Abstract

We propose to collimate the reflected electromagnetic fields from convex reflectors by using meta-surfaces. More specifically, both umbrella-shape and polygon prism convex reflectors are shown to be capable of generating highly directive pencil-beams and fan-beams, respectively, when integrated with meta-surfaces offering additional gradient phase distributions over the reflecting boundaries. Steerable beams from both reflectors are also verified from the full-wave simulations. Finally, we practically implement such meta-surface based convex reflectors loaded with properly devised subwavelength ring patches and demonstrate their functionalities of tuning reflected electromagnetic beams with greatly enhanced reflections. Our approach of generating well collimated electromagnetic fields from convex reflectors would be applicable to conformal components on the non-planar platform for the highly directive radiations.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  8. P.-Y. Chen and A. Alu, “Mantle cloaking using thin patterned metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205110 (2011).
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  11. J. Soric, P. Chen, A. Kerkhoff, D. Rainwater, K. Melin, and A. Alù, “Demonstration of an ultralow profile cloak for scattering suppression of a finite-length rod in free space,” New J. Phys. 15, 033037 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. B. Orazbayev, N.M. Estakhri, M. Beruete, and A. Alù, “Terahertz carpet cloak based on a ring resonator metasurface,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 195444 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. X. Ni, Z.J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349, 1310–1314 (2015).
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  14. J. Cheng, S. Jafar-Zanjani, and H. Mosallaei, “All-dielectric ultrathin conformal metasurfaces: lensing and cloaking applications at 532 nm wavelength,” Sci. Rep. 6, 38440 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. B.-X. Wang, L.-L. Wang, G.-Z. Wang, W.-Q. Huang, X.-F. Li, and X. Zhai, “A simple design of a broadband, polarization-insensitive, and low-conductivity alloy metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 082601 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M.A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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  26. Y.Z. Ho, B.H. Cheng, W.-L. Hsu, C.-M. Wang, and D.P. Tsai, “Anomalous reflection from metasurfaces with gradient phase distribution below 2π,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 072502 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

A. Díaz-Rubio, V.S. Asadchy, A. Elsakka, and S.A. Tretyakov, “From the generalized reflection law to the realization of perfect anomalous reflectors,” Science Advances 3, e1602714 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

Y.Z. Ho, B.H. Cheng, W.-L. Hsu, C.-M. Wang, and D.P. Tsai, “Anomalous reflection from metasurfaces with gradient phase distribution below 2π,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 072502 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 075142 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Cheng, S. Jafar-Zanjani, and H. Mosallaei, “All-dielectric ultrathin conformal metasurfaces: lensing and cloaking applications at 532 nm wavelength,” Sci. Rep. 6, 38440 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C.M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-Polarization 3D Metasurface Cloak with Preserved Amplitude and Phase,” Adv. Mater. 28, 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

B. Orazbayev, N.M. Estakhri, M. Beruete, and A. Alù, “Terahertz carpet cloak based on a ring resonator metasurface,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 195444 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, Z.J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349, 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

B.-X. Wang, L.-L. Wang, G.-Z. Wang, W.-Q. Huang, X.-F. Li, and X. Zhai, “A simple design of a broadband, polarization-insensitive, and low-conductivity alloy metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 082601 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Yoo and S. Lim, “Active metasurface for controlling reflection and absorption properties,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 112204 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.H. Jiang and D.H. Werner, “Quasi-Three-Dimensional Angle-Tolerant Electromagnetic Illusion Using Ultrathin Metasurface Coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 7728–7736 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, D. Gao, H. Su, Z. Wang, Z. Lei, J. Fan, and M. Man, “To go into hiding on camouflage meta-surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 211602 (2014).
[Crossref]

S.V. Hum and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Reconfigurable reflect arrays and array lenses for dynamic antenna beam control: A review,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 62, 183–198 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, X. Ding, L. Zhang, and Q. Wu, “Anomalous three-dimensional refraction in the microwave region by ultra-thin high efficiency metalens with phase discontinuities in orthogonal directions,” New J. Phys. 16, 103020 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kim, A.M. Wong, and G.V. Eleftheriades, “Optical Huygens’ metasurfaces with independent control of the magnitude and phase of the local reflection coefficients,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 041042 (2014).

2013 (5)

J. Zhang, Z. Lei Mei, W. Ru Zhang, F. Yang, and T. Jun Cui, “An ultrathin directional carpet cloak based on generalized Snell’s law,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 151115 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Soric, P. Chen, A. Kerkhoff, D. Rainwater, K. Melin, and A. Alù, “Demonstration of an ultralow profile cloak for scattering suppression of a finite-length rod in free space,” New J. Phys. 15, 033037 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Liang and S.V. Hum, “Wide-angle scannable reflector design using conformal transformation optics,” Opt. Express 21, 2133–2146 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Farmahini-Farahani and H. Mosallaei, “Birefringent reflectarray metasurface for beam engineering in infrared,” Opt. Lett. 38, 462–464 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pors and S.I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for efficient phase control in reflection,” Opt. Express 21, 27438–27451 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alu, “Mantle cloaking using thin patterned metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205110 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M.A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. Raffaelli, Z. Sipus, and P.-S. Kildal, “Analysis and measurements of conformal patch array antennas on multilayer circular cylinder,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 1105–1113 (2005).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

R. Munson, “Conformal microstrip antennas and microstrip phased arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 22, 74–78 (1974).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

R.F. Harrington and W.R. Lepage, “Directional antenna arrays of elements circularly disposed about a cylindrical reflector,” Proc. IRE 40, 83–86 (1952).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M.A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M.A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albooyeh, M.

V. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 075142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alu, A.

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alu, “Mantle cloaking using thin patterned metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

B. Orazbayev, N.M. Estakhri, M. Beruete, and A. Alù, “Terahertz carpet cloak based on a ring resonator metasurface,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 195444 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Soric, P. Chen, A. Kerkhoff, D. Rainwater, K. Melin, and A. Alù, “Demonstration of an ultralow profile cloak for scattering suppression of a finite-length rod in free space,” New J. Phys. 15, 033037 (2013).
[Crossref]

Asadchy, V.

V. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 075142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Asadchy, V.S.

A. Díaz-Rubio, V.S. Asadchy, A. Elsakka, and S.A. Tretyakov, “From the generalized reflection law to the realization of perfect anomalous reflectors,” Science Advances 3, e1602714 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beruete, M.

B. Orazbayev, N.M. Estakhri, M. Beruete, and A. Alù, “Terahertz carpet cloak based on a ring resonator metasurface,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 195444 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S.I.

Cai, B.

Capasso, F.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M.A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M.A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C.M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-Polarization 3D Metasurface Cloak with Preserved Amplitude and Phase,” Adv. Mater. 28, 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

J. Soric, P. Chen, A. Kerkhoff, D. Rainwater, K. Melin, and A. Alù, “Demonstration of an ultralow profile cloak for scattering suppression of a finite-length rod in free space,” New J. Phys. 15, 033037 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.-Y.

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alu, “Mantle cloaking using thin patterned metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, B.H.

Y.Z. Ho, B.H. Cheng, W.-L. Hsu, C.-M. Wang, and D.P. Tsai, “Anomalous reflection from metasurfaces with gradient phase distribution below 2π,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 072502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.

J. Cheng, S. Jafar-Zanjani, and H. Mosallaei, “All-dielectric ultrathin conformal metasurfaces: lensing and cloaking applications at 532 nm wavelength,” Sci. Rep. 6, 38440 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cui, T.J.

Díaz-Rubio, A.

A. Díaz-Rubio, V.S. Asadchy, A. Elsakka, and S.A. Tretyakov, “From the generalized reflection law to the realization of perfect anomalous reflectors,” Science Advances 3, e1602714 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 075142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ding, X.

K. Zhang, X. Ding, L. Zhang, and Q. Wu, “Anomalous three-dimensional refraction in the microwave region by ultra-thin high efficiency metalens with phase discontinuities in orthogonal directions,” New J. Phys. 16, 103020 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eleftheriades, G.V.

M. Kim, A.M. Wong, and G.V. Eleftheriades, “Optical Huygens’ metasurfaces with independent control of the magnitude and phase of the local reflection coefficients,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 041042 (2014).

Elsakka, A.

A. Díaz-Rubio, V.S. Asadchy, A. Elsakka, and S.A. Tretyakov, “From the generalized reflection law to the realization of perfect anomalous reflectors,” Science Advances 3, e1602714 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Estakhri, N.M.

B. Orazbayev, N.M. Estakhri, M. Beruete, and A. Alù, “Terahertz carpet cloak based on a ring resonator metasurface,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 195444 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, J.

R. Yang, D. Gao, H. Su, Z. Wang, Z. Lei, J. Fan, and M. Man, “To go into hiding on camouflage meta-surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 211602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Farmahini-Farahani, M.

Gaburro, Z.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M.A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M.A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, D.

R. Yang, D. Gao, H. Su, Z. Wang, Z. Lei, J. Fan, and M. Man, “To go into hiding on camouflage meta-surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 211602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Genevet, P.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M.A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M.A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, R.

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C.M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-Polarization 3D Metasurface Cloak with Preserved Amplitude and Phase,” Adv. Mater. 28, 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harrington, R.F.

R.F. Harrington and W.R. Lepage, “Directional antenna arrays of elements circularly disposed about a cylindrical reflector,” Proc. IRE 40, 83–86 (1952).
[Crossref]

He, Q.

Ho, Y.Z.

Y.Z. Ho, B.H. Cheng, W.-L. Hsu, C.-M. Wang, and D.P. Tsai, “Anomalous reflection from metasurfaces with gradient phase distribution below 2π,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 072502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hsu, W.-L.

Y.Z. Ho, B.H. Cheng, W.-L. Hsu, C.-M. Wang, and D.P. Tsai, “Anomalous reflection from metasurfaces with gradient phase distribution below 2π,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 072502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.-Q.

B.-X. Wang, L.-L. Wang, G.-Z. Wang, W.-Q. Huang, X.-F. Li, and X. Zhai, “A simple design of a broadband, polarization-insensitive, and low-conductivity alloy metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 082601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hum, S.V.

S.V. Hum and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Reconfigurable reflect arrays and array lenses for dynamic antenna beam control: A review,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 62, 183–198 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Liang and S.V. Hum, “Wide-angle scannable reflector design using conformal transformation optics,” Opt. Express 21, 2133–2146 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jafar-Zanjani, S.

J. Cheng, S. Jafar-Zanjani, and H. Mosallaei, “All-dielectric ultrathin conformal metasurfaces: lensing and cloaking applications at 532 nm wavelength,” Sci. Rep. 6, 38440 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z.H.

Z.H. Jiang and D.H. Werner, “Quasi-Three-Dimensional Angle-Tolerant Electromagnetic Illusion Using Ultrathin Metasurface Coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 7728–7736 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jing, L.

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C.M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-Polarization 3D Metasurface Cloak with Preserved Amplitude and Phase,” Adv. Mater. 28, 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jun Cui, T.

J. Zhang, Z. Lei Mei, W. Ru Zhang, F. Yang, and T. Jun Cui, “An ultrathin directional carpet cloak based on generalized Snell’s law,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 151115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kats, M.A.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M.A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M.A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kerkhoff, A.

J. Soric, P. Chen, A. Kerkhoff, D. Rainwater, K. Melin, and A. Alù, “Demonstration of an ultralow profile cloak for scattering suppression of a finite-length rod in free space,” New J. Phys. 15, 033037 (2013).
[Crossref]

Khoo, I.

Kildal, P.-S.

S. Raffaelli, Z. Sipus, and P.-S. Kildal, “Analysis and measurements of conformal patch array antennas on multilayer circular cylinder,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 1105–1113 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

M. Kim, A.M. Wong, and G.V. Eleftheriades, “Optical Huygens’ metasurfaces with independent control of the magnitude and phase of the local reflection coefficients,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 041042 (2014).

Kraus, J.D.

J.D. Kraus and R.J. Marhefka, Antennas: For All Applications (McGraw-Hill, 2002).

Lei, Z.

R. Yang, D. Gao, H. Su, Z. Wang, Z. Lei, J. Fan, and M. Man, “To go into hiding on camouflage meta-surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 211602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lei Mei, Z.

J. Zhang, Z. Lei Mei, W. Ru Zhang, F. Yang, and T. Jun Cui, “An ultrathin directional carpet cloak based on generalized Snell’s law,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 151115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lepage, W.R.

R.F. Harrington and W.R. Lepage, “Directional antenna arrays of elements circularly disposed about a cylindrical reflector,” Proc. IRE 40, 83–86 (1952).
[Crossref]

Li, E.

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C.M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-Polarization 3D Metasurface Cloak with Preserved Amplitude and Phase,” Adv. Mater. 28, 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Li, X.-F.

B.-X. Wang, L.-L. Wang, G.-Z. Wang, W.-Q. Huang, X.-F. Li, and X. Zhai, “A simple design of a broadband, polarization-insensitive, and low-conductivity alloy metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 082601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liang, L.

Lim, S.

M. Yoo and S. Lim, “Active metasurface for controlling reflection and absorption properties,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 112204 (2014).
[Crossref]

Man, M.

R. Yang, D. Gao, H. Su, Z. Wang, Z. Lei, J. Fan, and M. Man, “To go into hiding on camouflage meta-surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 211602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marhefka, R.J.

J.D. Kraus and R.J. Marhefka, Antennas: For All Applications (McGraw-Hill, 2002).

Melin, K.

J. Soric, P. Chen, A. Kerkhoff, D. Rainwater, K. Melin, and A. Alù, “Demonstration of an ultralow profile cloak for scattering suppression of a finite-length rod in free space,” New J. Phys. 15, 033037 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mitus, A.

Mosallaei, H.

J. Cheng, S. Jafar-Zanjani, and H. Mosallaei, “All-dielectric ultrathin conformal metasurfaces: lensing and cloaking applications at 532 nm wavelength,” Sci. Rep. 6, 38440 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Farmahini-Farahani and H. Mosallaei, “Birefringent reflectarray metasurface for beam engineering in infrared,” Opt. Lett. 38, 462–464 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mrejen, M.

X. Ni, Z.J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349, 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Munson, R.

R. Munson, “Conformal microstrip antennas and microstrip phased arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 22, 74–78 (1974).
[Crossref]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, Z.J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349, 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orazbayev, B.

B. Orazbayev, N.M. Estakhri, M. Beruete, and A. Alù, “Terahertz carpet cloak based on a ring resonator metasurface,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 195444 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pawlik, G.

Perruisseau-Carrier, J.

S.V. Hum and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Reconfigurable reflect arrays and array lenses for dynamic antenna beam control: A review,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 62, 183–198 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pors, A.

Ra’di, Y.

V. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 075142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Raffaelli, S.

S. Raffaelli, Z. Sipus, and P.-S. Kildal, “Analysis and measurements of conformal patch array antennas on multilayer circular cylinder,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 1105–1113 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rainwater, D.

J. Soric, P. Chen, A. Kerkhoff, D. Rainwater, K. Melin, and A. Alù, “Demonstration of an ultralow profile cloak for scattering suppression of a finite-length rod in free space,” New J. Phys. 15, 033037 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ru Zhang, W.

J. Zhang, Z. Lei Mei, W. Ru Zhang, F. Yang, and T. Jun Cui, “An ultrathin directional carpet cloak based on generalized Snell’s law,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 151115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sipus, Z.

S. Raffaelli, Z. Sipus, and P.-S. Kildal, “Analysis and measurements of conformal patch array antennas on multilayer circular cylinder,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 1105–1113 (2005).
[Crossref]

Soric, J.

J. Soric, P. Chen, A. Kerkhoff, D. Rainwater, K. Melin, and A. Alù, “Demonstration of an ultralow profile cloak for scattering suppression of a finite-length rod in free space,” New J. Phys. 15, 033037 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C.M.

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C.M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-Polarization 3D Metasurface Cloak with Preserved Amplitude and Phase,” Adv. Mater. 28, 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, H.

R. Yang, D. Gao, H. Su, Z. Wang, Z. Lei, J. Fan, and M. Man, “To go into hiding on camouflage meta-surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 211602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tarnowski, K.

Tcvetkova, S.

V. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 075142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tetienne, J.-P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M.A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tretyakov, S.

V. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 075142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tretyakov, S.A.

A. Díaz-Rubio, V.S. Asadchy, A. Elsakka, and S.A. Tretyakov, “From the generalized reflection law to the realization of perfect anomalous reflectors,” Science Advances 3, e1602714 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, D.P.

Y.Z. Ho, B.H. Cheng, W.-L. Hsu, C.-M. Wang, and D.P. Tsai, “Anomalous reflection from metasurfaces with gradient phase distribution below 2π,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 072502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Walasik, W.

Wang, B.-X.

B.-X. Wang, L.-L. Wang, G.-Z. Wang, W.-Q. Huang, X.-F. Li, and X. Zhai, “A simple design of a broadband, polarization-insensitive, and low-conductivity alloy metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 082601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-M.

Y.Z. Ho, B.H. Cheng, W.-L. Hsu, C.-M. Wang, and D.P. Tsai, “Anomalous reflection from metasurfaces with gradient phase distribution below 2π,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 072502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.-Z.

B.-X. Wang, L.-L. Wang, G.-Z. Wang, W.-Q. Huang, X.-F. Li, and X. Zhai, “A simple design of a broadband, polarization-insensitive, and low-conductivity alloy metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 082601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.-L.

B.-X. Wang, L.-L. Wang, G.-Z. Wang, W.-Q. Huang, X.-F. Li, and X. Zhai, “A simple design of a broadband, polarization-insensitive, and low-conductivity alloy metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 082601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

X. Ni, Z.J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349, 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

R. Yang, D. Gao, H. Su, Z. Wang, Z. Lei, J. Fan, and M. Man, “To go into hiding on camouflage meta-surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 211602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Werner, D.H.

Z.H. Jiang and D.H. Werner, “Quasi-Three-Dimensional Angle-Tolerant Electromagnetic Illusion Using Ultrathin Metasurface Coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 7728–7736 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wong, A.M.

M. Kim, A.M. Wong, and G.V. Eleftheriades, “Optical Huygens’ metasurfaces with independent control of the magnitude and phase of the local reflection coefficients,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 041042 (2014).

Wong, Z.J.

X. Ni, Z.J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349, 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Q.

K. Zhang, X. Ding, L. Zhang, and Q. Wu, “Anomalous three-dimensional refraction in the microwave region by ultra-thin high efficiency metalens with phase discontinuities in orthogonal directions,” New J. Phys. 16, 103020 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

Yang, F.

J. Zhang, Z. Lei Mei, W. Ru Zhang, F. Yang, and T. Jun Cui, “An ultrathin directional carpet cloak based on generalized Snell’s law,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 151115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, R.

R. Yang, D. Gao, H. Su, Z. Wang, Z. Lei, J. Fan, and M. Man, “To go into hiding on camouflage meta-surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 211602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C.M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-Polarization 3D Metasurface Cloak with Preserved Amplitude and Phase,” Adv. Mater. 28, 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, W.

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C.M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-Polarization 3D Metasurface Cloak with Preserved Amplitude and Phase,” Adv. Mater. 28, 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, M.

M. Yoo and S. Lim, “Active metasurface for controlling reflection and absorption properties,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 112204 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M.A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M.A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhai, X.

B.-X. Wang, L.-L. Wang, G.-Z. Wang, W.-Q. Huang, X.-F. Li, and X. Zhai, “A simple design of a broadband, polarization-insensitive, and low-conductivity alloy metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 082601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, Z. Lei Mei, W. Ru Zhang, F. Yang, and T. Jun Cui, “An ultrathin directional carpet cloak based on generalized Snell’s law,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 151115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.

K. Zhang, X. Ding, L. Zhang, and Q. Wu, “Anomalous three-dimensional refraction in the microwave region by ultra-thin high efficiency metalens with phase discontinuities in orthogonal directions,” New J. Phys. 16, 103020 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

K. Zhang, X. Ding, L. Zhang, and Q. Wu, “Anomalous three-dimensional refraction in the microwave region by ultra-thin high efficiency metalens with phase discontinuities in orthogonal directions,” New J. Phys. 16, 103020 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Ni, Z.J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349, 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, B.

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C.M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-Polarization 3D Metasurface Cloak with Preserved Amplitude and Phase,” Adv. Mater. 28, 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Z.H. Jiang and D.H. Werner, “Quasi-Three-Dimensional Angle-Tolerant Electromagnetic Illusion Using Ultrathin Metasurface Coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 7728–7736 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C.M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-Polarization 3D Metasurface Cloak with Preserved Amplitude and Phase,” Adv. Mater. 28, 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express (3)

B.-X. Wang, L.-L. Wang, G.-Z. Wang, W.-Q. Huang, X.-F. Li, and X. Zhai, “A simple design of a broadband, polarization-insensitive, and low-conductivity alloy metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 082601 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Yoo and S. Lim, “Active metasurface for controlling reflection and absorption properties,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 112204 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.Z. Ho, B.H. Cheng, W.-L. Hsu, C.-M. Wang, and D.P. Tsai, “Anomalous reflection from metasurfaces with gradient phase distribution below 2π,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 072502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Yang, D. Gao, H. Su, Z. Wang, Z. Lei, J. Fan, and M. Man, “To go into hiding on camouflage meta-surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 211602 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Z. Lei Mei, W. Ru Zhang, F. Yang, and T. Jun Cui, “An ultrathin directional carpet cloak based on generalized Snell’s law,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 151115 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (3)

S.V. Hum and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Reconfigurable reflect arrays and array lenses for dynamic antenna beam control: A review,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 62, 183–198 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Munson, “Conformal microstrip antennas and microstrip phased arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 22, 74–78 (1974).
[Crossref]

S. Raffaelli, Z. Sipus, and P.-S. Kildal, “Analysis and measurements of conformal patch array antennas on multilayer circular cylinder,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 1105–1113 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M.A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (2)

K. Zhang, X. Ding, L. Zhang, and Q. Wu, “Anomalous three-dimensional refraction in the microwave region by ultra-thin high efficiency metalens with phase discontinuities in orthogonal directions,” New J. Phys. 16, 103020 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Soric, P. Chen, A. Kerkhoff, D. Rainwater, K. Melin, and A. Alù, “Demonstration of an ultralow profile cloak for scattering suppression of a finite-length rod in free space,” New J. Phys. 15, 033037 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alu, “Mantle cloaking using thin patterned metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205110 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Orazbayev, N.M. Estakhri, M. Beruete, and A. Alù, “Terahertz carpet cloak based on a ring resonator metasurface,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 195444 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 075142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

M. Kim, A.M. Wong, and G.V. Eleftheriades, “Optical Huygens’ metasurfaces with independent control of the magnitude and phase of the local reflection coefficients,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 041042 (2014).

Proc. IRE (1)

R.F. Harrington and W.R. Lepage, “Directional antenna arrays of elements circularly disposed about a cylindrical reflector,” Proc. IRE 40, 83–86 (1952).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Cheng, S. Jafar-Zanjani, and H. Mosallaei, “All-dielectric ultrathin conformal metasurfaces: lensing and cloaking applications at 532 nm wavelength,” Sci. Rep. 6, 38440 (2016).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

X. Ni, Z.J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349, 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M.A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science Advances (1)

A. Díaz-Rubio, V.S. Asadchy, A. Elsakka, and S.A. Tretyakov, “From the generalized reflection law to the realization of perfect anomalous reflectors,” Science Advances 3, e1602714 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J.D. Kraus and R.J. Marhefka, Antennas: For All Applications (McGraw-Hill, 2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Ray analysis from the convex reflectors and phase distributions over the corresponding meta-surfaces to generate highly directive radiations at 20 GHz. (a) Ray tracing from bare convex ground and the convex curvature loaded with meta-surface. (b) The phase distributions over the spherical meta-surface with the focal length chosen as 90 mm. (c) The phase distributions over the cylindrical meta-surface with the focal length chosen as 60 mm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Configurations of the meta-surface based convex reflectors and the relationships between the reflecting phases and the structural dimensions of the subwavelength ring patches at 20 GHz. (a) The umbrella-shape convex reflector with meta-surface of subwavelength circular ring patches. (b) The polygon prism convex reflector with meta-surface of subwavelength rectangular ring patches. (c) The unit cell of the subwavelength circular ring patch and the corresponding phase simulation model. (d) The unit cell of the subwavelength rectangular ring patch and the corresponding phase simulation model. (e) The relationships between the reflecting phases and the subwavelength circular ring patches with structural parameters R and W1 when considering the different incident angles. (f) The relationships between the reflecting phases and the subwavelength rectangular ring patches with structural parameters D and W2 when considering the different incident angles. We choose L=2D for simplification.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Radiation performances of the convex reflectors with and without meta-surfaces, feeding by a standard WR51 waveguide. (a) Far-fields of the umbrella-shape reflector with meta-surface. (b) Far-fields of the polygon prism reflector with meta-surface. (c) Far-fields of the umbrella-shape reflector without meta-surface. (d) Far-fields of the polygon prism reflector without meta-surface. (e) Bandwidth properties of the umbrella-shape reflector with meta-surface. (f) Bandwidth properties of the polygon prism reflector with meta-surface.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Beam steering performances from the meta-surface based convex reflectors with off-axis feeding. Normalized E-field distributions through the proposed reflectors at 20 GHz with the WR51 waveguide source at the focal point [(a), (e)], 10 mm [(b), (f)], 20 mm [(c), (g)], and 30 mm [(d), (h)] off-axis displacement from the focal point. The E-fields are normalized by 400 V/m for the umbrella-shape reflector [(a), (b), (c), and (d)] and 600 V/m for the polygon prism reflector [(e), (f), (g), and (h)], respectively. (i) Far-field radiations for the umbrella-shape reflector with off-axis feeding. (j) Far-field radiations for the polygon prism reflector with off-axis feeding.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The manufactured photos and the measured radiation performances of the umbrella-shape and polygon prism convex reflectors. (a) The umbrella-shape reflector with metasurface. (b) The polygon prism reflector with meta-surface. (c) The measured far-fields of the umbrella-shape reflector with meta-surface. (d) The measured far-fields of the polygon prism reflector with meta-surface. (e) The measured reflection coefficients of the umbrella-shape reflector with meta-surface. (f) The measured reflection coefficients of the polygon prism reflector with meta-surface.

Equations (2)

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φ ( SP 1 ) + φ ( P 1 ) + φ ( P 1 A ) = φ ( SP 2 ) + φ ( P 2 ) + φ ( P 2 B ) = φ ref φ s
φ ( x , y ) = k ( r + f r 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) + ( x 2 + y 2 ) + ( r + f r 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) ) 2 )

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