated rutile prism. Values for dn/dT were measured between 20 and 105 °C. Measurements of refractive dispersion allow for predictions of the conditions needed for nonlinear frequency conversion. The stronger birefringence and weaker dispersion displayed by AlN are shown to allow for a limited range of bulk birefringent phase matching. Both crystals are promising candidates for quasi-phase matched nonlinear frequency conversion.

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  1. W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 223501 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. R. Bowman, C. G. Brown, M. Brindza, G. Beadie, J. K. Hite, J. A. Freitas, C. R. Eddy, J. R. Meyer, and I. Vurgaftman, “Broadband Measurements of the Refractive Indices of Bulk Gallium Nitride,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(7), 1287–1296 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. L. Liu and J. H. Edgar, “Substrates for gallium nitride epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 37(3), 61–127 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  4. V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Strassburg, J. Senawirtne, N. Deitz, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffmann, V. Noveski, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, and Z. Sitar, “The growth and optical properties of large, high-quality AlN single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5870–5876 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Dwilinski, R. Doradzinski, J. Garczynski, L. Sierzputowski, R. Kucharski, M. Zaja, M. Rudzinski, R. Kudrawiec, J. Serafinczuk, and W. Strupinski, “Recent achievements in AMMONO-bulk method,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(18), 2499–2502 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. Schlesser, R. Dalmau, D. Zhuang, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Crucible materials for growth of aluminum nitride crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 281(1), 75–80 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. E. Zelmon, D. L. Small, and D. Jundt, “Infrared corrected Sellmeier coefficients for congruently grown lithium niobate and 5 mol. % magnesium oxide–doped lithium niobate,” Opt. Soc. Am. B. 14(12), 3319–3322 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Rams, A. Tejeda, and J. M. Cabrera, “Refractive indices of rutile as a function of temperature and wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 994–997 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  12. U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, “Refractive indices of lithium niobate as a function of temperature, wavelength, and composition: A generalized fit,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(21), 15613–15620 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. G. J. Edwards and M. Lawrence, “A temperature-dependent dispersion equation for congruently grown lithium niobate,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 373–375 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. J. Bergmann, Ü. Özgür, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary indices fir AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 67–69 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  15. N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. de Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  17. F. Zernike and J. Midwinter, Applied Nonlinear Optics, (John Wiley & Sons New York, 1973) Chap. 2.
  18. A. V. Smith, Crystal Nonlinear Optics with SNLO Examples, (AS-Photonics, 2015) Chap. 15.
  19. A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. Hite, M. Twigg, M. Mastro, J. A. Freitas, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, S. O’Connor, N. J. Condon, F. Kub, S. R. Bowman, and C. Eddy., “Development of periodically oriented gallium nitride for non-linear optics,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(9), 1203–1208 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. G. Brown, S. R. Bowman, J. K. Hite, J. A. Freitas, F. J. Kub, C. R. Eddy, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, J. H. Leach, and K. Udwary, “Frequency Conversion Efficiency in Free-Standing Periodically Oriented Gallium Nitride,” Proc. SPIE 9731, 97310E (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

C. G. Brown, S. R. Bowman, J. K. Hite, J. A. Freitas, F. J. Kub, C. R. Eddy, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, J. H. Leach, and K. Udwary, “Frequency Conversion Efficiency in Free-Standing Periodically Oriented Gallium Nitride,” Proc. SPIE 9731, 97310E (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2012 (3)

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Hite, M. Twigg, M. Mastro, J. A. Freitas, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, S. O’Connor, N. J. Condon, F. Kub, S. R. Bowman, and C. Eddy., “Development of periodically oriented gallium nitride for non-linear optics,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(9), 1203–1208 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 223501 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

R. Dwilinski, R. Doradzinski, J. Garczynski, L. Sierzputowski, R. Kucharski, M. Zaja, M. Rudzinski, R. Kudrawiec, J. Serafinczuk, and W. Strupinski, “Recent achievements in AMMONO-bulk method,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(18), 2499–2502 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. de Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

R. Schlesser, R. Dalmau, D. Zhuang, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Crucible materials for growth of aluminum nitride crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 281(1), 75–80 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Strassburg, J. Senawirtne, N. Deitz, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffmann, V. Noveski, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, and Z. Sitar, “The growth and optical properties of large, high-quality AlN single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5870–5876 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

L. Liu and J. H. Edgar, “Substrates for gallium nitride epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 37(3), 61–127 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. J. Bergmann, Ü. Özgür, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary indices fir AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 67–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

D. E. Zelmon, D. L. Small, and D. Jundt, “Infrared corrected Sellmeier coefficients for congruently grown lithium niobate and 5 mol. % magnesium oxide–doped lithium niobate,” Opt. Soc. Am. B. 14(12), 3319–3322 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Rams, A. Tejeda, and J. M. Cabrera, “Refractive indices of rutile as a function of temperature and wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 994–997 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, “Refractive indices of lithium niobate as a function of temperature, wavelength, and composition: A generalized fit,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(21), 15613–15620 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

G. J. Edwards and M. Lawrence, “A temperature-dependent dispersion equation for congruently grown lithium niobate,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 373–375 (1984).
[Crossref]

Beadie, G.

Bergmann, M. J.

M. J. Bergmann, Ü. Özgür, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary indices fir AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 67–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

Betzler, K.

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, “Refractive indices of lithium niobate as a function of temperature, wavelength, and composition: A generalized fit,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(21), 15613–15620 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhardwaj, M.

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bowman, S. R.

Brault, J.

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. de Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brindza, M.

Brown, C. G.

C. G. Brown, S. R. Bowman, J. K. Hite, J. A. Freitas, F. J. Kub, C. R. Eddy, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, J. H. Leach, and K. Udwary, “Frequency Conversion Efficiency in Free-Standing Periodically Oriented Gallium Nitride,” Proc. SPIE 9731, 97310E (2016).
[Crossref]

S. R. Bowman, C. G. Brown, M. Brindza, G. Beadie, J. K. Hite, J. A. Freitas, C. R. Eddy, J. R. Meyer, and I. Vurgaftman, “Broadband Measurements of the Refractive Indices of Bulk Gallium Nitride,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(7), 1287–1296 (2014).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

Cabrera, J. M.

J. Rams, A. Tejeda, and J. M. Cabrera, “Refractive indices of rutile as a function of temperature and wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 994–997 (1997).
[Crossref]

Casey, H. C.

M. J. Bergmann, Ü. Özgür, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary indices fir AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 67–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, A.

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Collazo, R.

R. Schlesser, R. Dalmau, D. Zhuang, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Crucible materials for growth of aluminum nitride crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 281(1), 75–80 (2005).
[Crossref]

Condon, N. J.

Dalmau, R.

R. Schlesser, R. Dalmau, D. Zhuang, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Crucible materials for growth of aluminum nitride crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 281(1), 75–80 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Strassburg, J. Senawirtne, N. Deitz, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffmann, V. Noveski, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, and Z. Sitar, “The growth and optical properties of large, high-quality AlN single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5870–5876 (2004).
[Crossref]

Davydov, A. V.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

Davydov, V. Yu.

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[Crossref]

de Micheli, M.

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. de Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Deitz, N.

M. Strassburg, J. Senawirtne, N. Deitz, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffmann, V. Noveski, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, and Z. Sitar, “The growth and optical properties of large, high-quality AlN single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5870–5876 (2004).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dmitriev, A. V.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

Doradzinski, R.

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Dwilinski, R. Doradzinski, J. Garczynski, L. Sierzputowski, R. Kucharski, M. Zaja, M. Rudzinski, R. Kudrawiec, J. Serafinczuk, and W. Strupinski, “Recent achievements in AMMONO-bulk method,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(18), 2499–2502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dwilinski, R.

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Dwilinski, R. Doradzinski, J. Garczynski, L. Sierzputowski, R. Kucharski, M. Zaja, M. Rudzinski, R. Kudrawiec, J. Serafinczuk, and W. Strupinski, “Recent achievements in AMMONO-bulk method,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(18), 2499–2502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eddy, C.

Eddy, C. R.

C. G. Brown, S. R. Bowman, J. K. Hite, J. A. Freitas, F. J. Kub, C. R. Eddy, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, J. H. Leach, and K. Udwary, “Frequency Conversion Efficiency in Free-Standing Periodically Oriented Gallium Nitride,” Proc. SPIE 9731, 97310E (2016).
[Crossref]

S. R. Bowman, C. G. Brown, M. Brindza, G. Beadie, J. K. Hite, J. A. Freitas, C. R. Eddy, J. R. Meyer, and I. Vurgaftman, “Broadband Measurements of the Refractive Indices of Bulk Gallium Nitride,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(7), 1287–1296 (2014).
[Crossref]

Edgar, J. H.

L. Liu and J. H. Edgar, “Substrates for gallium nitride epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 37(3), 61–127 (2002).
[Crossref]

Edwards, G. J.

G. J. Edwards and M. Lawrence, “A temperature-dependent dispersion equation for congruently grown lithium niobate,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 373–375 (1984).
[Crossref]

Evarestov, R. A.

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[Crossref]

Everitt, H. O.

M. J. Bergmann, Ü. Özgür, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary indices fir AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 67–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

Freitas, J. A.

Garczynski, J.

R. Dwilinski, R. Doradzinski, J. Garczynski, L. Sierzputowski, R. Kucharski, M. Zaja, M. Rudzinski, R. Kudrawiec, J. Serafinczuk, and W. Strupinski, “Recent achievements in AMMONO-bulk method,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(18), 2499–2502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Goncharuk, I. N.

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[Crossref]

Graul, J.

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[Crossref]

Haboeck, U.

M. Strassburg, J. Senawirtne, N. Deitz, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffmann, V. Noveski, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, and Z. Sitar, “The growth and optical properties of large, high-quality AlN single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5870–5876 (2004).
[Crossref]

Han, J. Y.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hite, J.

Hite, J. K.

C. G. Brown, S. R. Bowman, J. K. Hite, J. A. Freitas, F. J. Kub, C. R. Eddy, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, J. H. Leach, and K. Udwary, “Frequency Conversion Efficiency in Free-Standing Periodically Oriented Gallium Nitride,” Proc. SPIE 9731, 97310E (2016).
[Crossref]

S. R. Bowman, C. G. Brown, M. Brindza, G. Beadie, J. K. Hite, J. A. Freitas, C. R. Eddy, J. R. Meyer, and I. Vurgaftman, “Broadband Measurements of the Refractive Indices of Bulk Gallium Nitride,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(7), 1287–1296 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, A.

M. Strassburg, J. Senawirtne, N. Deitz, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffmann, V. Noveski, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, and Z. Sitar, “The growth and optical properties of large, high-quality AlN single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5870–5876 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jundt, D.

D. E. Zelmon, D. L. Small, and D. Jundt, “Infrared corrected Sellmeier coefficients for congruently grown lithium niobate and 5 mol. % magnesium oxide–doped lithium niobate,” Opt. Soc. Am. B. 14(12), 3319–3322 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kitaev, Yu. E.

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kub, F.

Kub, F. J.

C. G. Brown, S. R. Bowman, J. K. Hite, J. A. Freitas, F. J. Kub, C. R. Eddy, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, J. H. Leach, and K. Udwary, “Frequency Conversion Efficiency in Free-Standing Periodically Oriented Gallium Nitride,” Proc. SPIE 9731, 97310E (2016).
[Crossref]

Kucharski, R.

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Dwilinski, R. Doradzinski, J. Garczynski, L. Sierzputowski, R. Kucharski, M. Zaja, M. Rudzinski, R. Kudrawiec, J. Serafinczuk, and W. Strupinski, “Recent achievements in AMMONO-bulk method,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(18), 2499–2502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kudrawiec, R.

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Dwilinski, R. Doradzinski, J. Garczynski, L. Sierzputowski, R. Kucharski, M. Zaja, M. Rudzinski, R. Kudrawiec, J. Serafinczuk, and W. Strupinski, “Recent achievements in AMMONO-bulk method,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(18), 2499–2502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lawrence, M.

G. J. Edwards and M. Lawrence, “A temperature-dependent dispersion equation for congruently grown lithium niobate,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 373–375 (1984).
[Crossref]

Leach, J. H.

C. G. Brown, S. R. Bowman, J. K. Hite, J. A. Freitas, F. J. Kub, C. R. Eddy, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, J. H. Leach, and K. Udwary, “Frequency Conversion Efficiency in Free-Standing Periodically Oriented Gallium Nitride,” Proc. SPIE 9731, 97310E (2016).
[Crossref]

Leroux, M.

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. de Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

L. Liu and J. H. Edgar, “Substrates for gallium nitride epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 37(3), 61–127 (2002).
[Crossref]

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

Massies, J.

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. de Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mastro, M.

Meyer, J. R.

Mirgorodsky, A. P.

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

Misiewicz, J.

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

Molnar, R. J.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Motyka, M.

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

Muth, J. F.

M. J. Bergmann, Ü. Özgür, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary indices fir AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 67–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ng, H. M.

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Noveski, V.

M. Strassburg, J. Senawirtne, N. Deitz, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffmann, V. Noveski, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, and Z. Sitar, “The growth and optical properties of large, high-quality AlN single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5870–5876 (2004).
[Crossref]

O’Connor, S.

Özgür, Ü.

M. J. Bergmann, Ü. Özgür, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary indices fir AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 67–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

Park, S. S.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pernice, W. H. P.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 223501 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pezzagna, S.

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. de Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rams, J.

J. Rams, A. Tejeda, and J. M. Cabrera, “Refractive indices of rutile as a function of temperature and wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 994–997 (1997).
[Crossref]

Robins, L. H.

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rudzinski, M.

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Dwilinski, R. Doradzinski, J. Garczynski, L. Sierzputowski, R. Kucharski, M. Zaja, M. Rudzinski, R. Kudrawiec, J. Serafinczuk, and W. Strupinski, “Recent achievements in AMMONO-bulk method,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(18), 2499–2502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sanford, N. A.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schlarb, U.

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, “Refractive indices of lithium niobate as a function of temperature, wavelength, and composition: A generalized fit,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(21), 15613–15620 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlesser, R.

R. Schlesser, R. Dalmau, D. Zhuang, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Crucible materials for growth of aluminum nitride crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 281(1), 75–80 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Strassburg, J. Senawirtne, N. Deitz, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffmann, V. Noveski, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, and Z. Sitar, “The growth and optical properties of large, high-quality AlN single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5870–5876 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schuck, C.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 223501 (2012).
[Crossref]

Semchinova, O.

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[Crossref]

Senawirtne, J.

M. Strassburg, J. Senawirtne, N. Deitz, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffmann, V. Noveski, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, and Z. Sitar, “The growth and optical properties of large, high-quality AlN single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5870–5876 (2004).
[Crossref]

Serafinczuk, J.

R. Dwilinski, R. Doradzinski, J. Garczynski, L. Sierzputowski, R. Kucharski, M. Zaja, M. Rudzinski, R. Kudrawiec, J. Serafinczuk, and W. Strupinski, “Recent achievements in AMMONO-bulk method,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(18), 2499–2502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, A.

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sierzputowski, L.

R. Dwilinski, R. Doradzinski, J. Garczynski, L. Sierzputowski, R. Kucharski, M. Zaja, M. Rudzinski, R. Kudrawiec, J. Serafinczuk, and W. Strupinski, “Recent achievements in AMMONO-bulk method,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(18), 2499–2502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sitar, Z.

R. Schlesser, R. Dalmau, D. Zhuang, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Crucible materials for growth of aluminum nitride crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 281(1), 75–80 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Strassburg, J. Senawirtne, N. Deitz, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffmann, V. Noveski, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, and Z. Sitar, “The growth and optical properties of large, high-quality AlN single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5870–5876 (2004).
[Crossref]

Small, D. L.

D. E. Zelmon, D. L. Small, and D. Jundt, “Infrared corrected Sellmeier coefficients for congruently grown lithium niobate and 5 mol. % magnesium oxide–doped lithium niobate,” Opt. Soc. Am. B. 14(12), 3319–3322 (1997).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, A. N.

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, M. B.

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[Crossref]

Strassburg, M.

M. Strassburg, J. Senawirtne, N. Deitz, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffmann, V. Noveski, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, and Z. Sitar, “The growth and optical properties of large, high-quality AlN single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5870–5876 (2004).
[Crossref]

Strupinski, W.

R. Dwilinski, R. Doradzinski, J. Garczynski, L. Sierzputowski, R. Kucharski, M. Zaja, M. Rudzinski, R. Kudrawiec, J. Serafinczuk, and W. Strupinski, “Recent achievements in AMMONO-bulk method,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(18), 2499–2502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tang, H. X.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 223501 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tejeda, A.

J. Rams, A. Tejeda, and J. M. Cabrera, “Refractive indices of rutile as a function of temperature and wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 994–997 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tsvetkov, D. V.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

Twigg, M.

Udwary, K.

C. G. Brown, S. R. Bowman, J. K. Hite, J. A. Freitas, F. J. Kub, C. R. Eddy, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, J. H. Leach, and K. Udwary, “Frequency Conversion Efficiency in Free-Standing Periodically Oriented Gallium Nitride,” Proc. SPIE 9731, 97310E (2016).
[Crossref]

Uffmann, D.

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[Crossref]

Vurgaftman, I.

Weimann, N. G.

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Welna, M.

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xiong, C.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 223501 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zaja, M.

R. Dwilinski, R. Doradzinski, J. Garczynski, L. Sierzputowski, R. Kucharski, M. Zaja, M. Rudzinski, R. Kudrawiec, J. Serafinczuk, and W. Strupinski, “Recent achievements in AMMONO-bulk method,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(18), 2499–2502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zajac, M.

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zelmon, D. E.

D. E. Zelmon, D. L. Small, and D. Jundt, “Infrared corrected Sellmeier coefficients for congruently grown lithium niobate and 5 mol. % magnesium oxide–doped lithium niobate,” Opt. Soc. Am. B. 14(12), 3319–3322 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, D.

R. Schlesser, R. Dalmau, D. Zhuang, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Crucible materials for growth of aluminum nitride crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 281(1), 75–80 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 223501 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. J. Bergmann, Ü. Özgür, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary indices fir AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 67–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cryst. Res. Technol. (1)

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

M. Strassburg, J. Senawirtne, N. Deitz, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffmann, V. Noveski, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, and Z. Sitar, “The growth and optical properties of large, high-quality AlN single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5870–5876 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Rams, A. Tejeda, and J. M. Cabrera, “Refractive indices of rutile as a function of temperature and wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 994–997 (1997).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 2980–2991 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. de Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

R. Dwilinski, R. Doradzinski, J. Garczynski, L. Sierzputowski, R. Kucharski, M. Zaja, M. Rudzinski, R. Kudrawiec, J. Serafinczuk, and W. Strupinski, “Recent achievements in AMMONO-bulk method,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(18), 2499–2502 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Schlesser, R. Dalmau, D. Zhuang, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Crucible materials for growth of aluminum nitride crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 281(1), 75–80 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. (1)

L. Liu and J. H. Edgar, “Substrates for gallium nitride epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 37(3), 61–127 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. J. Edwards and M. Lawrence, “A temperature-dependent dispersion equation for congruently grown lithium niobate,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 373–375 (1984).
[Crossref]

Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

D. E. Zelmon, D. L. Small, and D. Jundt, “Infrared corrected Sellmeier coefficients for congruently grown lithium niobate and 5 mol. % magnesium oxide–doped lithium niobate,” Opt. Soc. Am. B. 14(12), 3319–3322 (1997).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

V. Yu. Davydov, Yu. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. B. Smirnov, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and R. A. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, “Refractive indices of lithium niobate as a function of temperature, wavelength, and composition: A generalized fit,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(21), 15613–15620 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. G. Brown, S. R. Bowman, J. K. Hite, J. A. Freitas, F. J. Kub, C. R. Eddy, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, J. H. Leach, and K. Udwary, “Frequency Conversion Efficiency in Free-Standing Periodically Oriented Gallium Nitride,” Proc. SPIE 9731, 97310E (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

F. Zernike and J. Midwinter, Applied Nonlinear Optics, (John Wiley & Sons New York, 1973) Chap. 2.

A. V. Smith, Crystal Nonlinear Optics with SNLO Examples, (AS-Photonics, 2015) Chap. 15.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Room temperature transmission of 1 mm thick bulk nitride crystals. The sharp lines at 2.7 µm and 5 µm are due to background atmospheric absorption.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measured indices of the nitride samples at 25 °C. Extraordinary rays are solid dots and ordinary rays are open dots. The lines are the fits to the two pole Sellmeier equations discussed in the text.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured birefringence at 25 °C for AlN (solid dots) and GaN (open dots). The difference of the Sellmeier equations are shown as solid lines.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured temperature rate of change in refractive index for the nitride samples between 25 and 105 °C. Solid lines connect AlN data and dashed lines connect GaN data. Solid dots mark e-ray measurements, open dots mark o-ray measurements. Error bars reflect the uncertainty in the linear fit for dn/dT.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Difference frequency experiment used to test AlN phase matching. (b) Monochromator resolution limited spectrum of the generated difference frequency. (c) The solid line is the predicted angle-tuned phase matching for (oeo) process in AlN at 25C. The dot shows the observed λ1 which generated phase matching for θ = 90°.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Calculated coherence length for second harmonic generation of the fundamental wavelength for crystals at a temperature of 25 °C. Solid dots highlight the AlN processes and open squares highlight the GaN processes. Solid lines display the (eee) processes and dashed lines display the (ooe) processes. The reported resonance of (ooe) SHG in periodically oriented GaN is shown with the solid square.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Highlighted properties of Aluminum Nitride and Gallium Nitride

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Table 2 Best-fit parameters for Sellmeier Eq. (1) at 25 C.

Equations (4)

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n 2 =1+ a λ 2 / ( λ 2 λ a 2 ) + b λ 2 / ( λ 2 λ b 2 )
χ ( 2 ) ij =[ 0 0 0 0 χ ( 2 ) 31 0 0 0 0 χ ( 2 ) 31 0 0 χ ( 2 ) 31 χ ( 2 ) 31 χ ( 2 ) 33 0 0 0 ].
d eff ={ 1 2 χ (2) 33 sin 3 (θ)+ 3 2 χ (2) 31 sin(θ) cos 2 (θ) 1 2 χ (2) 31 sin(θ) 0 for all e-rays 2 o-rays 1 or 3 o-rays }.
1/ λ 1 =1/ λ 2 +1/ λ 3 and n( λ 1 )/ λ 1 = n( λ 2 )/ λ 2 + n( λ 3 )/ λ 3 .

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