Abstract

Development of continuous wave (CW) sources has recently advanced in various frequencies of the terahertz waveband. However, there are few materials suitable for the terahertz waveband, and attractive materials are eagerly awaited. Metamaterials with artificial sub-wavelength structures would enable designs with an arbitrary refractive index including negative values providing simultaneous control of dielectric and magnetic properties. Here, measurements demonstrate that a simple metasurface, a two-dimensional metamaterial, consisting of asymmetrical metal patches on the front and back of a dielectric substrate has a negative refractive index of −3.03 + j0.29, transmission of 56.4%, and reflection of 3.51% at 1.96 THz. The metasurface would offer attractive optical components such as super lenses, ultrathin collimators, and cloaking.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2018 (1)

2017 (3)

Y. Zhai, Y. Ma, S. N. David, D. Zhao, R. Lou, G. Tan, R. Yang, and X. Yin, “Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling,” Science 355(6329), 1062–1066 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Wade, N. Šibalić, N. R. de Melo, J. M. Kondo, C. S. Adams, and K. J. Weatherill, “Real-time near-field terahertz imaging with atomic optical fluorescence,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 40–43 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, A. Ito, M. Hitaka, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Low-threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation of a terahertz difference-frequency quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(8), 082102 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

T. Miyamoto, A. Yamaguchi, and T. Mukai, “Terahertz imaging system with resonant tunneling diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(3), 032201 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Maekawa, H. Kanaya, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Oscillation up to 1.92 THz in resonant tunneling diode by reduced conduction loss,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 024101 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Nagatsuma, G. Ducournau, and C. C. Renaud, “Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 371–379 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, M. Yamanishi, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Ultra-broadband room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference frequency generation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16357–16365 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

M. Razeghi, Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, W. Zhou, D. Heydari, Y. Bai, and S. Slivken, “Quantum cascade lasers: from tool to product,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8462–8475 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, S. Jung, and M. A. Belkin, “Terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with a dual-upper-state active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kanaya, T. Maekawa, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Structure dependence of oscillation characteristics of resonant-tunneling-diode terahertz oscillators associated with intrinsic and extrinsic delay times,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(9), 094103 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Kan, A. Isozaki, N. Kanda, N. Nemoto, K. Konishi, H. Takahashi, M. K. -Gonokami, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, “Enantiomeric switching of chiral metamaterial for terahertz polarization modulation employing vertically deformable MEMS spirals,” Nat. Commun. 6(8422), 1–7 (2015).

S. Tan, F. Yan, L. Singh, W. Cao, N. Xu, X. Hu, R. Singh, M. Wang, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz metasurfaces with a high refractive index enhanced by the strong nearest neighbor coupling,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29222–29230 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kishi, M. Nagai, J. C. Young, K. Takano, M. Hangyo, and T. Suzuki, “Terahertz laminated-structure polarizer with high extinction ratio and transmission power,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032201 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

T. Tani, S. Hakuta, N. Kiyoto, and M. Naya, “Transparent near-infrared reflector metasurface with randomly dispersed silver nanodisks,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9262–9270 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhu, F. Xiao, M. Kang, D. Sikdar, and M. Premaratne, “Tunable terahertz left-handed metamaterial based on multi-layer graphene-dielectric composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q.-L. Zhang, L.-M. Si, Y. Huang, X. Lv, and W. Zhu, “Low-index-metamaterial for gain enhancement of planar terahertz antenna,” AIP Adv. 4(3), 037103 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

K. Takano, Y. Yakiyama, K. Shibuya, K. Izumi, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, F. Miyamaru, H. Kitahara, and M. Hangyo, “Fabrication and performance of TiO2-ceramic-based metamaterials for terahertz frequency range,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 812–819 (2013).

C.-L. Chang, W.-C. Wang, H.-R. Lin, F. Ju Hsieh, Y.-B. Pun, and C.-H. Chan, “Tunable terahertz fishnet metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151903 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(2021), 2021 (2013).
[PubMed]

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fan, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Geng, G. R. Keiser, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically tunable terahertz metamaterials on highly flexible substrates,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 702–708 (2013).

2012 (2)

N. I. Zheludev and Y. S. Kivshar, “From metamaterials to metadevices,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 917–924 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1151), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(7), 073901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Paul, B. Reinhard, B. Krolla, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Gradient index metamaterial based on slot elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 241110 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gu, J. Han, X. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

2006 (2)

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Lagarkov and V. N. Kissel, “Near-perfect imaging in a focusing system based on a left-handed-material plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(7), 077401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adams, C. S.

C. G. Wade, N. Šibalić, N. R. de Melo, J. M. Kondo, C. S. Adams, and K. J. Weatherill, “Real-time near-field terahertz imaging with atomic optical fluorescence,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 40–43 (2017).
[Crossref]

Amann, M. C.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(2021), 2021 (2013).
[PubMed]

Asada, M.

T. Maekawa, H. Kanaya, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Oscillation up to 1.92 THz in resonant tunneling diode by reduced conduction loss,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 024101 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Kanaya, T. Maekawa, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Structure dependence of oscillation characteristics of resonant-tunneling-diode terahertz oscillators associated with intrinsic and extrinsic delay times,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(9), 094103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

K. Fan, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Geng, G. R. Keiser, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically tunable terahertz metamaterials on highly flexible substrates,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 702–708 (2013).

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Awad, M.

Azad, A. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(2021), 2021 (2013).
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K. Fujita, A. Ito, M. Hitaka, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Low-threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation of a terahertz difference-frequency quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(8), 082102 (2017).
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Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
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Lin, H.-R.

C.-L. Chang, W.-C. Wang, H.-R. Lin, F. Ju Hsieh, Y.-B. Pun, and C.-H. Chan, “Tunable terahertz fishnet metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151903 (2013).
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Liu, G.

Liu, X.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1151), 1151 (2012).
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Y. Zhai, Y. Ma, S. N. David, D. Zhao, R. Lou, G. Tan, R. Yang, and X. Yin, “Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling,” Science 355(6329), 1062–1066 (2017).
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Lu, X.

Lv, X.

Q.-L. Zhang, L.-M. Si, Y. Huang, X. Lv, and W. Zhu, “Low-index-metamaterial for gain enhancement of planar terahertz antenna,” AIP Adv. 4(3), 037103 (2014).
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Y. Zhai, Y. Ma, S. N. David, D. Zhao, R. Lou, G. Tan, R. Yang, and X. Yin, “Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling,” Science 355(6329), 1062–1066 (2017).
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J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1151), 1151 (2012).
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T. Maekawa, H. Kanaya, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Oscillation up to 1.92 THz in resonant tunneling diode by reduced conduction loss,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 024101 (2016).
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H. Kanaya, T. Maekawa, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Structure dependence of oscillation characteristics of resonant-tunneling-diode terahertz oscillators associated with intrinsic and extrinsic delay times,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(9), 094103 (2015).
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Maier, S. A.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1151), 1151 (2012).
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Matsumoto, K.

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Metcalfe, G. D.

K. Fan, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Geng, G. R. Keiser, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically tunable terahertz metamaterials on highly flexible substrates,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 702–708 (2013).

Miyamaru, F.

K. Takano, Y. Yakiyama, K. Shibuya, K. Izumi, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, F. Miyamaru, H. Kitahara, and M. Hangyo, “Fabrication and performance of TiO2-ceramic-based metamaterials for terahertz frequency range,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 812–819 (2013).

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T. Miyamoto, A. Yamaguchi, and T. Mukai, “Terahertz imaging system with resonant tunneling diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(3), 032201 (2016).
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K. Takano, Y. Yakiyama, K. Shibuya, K. Izumi, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, F. Miyamaru, H. Kitahara, and M. Hangyo, “Fabrication and performance of TiO2-ceramic-based metamaterials for terahertz frequency range,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 812–819 (2013).

Moser, H. O.

Mukai, T.

T. Miyamoto, A. Yamaguchi, and T. Mukai, “Terahertz imaging system with resonant tunneling diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(3), 032201 (2016).
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Nagai, M.

Y. Kishi, M. Nagai, J. C. Young, K. Takano, M. Hangyo, and T. Suzuki, “Terahertz laminated-structure polarizer with high extinction ratio and transmission power,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032201 (2015).
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T. Nagatsuma, G. Ducournau, and C. C. Renaud, “Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 371–379 (2016).
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Naya, M.

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
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T. Kan, A. Isozaki, N. Kanda, N. Nemoto, K. Konishi, H. Takahashi, M. K. -Gonokami, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, “Enantiomeric switching of chiral metamaterial for terahertz polarization modulation employing vertically deformable MEMS spirals,” Nat. Commun. 6(8422), 1–7 (2015).

O’Hara, J. F.

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(7), 073901 (2010).
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H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
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Pacheco, J.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
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Padilla, W. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
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H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
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H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
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H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
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W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
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H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
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T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
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D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
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O. Paul, B. Reinhard, B. Krolla, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Gradient index metamaterial based on slot elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 241110 (2010).
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P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
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O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Reinhard, R. Zengerle, and R. Beigang, “Negative index bulk metamaterial at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6736–6744 (2008).
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Pendry, J. B.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
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W. Zhu, F. Xiao, M. Kang, D. Sikdar, and M. Premaratne, “Tunable terahertz left-handed metamaterial based on multi-layer graphene-dielectric composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051902 (2014).
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Pun, Y.-B.

C.-L. Chang, W.-C. Wang, H.-R. Lin, F. Ju Hsieh, Y.-B. Pun, and C.-H. Chan, “Tunable terahertz fishnet metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151903 (2013).
[Crossref]

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O. Paul, B. Reinhard, B. Krolla, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Gradient index metamaterial based on slot elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 241110 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Razeghi, M.

Reinhard, B.

O. Paul, B. Reinhard, B. Krolla, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Gradient index metamaterial based on slot elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 241110 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Reinhard, R. Zengerle, and R. Beigang, “Negative index bulk metamaterial at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6736–6744 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Renaud, C. C.

T. Nagatsuma, G. Ducournau, and C. C. Renaud, “Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 371–379 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Seren, H. R.

K. Fan, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Geng, G. R. Keiser, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically tunable terahertz metamaterials on highly flexible substrates,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 702–708 (2013).

Shibuya, K.

K. Takano, Y. Yakiyama, K. Shibuya, K. Izumi, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, F. Miyamaru, H. Kitahara, and M. Hangyo, “Fabrication and performance of TiO2-ceramic-based metamaterials for terahertz frequency range,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 812–819 (2013).

Shimoyama, I.

T. Kan, A. Isozaki, N. Kanda, N. Nemoto, K. Konishi, H. Takahashi, M. K. -Gonokami, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, “Enantiomeric switching of chiral metamaterial for terahertz polarization modulation employing vertically deformable MEMS spirals,” Nat. Commun. 6(8422), 1–7 (2015).

Shrekenhamer, D. B.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Q.-L. Zhang, L.-M. Si, Y. Huang, X. Lv, and W. Zhu, “Low-index-metamaterial for gain enhancement of planar terahertz antenna,” AIP Adv. 4(3), 037103 (2014).
[Crossref]

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C. G. Wade, N. Šibalić, N. R. de Melo, J. M. Kondo, C. S. Adams, and K. J. Weatherill, “Real-time near-field terahertz imaging with atomic optical fluorescence,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 40–43 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sikdar, D.

W. Zhu, F. Xiao, M. Kang, D. Sikdar, and M. Premaratne, “Tunable terahertz left-handed metamaterial based on multi-layer graphene-dielectric composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051902 (2014).
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Singh, R.

Slivken, S.

Smith, D. R.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

Strikwerda, A. C.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suzuki, S.

T. Maekawa, H. Kanaya, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Oscillation up to 1.92 THz in resonant tunneling diode by reduced conduction loss,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 024101 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Kanaya, T. Maekawa, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Structure dependence of oscillation characteristics of resonant-tunneling-diode terahertz oscillators associated with intrinsic and extrinsic delay times,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(9), 094103 (2015).
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Suzuki, T.

T. Suzuki, M. Sekiya, T. Sato, and Y. Takebayashi, “Negative Refractive Index Metamaterial with High Transmission, Low Reflection, and Low Loss in the Terahertz Waveband,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8314–8324 (2018).
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Y. Kishi, M. Nagai, J. C. Young, K. Takano, M. Hangyo, and T. Suzuki, “Terahertz laminated-structure polarizer with high extinction ratio and transmission power,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, H.

T. Kan, A. Isozaki, N. Kanda, N. Nemoto, K. Konishi, H. Takahashi, M. K. -Gonokami, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, “Enantiomeric switching of chiral metamaterial for terahertz polarization modulation employing vertically deformable MEMS spirals,” Nat. Commun. 6(8422), 1–7 (2015).

Takano, K.

Y. Kishi, M. Nagai, J. C. Young, K. Takano, M. Hangyo, and T. Suzuki, “Terahertz laminated-structure polarizer with high extinction ratio and transmission power,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032201 (2015).
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K. Takano, Y. Yakiyama, K. Shibuya, K. Izumi, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, F. Miyamaru, H. Kitahara, and M. Hangyo, “Fabrication and performance of TiO2-ceramic-based metamaterials for terahertz frequency range,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 812–819 (2013).

Takebayashi, Y.

Tan, G.

Y. Zhai, Y. Ma, S. N. David, D. Zhao, R. Lou, G. Tan, R. Yang, and X. Yin, “Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling,” Science 355(6329), 1062–1066 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, S.

Tani, T.

Tao, H.

Taylor, A. J.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1151), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(7), 073901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, Z.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1151), 1151 (2012).
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J. Gu, J. Han, X. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
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Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
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K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(2021), 2021 (2013).
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Vizbaras, A.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(2021), 2021 (2013).
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Wade, C. G.

C. G. Wade, N. Šibalić, N. R. de Melo, J. M. Kondo, C. S. Adams, and K. J. Weatherill, “Real-time near-field terahertz imaging with atomic optical fluorescence,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 40–43 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

Wang, W.-C.

C.-L. Chang, W.-C. Wang, H.-R. Lin, F. Ju Hsieh, Y.-B. Pun, and C.-H. Chan, “Tunable terahertz fishnet metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151903 (2013).
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Weatherill, K. J.

C. G. Wade, N. Šibalić, N. R. de Melo, J. M. Kondo, C. S. Adams, and K. J. Weatherill, “Real-time near-field terahertz imaging with atomic optical fluorescence,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 40–43 (2017).
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Weis, P.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wen, L.

Wraback, M.

K. Fan, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Geng, G. R. Keiser, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically tunable terahertz metamaterials on highly flexible substrates,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 702–708 (2013).

Wu, B. I.

Wu, B.-I.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
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Xiao, F.

W. Zhu, F. Xiao, M. Kang, D. Sikdar, and M. Premaratne, “Tunable terahertz left-handed metamaterial based on multi-layer graphene-dielectric composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051902 (2014).
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Xing, Q.

Xu, N.

Yakiyama, Y.

K. Takano, Y. Yakiyama, K. Shibuya, K. Izumi, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, F. Miyamaru, H. Kitahara, and M. Hangyo, “Fabrication and performance of TiO2-ceramic-based metamaterials for terahertz frequency range,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 812–819 (2013).

Yamaguchi, A.

T. Miyamoto, A. Yamaguchi, and T. Mukai, “Terahertz imaging system with resonant tunneling diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(3), 032201 (2016).
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K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, M. Yamanishi, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Ultra-broadband room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference frequency generation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16357–16365 (2016).
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K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, S. Jung, and M. A. Belkin, “Terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with a dual-upper-state active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251104 (2015).
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Yan, F.

Yang, R.

Y. Zhai, Y. Ma, S. N. David, D. Zhao, R. Lou, G. Tan, R. Yang, and X. Yin, “Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling,” Science 355(6329), 1062–1066 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
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Yin, X.

Y. Zhai, Y. Ma, S. N. David, D. Zhao, R. Lou, G. Tan, R. Yang, and X. Yin, “Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling,” Science 355(6329), 1062–1066 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, J. C.

Y. Kishi, M. Nagai, J. C. Young, K. Takano, M. Hangyo, and T. Suzuki, “Terahertz laminated-structure polarizer with high extinction ratio and transmission power,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Y.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zengerle, R.

Zhai, Y.

Y. Zhai, Y. Ma, S. N. David, D. Zhao, R. Lou, G. Tan, R. Yang, and X. Yin, “Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling,” Science 355(6329), 1062–1066 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

K. Fan, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Geng, G. R. Keiser, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically tunable terahertz metamaterials on highly flexible substrates,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 702–708 (2013).

Zhang, Q.-L.

Q.-L. Zhang, L.-M. Si, Y. Huang, X. Lv, and W. Zhu, “Low-index-metamaterial for gain enhancement of planar terahertz antenna,” AIP Adv. 4(3), 037103 (2014).
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Zhang, S.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1151), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

K. Fan, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Geng, G. R. Keiser, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically tunable terahertz metamaterials on highly flexible substrates,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 702–708 (2013).

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1151), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
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T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, D.

Y. Zhai, Y. Ma, S. N. David, D. Zhao, R. Lou, G. Tan, R. Yang, and X. Yin, “Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling,” Science 355(6329), 1062–1066 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, X.

K. Fan, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Geng, G. R. Keiser, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically tunable terahertz metamaterials on highly flexible substrates,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 702–708 (2013).

Zheludev, N. I.

N. I. Zheludev and Y. S. Kivshar, “From metamaterials to metadevices,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 917–924 (2012).
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Zhou, J.

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(7), 073901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, W.

Zhu, W.

Q.-L. Zhang, L.-M. Si, Y. Huang, X. Lv, and W. Zhu, “Low-index-metamaterial for gain enhancement of planar terahertz antenna,” AIP Adv. 4(3), 037103 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Zhu, F. Xiao, M. Kang, D. Sikdar, and M. Premaratne, “Tunable terahertz left-handed metamaterial based on multi-layer graphene-dielectric composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051902 (2014).
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Zide, J. M. O.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
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AIP Adv. (1)

Q.-L. Zhang, L.-M. Si, Y. Huang, X. Lv, and W. Zhu, “Low-index-metamaterial for gain enhancement of planar terahertz antenna,” AIP Adv. 4(3), 037103 (2014).
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Appl. Phys. Express (3)

T. Maekawa, H. Kanaya, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Oscillation up to 1.92 THz in resonant tunneling diode by reduced conduction loss,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 024101 (2016).
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K. Fujita, A. Ito, M. Hitaka, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Low-threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation of a terahertz difference-frequency quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(8), 082102 (2017).
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Y. Kishi, M. Nagai, J. C. Young, K. Takano, M. Hangyo, and T. Suzuki, “Terahertz laminated-structure polarizer with high extinction ratio and transmission power,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032201 (2015).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

O. Paul, B. Reinhard, B. Krolla, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Gradient index metamaterial based on slot elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 241110 (2010).
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K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, S. Jung, and M. A. Belkin, “Terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with a dual-upper-state active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251104 (2015).
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C.-L. Chang, W.-C. Wang, H.-R. Lin, F. Ju Hsieh, Y.-B. Pun, and C.-H. Chan, “Tunable terahertz fishnet metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151903 (2013).
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W. Zhu, F. Xiao, M. Kang, D. Sikdar, and M. Premaratne, “Tunable terahertz left-handed metamaterial based on multi-layer graphene-dielectric composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051902 (2014).
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P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
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IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. (2)

K. Takano, Y. Yakiyama, K. Shibuya, K. Izumi, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, F. Miyamaru, H. Kitahara, and M. Hangyo, “Fabrication and performance of TiO2-ceramic-based metamaterials for terahertz frequency range,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 812–819 (2013).

K. Fan, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Geng, G. R. Keiser, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically tunable terahertz metamaterials on highly flexible substrates,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 702–708 (2013).

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T. Miyamoto, A. Yamaguchi, and T. Mukai, “Terahertz imaging system with resonant tunneling diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(3), 032201 (2016).
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H. Kanaya, T. Maekawa, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Structure dependence of oscillation characteristics of resonant-tunneling-diode terahertz oscillators associated with intrinsic and extrinsic delay times,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(9), 094103 (2015).
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Nat. Commun. (3)

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(2021), 2021 (2013).
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J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1151), 1151 (2012).
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T. Kan, A. Isozaki, N. Kanda, N. Nemoto, K. Konishi, H. Takahashi, M. K. -Gonokami, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, “Enantiomeric switching of chiral metamaterial for terahertz polarization modulation employing vertically deformable MEMS spirals,” Nat. Commun. 6(8422), 1–7 (2015).

Nat. Mater. (1)

N. I. Zheludev and Y. S. Kivshar, “From metamaterials to metadevices,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 917–924 (2012).
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Nat. Photonics (4)

T. Nagatsuma, G. Ducournau, and C. C. Renaud, “Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 371–379 (2016).
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C. G. Wade, N. Šibalić, N. R. de Melo, J. M. Kondo, C. S. Adams, and K. J. Weatherill, “Real-time near-field terahertz imaging with atomic optical fluorescence,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 40–43 (2017).
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H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
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H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
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Nature (1)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
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Opt. Express (10)

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
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M. Razeghi, Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, W. Zhou, D. Heydari, Y. Bai, and S. Slivken, “Quantum cascade lasers: from tool to product,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8462–8475 (2015).
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K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, M. Yamanishi, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Ultra-broadband room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference frequency generation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16357–16365 (2016).
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O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Reinhard, R. Zengerle, and R. Beigang, “Negative index bulk metamaterial at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6736–6744 (2008).
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T. F. Gundogdu, N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, R. S. Penciu, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index short-slab pair and continuous wires metamaterials in the far infrared regime,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9173–9180 (2008).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
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H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(7), 073901 (2010).
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D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
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H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
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Science (3)

Y. Zhai, Y. Ma, S. N. David, D. Zhao, R. Lou, G. Tan, R. Yang, and X. Yin, “Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling,” Science 355(6329), 1062–1066 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Metasurface with a negative refractive index consisting of meta-atoms on the front and back of a dielectric substrate. (b) Enlarged view of a metasurface consisting of asymmetrically aligned metal patches.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Equivalent circuits of symmetrically and asymmetrically aligned metal patches at a dielectric resonance frequency. (b) Equivalent circuits of symmetrically and asymmetrically aligned metal patches at a magnetic resonance frequency.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Frequency characteristics of (a) refractive index, (b) relative permittivity, and (c) relative permeability for the metasurface consisting of the symmetrically aligned metal patches. Frequency characteristics of (d) refractive index, (e) relative permittivity, and (f) relative permeability for the metasurface consisting of the asymmetrically aligned metal patches.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Unit-cell model of the metasurface for the derivation of the optimized parameters.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Contour maps of (a) the real part of the refractive index, (b) the imaginary part of the refractive index, (c) the transmission, and (d) the reflection at 1.96 THz.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Photograph of the fabricated metasurface with a negative refractive index consisting of asymmetrically aligned paired metal patches. (b) Laser microscopic image of the fabricated asymmetrically aligned paired metal patches.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measurements and simulations of frequency characteristics for (a) the real and imaginary parts of the refractive indices, (b) the real and imaginary parts of the relative permittivity, and (c) the real and imaginary parts of the relative permeability.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Frequency characteristics of (a) dielectric energy loss and magnetic energy loss and (b) the sum of the dielectric and magnetic energy losses.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters of the metal patches

Equations (4)

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f = 1 2 π L C
n = Im [ ln ( e j n k 0 ( d + 2 t ) ) ] + 2 m π j Re [ ln e j n k 0 ( d + 2 t ) ] k 0 ( d + 2 t )
e j n k 0 ( d + 2 t ) = S 21 1 S 11 Z r 1 Z r + 1
Z r = ± ( 1 + S 11 ) 2 S 2 21 ( 1 S 11 ) 2 S 2 21

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