Abstract

The effect of Nd3+ co-doping as sensitizer and deactivator to the Er3+ ion for enhancing ~2.7 μm emissions under 808nm LD pump was first studied in the Er/Nd co-doped PbF2 crystal. The Er0.01Nd0.02Pb0.97F2 crystal has been successfully grown by the Bridgman method, and the crystals’ fluorescence emission properties and energy transfer mechanisms of series crystals were investigated. It can be seen that through the Nd3+ ion, the lower energy level of Er3+: 4I13/2 has been depopulated, and the upper energy level of Er3+: 4I11/2 has been populated at the same time. Simultaneously, the energy transfer efficiency from the Er3+: 4I13/2 level to the Nd3+: 4I15/2 level is 84.06%, and from the Nd3+: 4F3/2 level to the Er3+: 4I11/2 level is 55.81%, respectively, which indicate that the Nd3+ ion is an effective deactivator and sensitizer ion for enhancing the ~2.7 μm emission in Er/Nd: PbF2 crystal. These advantages suggest that the Er/Nd: PbF2 crystal may be a potential material for ~2.7 μm mid-infrared lasers under the 808 nm LD pump.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

W. C. Wang, B. Zhou, S. H. Xu, Z. M. Yang, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Recent advances in soft optical glass fiber and fiber laser,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 101, 90–171 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

R. Wang, X. Huang, Y. Wang, R. Huang, P. Zhang, S. Zhu, Y. Hao, Z. Chen, Z. Yi, and G. Zhou, “Intense 3.9 µm emission of Ho3+ doped YAlO3 single crystal,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 88, 97–101 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Zhu, and C. Tu, “Growth, structure and spectroscopic properties of melilite Er: CaLaGa3O7 crystal for use in mid-infrared laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 706, 387–394 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Huang, T. Wang, Y. Guo, R. Lei, and S. Xu, “Positive influence of Tm3+ on effective Er3+: 3μm emission in fluoride glass under 980 nm excitation. Infrared,” Phys. Techn. 82, 120–125 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

Y. Shao, Q. Yang, Y. Gui, Y. Yuan, and Q. Lu, “Spectroscopic properties of Er/Nd co-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide transparent ceramics pumped at 980 nm,” J. Alloys Compd. 667, 76–81 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Ma, L. Su, X. Xu, J. Wang, D. Jiang, L. Zheng, X. Fan, C. Li, J. Liu, and J. Xu, “Effect of erbium concentration on spectroscopic properties and 2.79 μm laser performance of Er: CaF2 crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(2), 409–415 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

P. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Hong, L. Zhang, J. He, and Y. Hang, “Enhanced emission of 2.86 μm from diode-pumped Ho(3+)/Yb(3+)-codoped PbF(2) crystal,” Opt. Express 23(4), 3920–3927 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Luo, Z. Guan, Z. He, W. Huang, W. Zhang, R. Niu, C. Yao, Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Zhang, “Investigation on growth and defects of Ho3+: BaY2F8 crystals grown by Czochralski method,” J. Alloys Compd. 648, 803–808 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, Z. Bi, J. Chen, A. Huang, Y. Zhu, B. Chen, and Z. Xiao, “Spectroscopic investigation of Er3+ in fluorotellurite glasses for 2.7μm luminescence,” J. Alloys Compd. 649, 1191–1196 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

J. Zhang, E. Cassan, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced mid-to-near-infrared second harmonic generation in silicon plasmonic microring resonators with low pump power,” Photon. Res. 2(5), 143–149 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhan, A. Zhang, J. He, Z. Zhou, L. Li, T. Shi, X. Xiao, J. Si, and A. Lin, “Enhanced 2.7 μm emission of Er/Pr-codoped water-free fluortellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 582, 742–746 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Zhang, J. Yin, B. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Hong, J. He, and Y. Hang, “Intense 2.8 μm emission of Ho3+ doped PbF2 single crystal,” Opt. Lett. 39(13), 3942–3945 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, F. Song, G. Zhang, Y. Han, Q. Li, C. Ming, and J. Tian, “Upconversion and pump saturation mechanisms in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Y2Ti2O7 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(13), 134310 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

F. Huang, Y. Guo, Y. Ma, L. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “Highly Er(3+)-doped ZrF4-based fluoride glasses for 2.7 μm laser materials,” Appl. Opt. 52(7), 1399–1403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wang, X. Meng, F. Yin, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Heavily erbium-doped low-hydroxyl fluorotellurite glasses for 2.7μm laser applications,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1127–1136 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Li, X. Liu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Emission enhancement in Er3+/Pr3+-co-doped germanate glasses and their use as a 2.7-mm laser material,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(12), 121601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, Y. Ma, F. Huang, Y. Peng, L. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “2.7 μm emission properties of Er3+ doped tungsten-tellurite glass sensitized by Yb3+ ions,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 111, 150–153 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yuan, S. X. Shen, D. D. Chen, Q. Qian, M. Y. Peng, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Efficient 2.0μm emission in Nd3+/Ho3+ co-doped tungsten tellurite glasses for a diode-pump 2.0 μm laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 113(17), 173507 (2013).

2012 (4)

Y. Guo, M. Li, L. Hu, J. Zhang, Y. Guo, M. Li, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Effect of fluorine ions on 2.7 μm emission in Er3+/Nd(3+)-codoped fluorotellurite glass,” J. Phys. Chem. A 116(23), 5571–5576 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zhang, Y. Hang, and L. Zhang, “Deactivation effects of the lowest excited state of Ho3+ at 2.9 μm emission introduced by Pr3+ ions in LiLuF4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5241–5243 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Li, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Efficient high-power continuous wave Er:Lu2O3 laser at 2.85 μm,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2568–2570 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Fluorescence properties and energy transfer study of Er3+/Nd3+ doped fluorophosphate glass pumped at 800 and 980nm for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073503 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Observation of 2.7 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+/Pr3+-codoped fluorophosphate glass,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 109–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, L. Su, H. Li, L. Zheng, X. Guo, D. Jiang, H. Zhao, J. Xu, W. Ryba-Romanowski, P. Solarz, and R. Lisiecki, “Optical spectra and excited state relaxation dynamics of Nd3+ in CaF2 single crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(36), 8880–8884 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yin, Y. Hang, X. He, L. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Hu, and J. Gong, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Yb-doped and Yb, Na-codoped PbF2 laser crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(23), 6567–6570 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

H. Desirena, E. De la Rosa, L. A. Dı’az-Torres, and G. A. Kumar, “Concentration effect of Er3+ ion on the spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped phosphate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(5), 560–568 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

D. K. Sardar, W. M. Bradley, J. J. Perez, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, C. W. Trussell, and M. R. Kokta, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of the Er3+ (4f11) absorption intensities in Er3+− doped garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2602–2607 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguilo, and F. Dıaz, “Yb sensitising of Er3+ up-conversion emission in KGd (WO4) 2: Er: Yb single crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 323, 362–366 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-co-doped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 62(2), 856–864 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

D. W. Chen, C. L. Fincher, T. S. Rose, F. L. Vernon, and R. A. Fields, “Diode-pumped 1-W continuous-wave Er:YAG 3-mum laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(6), 385–387 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sandrock, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “Laser emission of erbium-doped fluoride bulk glasses in the spectral range from 2.7 to 2.8 mum,” Opt. Lett. 24(6), 382–384 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. F. de Sousa, L. F. C. Zonetti, M. J. V. Bell, J. A. Sampaio, L. A. O. Nunes, M. L. Baesso, A. C. Bento, and L. C. M. Miranda, “On the observation of 2.8μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+-and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 908–910 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

1991 (2)

H. Yanagita, H. Toratani, T. Yamashita, and I. Masuda, “Diode-pumped Er3+ glass laser at 2.7um,” Proc. SPIE. 1513, Glasses for Optoelectronics II, 386–395 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. Hubert, D. Meichenin, B. W. Zhou, and F. Auzel, “Emission properties oscillator strenghts and laser parameters of Er3+ in LiYF4 at 2.7μm,” J. Lumin. 50(1), 7–15 (1991).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

M. Shinn, W. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, and R. N. Brown, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 27(11), 6635–6648 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd: YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE. J. Quant. Electron. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

S. E. Hatch, W. F. Parsons, and R. J. Weagley, “Hot‐pressed polycrystalline CaF2: Dy2+ laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5(8), 153–154 (1964).
[Crossref]

1962 (2)

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[Crossref]

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Chalcogenide glass-fiber-based mid-IR sources and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 114–119 (2009).
[Crossref]

Aguilo, M.

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguilo, and F. Dıaz, “Yb sensitising of Er3+ up-conversion emission in KGd (WO4) 2: Er: Yb single crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 323, 362–366 (2001).
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B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd: YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE. J. Quant. Electron. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).
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S. Hubert, D. Meichenin, B. W. Zhou, and F. Auzel, “Emission properties oscillator strenghts and laser parameters of Er3+ in LiYF4 at 2.7μm,” J. Lumin. 50(1), 7–15 (1991).
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D. F. de Sousa, L. F. C. Zonetti, M. J. V. Bell, J. A. Sampaio, L. A. O. Nunes, M. L. Baesso, A. C. Bento, and L. C. M. Miranda, “On the observation of 2.8μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+-and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 908–910 (1999).
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Beil, K.

Bell, M. J. V.

D. F. de Sousa, L. F. C. Zonetti, M. J. V. Bell, J. A. Sampaio, L. A. O. Nunes, M. L. Baesso, A. C. Bento, and L. C. M. Miranda, “On the observation of 2.8μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+-and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 908–910 (1999).
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D. F. de Sousa, L. F. C. Zonetti, M. J. V. Bell, J. A. Sampaio, L. A. O. Nunes, M. L. Baesso, A. C. Bento, and L. C. M. Miranda, “On the observation of 2.8μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+-and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 908–910 (1999).
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Bi, Z.

F. Zhang, Z. Bi, J. Chen, A. Huang, Y. Zhu, B. Chen, and Z. Xiao, “Spectroscopic investigation of Er3+ in fluorotellurite glasses for 2.7μm luminescence,” J. Alloys Compd. 649, 1191–1196 (2015).
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D. K. Sardar, W. M. Bradley, J. J. Perez, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, C. W. Trussell, and M. R. Kokta, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of the Er3+ (4f11) absorption intensities in Er3+− doped garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2602–2607 (2003).
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M. Shinn, W. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, and R. N. Brown, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 27(11), 6635–6648 (1983).
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Cassan, E.

Cassanho, A.

Chai, B. H. T.

Chen, B.

F. Zhang, Z. Bi, J. Chen, A. Huang, Y. Zhu, B. Chen, and Z. Xiao, “Spectroscopic investigation of Er3+ in fluorotellurite glasses for 2.7μm luminescence,” J. Alloys Compd. 649, 1191–1196 (2015).
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Chen, D. W.

Chen, J.

F. Zhang, Z. Bi, J. Chen, A. Huang, Y. Zhu, B. Chen, and Z. Xiao, “Spectroscopic investigation of Er3+ in fluorotellurite glasses for 2.7μm luminescence,” J. Alloys Compd. 649, 1191–1196 (2015).
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Chen, Q. J.

Chen, Z.

R. Wang, X. Huang, Y. Wang, R. Huang, P. Zhang, S. Zhu, Y. Hao, Z. Chen, Z. Yi, and G. Zhou, “Intense 3.9 µm emission of Ho3+ doped YAlO3 single crystal,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 88, 97–101 (2018).
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H. Desirena, E. De la Rosa, L. A. Dı’az-Torres, and G. A. Kumar, “Concentration effect of Er3+ ion on the spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped phosphate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(5), 560–568 (2006).
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de Sousa, D. F.

D. F. de Sousa, L. F. C. Zonetti, M. J. V. Bell, J. A. Sampaio, L. A. O. Nunes, M. L. Baesso, A. C. Bento, and L. C. M. Miranda, “On the observation of 2.8μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+-and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 908–910 (1999).
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H. Desirena, E. De la Rosa, L. A. Dı’az-Torres, and G. A. Kumar, “Concentration effect of Er3+ ion on the spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped phosphate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(5), 560–568 (2006).
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Di’az-Torres, L. A.

H. Desirena, E. De la Rosa, L. A. Dı’az-Torres, and G. A. Kumar, “Concentration effect of Er3+ ion on the spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped phosphate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(5), 560–568 (2006).
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Diaz, F.

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguilo, and F. Dıaz, “Yb sensitising of Er3+ up-conversion emission in KGd (WO4) 2: Er: Yb single crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 323, 362–366 (2001).
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Djeu, N.

Drexhage, M. G.

M. Shinn, W. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, and R. N. Brown, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 27(11), 6635–6648 (1983).
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Fan, X.

Feng, Y.

Fields, R. A.

Fincher, C. L.

Golding, P. S.

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-co-doped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 62(2), 856–864 (2000).
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J. Yin, Y. Hang, X. He, L. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Hu, and J. Gong, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Yb-doped and Yb, Na-codoped PbF2 laser crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(23), 6567–6570 (2011).
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D. K. Sardar, W. M. Bradley, J. J. Perez, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, C. W. Trussell, and M. R. Kokta, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of the Er3+ (4f11) absorption intensities in Er3+− doped garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2602–2607 (2003).
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H. Luo, Z. Guan, Z. He, W. Huang, W. Zhang, R. Niu, C. Yao, Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Zhang, “Investigation on growth and defects of Ho3+: BaY2F8 crystals grown by Czochralski method,” J. Alloys Compd. 648, 803–808 (2015).
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Gui, Y.

Y. Shao, Q. Yang, Y. Gui, Y. Yuan, and Q. Lu, “Spectroscopic properties of Er/Nd co-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide transparent ceramics pumped at 980 nm,” J. Alloys Compd. 667, 76–81 (2016).
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Guo, H.

Guo, X.

Q. Wang, L. Su, H. Li, L. Zheng, X. Guo, D. Jiang, H. Zhao, J. Xu, W. Ryba-Romanowski, P. Solarz, and R. Lisiecki, “Optical spectra and excited state relaxation dynamics of Nd3+ in CaF2 single crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(36), 8880–8884 (2011).
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Guo, Y.

F. Huang, T. Wang, Y. Guo, R. Lei, and S. Xu, “Positive influence of Tm3+ on effective Er3+: 3μm emission in fluoride glass under 980 nm excitation. Infrared,” Phys. Techn. 82, 120–125 (2017).
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Y. Guo, Y. Ma, F. Huang, Y. Peng, L. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “2.7 μm emission properties of Er3+ doped tungsten-tellurite glass sensitized by Yb3+ ions,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 111, 150–153 (2013).
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F. Huang, Y. Guo, Y. Ma, L. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “Highly Er(3+)-doped ZrF4-based fluoride glasses for 2.7 μm laser materials,” Appl. Opt. 52(7), 1399–1403 (2013).
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Y. Guo, M. Li, L. Hu, J. Zhang, Y. Guo, M. Li, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Effect of fluorine ions on 2.7 μm emission in Er3+/Nd(3+)-codoped fluorotellurite glass,” J. Phys. Chem. A 116(23), 5571–5576 (2012).
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Y. Guo, M. Li, L. Hu, J. Zhang, Y. Guo, M. Li, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Effect of fluorine ions on 2.7 μm emission in Er3+/Nd(3+)-codoped fluorotellurite glass,” J. Phys. Chem. A 116(23), 5571–5576 (2012).
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F. Wang, F. Song, G. Zhang, Y. Han, Q. Li, C. Ming, and J. Tian, “Upconversion and pump saturation mechanisms in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Y2Ti2O7 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(13), 134310 (2014).
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Hang, Y.

Hao, Y.

R. Wang, X. Huang, Y. Wang, R. Huang, P. Zhang, S. Zhu, Y. Hao, Z. Chen, Z. Yi, and G. Zhou, “Intense 3.9 µm emission of Ho3+ doped YAlO3 single crystal,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 88, 97–101 (2018).
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Hashida, M.

Hatch, S. E.

S. E. Hatch, W. F. Parsons, and R. J. Weagley, “Hot‐pressed polycrystalline CaF2: Dy2+ laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5(8), 153–154 (1964).
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He, X.

J. Yin, Y. Hang, X. He, L. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Hu, and J. Gong, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Yb-doped and Yb, Na-codoped PbF2 laser crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(23), 6567–6570 (2011).
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He, Z.

H. Luo, Z. Guan, Z. He, W. Huang, W. Zhang, R. Niu, C. Yao, Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Zhang, “Investigation on growth and defects of Ho3+: BaY2F8 crystals grown by Czochralski method,” J. Alloys Compd. 648, 803–808 (2015).
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Hou, C.

Hu, L.

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Y. Guo, M. Li, L. Hu, J. Zhang, Y. Guo, M. Li, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Effect of fluorine ions on 2.7 μm emission in Er3+/Nd(3+)-codoped fluorotellurite glass,” J. Phys. Chem. A 116(23), 5571–5576 (2012).
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Y. Guo, M. Li, L. Hu, J. Zhang, Y. Guo, M. Li, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Effect of fluorine ions on 2.7 μm emission in Er3+/Nd(3+)-codoped fluorotellurite glass,” J. Phys. Chem. A 116(23), 5571–5576 (2012).
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Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Observation of 2.7 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+/Pr3+-codoped fluorophosphate glass,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 109–111 (2011).
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J. Yin, Y. Hang, X. He, L. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Hu, and J. Gong, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Yb-doped and Yb, Na-codoped PbF2 laser crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(23), 6567–6570 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, A.

F. Zhang, Z. Bi, J. Chen, A. Huang, Y. Zhu, B. Chen, and Z. Xiao, “Spectroscopic investigation of Er3+ in fluorotellurite glasses for 2.7μm luminescence,” J. Alloys Compd. 649, 1191–1196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, F.

F. Huang, T. Wang, Y. Guo, R. Lei, and S. Xu, “Positive influence of Tm3+ on effective Er3+: 3μm emission in fluoride glass under 980 nm excitation. Infrared,” Phys. Techn. 82, 120–125 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, Y. Ma, F. Huang, Y. Peng, L. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “2.7 μm emission properties of Er3+ doped tungsten-tellurite glass sensitized by Yb3+ ions,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 111, 150–153 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Huang, Y. Guo, Y. Ma, L. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “Highly Er(3+)-doped ZrF4-based fluoride glasses for 2.7 μm laser materials,” Appl. Opt. 52(7), 1399–1403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, P.

Huang, R.

R. Wang, X. Huang, Y. Wang, R. Huang, P. Zhang, S. Zhu, Y. Hao, Z. Chen, Z. Yi, and G. Zhou, “Intense 3.9 µm emission of Ho3+ doped YAlO3 single crystal,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 88, 97–101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.

H. Luo, Z. Guan, Z. He, W. Huang, W. Zhang, R. Niu, C. Yao, Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Zhang, “Investigation on growth and defects of Ho3+: BaY2F8 crystals grown by Czochralski method,” J. Alloys Compd. 648, 803–808 (2015).
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Huang, X.

R. Wang, X. Huang, Y. Wang, R. Huang, P. Zhang, S. Zhu, Y. Hao, Z. Chen, Z. Yi, and G. Zhou, “Intense 3.9 µm emission of Ho3+ doped YAlO3 single crystal,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 88, 97–101 (2018).
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Huber, G.

Hubert, S.

S. Hubert, D. Meichenin, B. W. Zhou, and F. Auzel, “Emission properties oscillator strenghts and laser parameters of Er3+ in LiYF4 at 2.7μm,” J. Lumin. 50(1), 7–15 (1991).
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D. K. Sardar, W. M. Bradley, J. J. Perez, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, C. W. Trussell, and M. R. Kokta, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of the Er3+ (4f11) absorption intensities in Er3+− doped garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2602–2607 (2003).
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Jackson, S. D.

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-co-doped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 62(2), 856–864 (2000).
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Jensen, T.

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W. Ma, L. Su, X. Xu, J. Wang, D. Jiang, L. Zheng, X. Fan, C. Li, J. Liu, and J. Xu, “Effect of erbium concentration on spectroscopic properties and 2.79 μm laser performance of Er: CaF2 crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(2), 409–415 (2016).
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King, T. A.

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-co-doped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 62(2), 856–864 (2000).
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Kokta, M. R.

D. K. Sardar, W. M. Bradley, J. J. Perez, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, C. W. Trussell, and M. R. Kokta, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of the Er3+ (4f11) absorption intensities in Er3+− doped garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2602–2607 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kränkel, C.

Kumar, G. A.

H. Desirena, E. De la Rosa, L. A. Dı’az-Torres, and G. A. Kumar, “Concentration effect of Er3+ ion on the spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped phosphate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(5), 560–568 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lei, R.

F. Huang, T. Wang, Y. Guo, R. Lei, and S. Xu, “Positive influence of Tm3+ on effective Er3+: 3μm emission in fluoride glass under 980 nm excitation. Infrared,” Phys. Techn. 82, 120–125 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Li, H.

Q. Wang, L. Su, H. Li, L. Zheng, X. Guo, D. Jiang, H. Zhao, J. Xu, W. Ryba-Romanowski, P. Solarz, and R. Lisiecki, “Optical spectra and excited state relaxation dynamics of Nd3+ in CaF2 single crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(36), 8880–8884 (2011).
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Li, J.

Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Zhu, and C. Tu, “Growth, structure and spectroscopic properties of melilite Er: CaLaGa3O7 crystal for use in mid-infrared laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 706, 387–394 (2017).
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Li, L.

H. Zhan, A. Zhang, J. He, Z. Zhou, L. Li, T. Shi, X. Xiao, J. Si, and A. Lin, “Enhanced 2.7 μm emission of Er/Pr-codoped water-free fluortellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 582, 742–746 (2014).
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Li, M.

Y. Guo, M. Li, L. Hu, J. Zhang, Y. Guo, M. Li, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Effect of fluorine ions on 2.7 μm emission in Er3+/Nd(3+)-codoped fluorotellurite glass,” J. Phys. Chem. A 116(23), 5571–5576 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, M. Li, L. Hu, J. Zhang, Y. Guo, M. Li, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Effect of fluorine ions on 2.7 μm emission in Er3+/Nd(3+)-codoped fluorotellurite glass,” J. Phys. Chem. A 116(23), 5571–5576 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

F. Wang, F. Song, G. Zhang, Y. Han, Q. Li, C. Ming, and J. Tian, “Upconversion and pump saturation mechanisms in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Y2Ti2O7 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(13), 134310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

Li, W.

Li, X.

Lin, A.

H. Zhan, A. Zhang, J. He, Z. Zhou, L. Li, T. Shi, X. Xiao, J. Si, and A. Lin, “Enhanced 2.7 μm emission of Er/Pr-codoped water-free fluortellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 582, 742–746 (2014).
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Lisiecki, R.

Q. Wang, L. Su, H. Li, L. Zheng, X. Guo, D. Jiang, H. Zhao, J. Xu, W. Ryba-Romanowski, P. Solarz, and R. Lisiecki, “Optical spectra and excited state relaxation dynamics of Nd3+ in CaF2 single crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(36), 8880–8884 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Liu, L.

Liu, X.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Zhu, and C. Tu, “Growth, structure and spectroscopic properties of melilite Er: CaLaGa3O7 crystal for use in mid-infrared laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 706, 387–394 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.

Lu, Q.

Y. Shao, Q. Yang, Y. Gui, Y. Yuan, and Q. Lu, “Spectroscopic properties of Er/Nd co-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide transparent ceramics pumped at 980 nm,” J. Alloys Compd. 667, 76–81 (2016).
[Crossref]

Luo, H.

H. Luo, Z. Guan, Z. He, W. Huang, W. Zhang, R. Niu, C. Yao, Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Zhang, “Investigation on growth and defects of Ho3+: BaY2F8 crystals grown by Czochralski method,” J. Alloys Compd. 648, 803–808 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lüthy, W.

Ma, W.

Ma, Y.

F. Huang, Y. Guo, Y. Ma, L. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “Highly Er(3+)-doped ZrF4-based fluoride glasses for 2.7 μm laser materials,” Appl. Opt. 52(7), 1399–1403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, Y. Ma, F. Huang, Y. Peng, L. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “2.7 μm emission properties of Er3+ doped tungsten-tellurite glass sensitized by Yb3+ ions,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 111, 150–153 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Massons, J.

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguilo, and F. Dıaz, “Yb sensitising of Er3+ up-conversion emission in KGd (WO4) 2: Er: Yb single crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 323, 362–366 (2001).
[Crossref]

Masuda, I.

H. Yanagita, H. Toratani, T. Yamashita, and I. Masuda, “Diode-pumped Er3+ glass laser at 2.7um,” Proc. SPIE. 1513, Glasses for Optoelectronics II, 386–395 (1991).
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M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguilo, and F. Dıaz, “Yb sensitising of Er3+ up-conversion emission in KGd (WO4) 2: Er: Yb single crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 323, 362–366 (2001).
[Crossref]

McFarlane, R. A.

Meichenin, D.

S. Hubert, D. Meichenin, B. W. Zhou, and F. Auzel, “Emission properties oscillator strenghts and laser parameters of Er3+ in LiYF4 at 2.7μm,” J. Lumin. 50(1), 7–15 (1991).
[Crossref]

Meng, X.

Ming, C.

F. Wang, F. Song, G. Zhang, Y. Han, Q. Li, C. Ming, and J. Tian, “Upconversion and pump saturation mechanisms in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Y2Ti2O7 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(13), 134310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Miranda, L. C. M.

D. F. de Sousa, L. F. C. Zonetti, M. J. V. Bell, J. A. Sampaio, L. A. O. Nunes, M. L. Baesso, A. C. Bento, and L. C. M. Miranda, “On the observation of 2.8μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+-and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 908–910 (1999).
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Murakami, M.

Niu, R.

H. Luo, Z. Guan, Z. He, W. Huang, W. Zhang, R. Niu, C. Yao, Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Zhang, “Investigation on growth and defects of Ho3+: BaY2F8 crystals grown by Czochralski method,” J. Alloys Compd. 648, 803–808 (2015).
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Nunes, L. A. O.

D. F. de Sousa, L. F. C. Zonetti, M. J. V. Bell, J. A. Sampaio, L. A. O. Nunes, M. L. Baesso, A. C. Bento, and L. C. M. Miranda, “On the observation of 2.8μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+-and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 908–910 (1999).
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Parsons, W. F.

S. E. Hatch, W. F. Parsons, and R. J. Weagley, “Hot‐pressed polycrystalline CaF2: Dy2+ laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5(8), 153–154 (1964).
[Crossref]

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Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Observation of 2.7 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+/Pr3+-codoped fluorophosphate glass,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 109–111 (2011).
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Yao, C.

H. Luo, Z. Guan, Z. He, W. Huang, W. Zhang, R. Niu, C. Yao, Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Zhang, “Investigation on growth and defects of Ho3+: BaY2F8 crystals grown by Czochralski method,” J. Alloys Compd. 648, 803–808 (2015).
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Yin, J.

P. Zhang, J. Yin, B. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Hong, J. He, and Y. Hang, “Intense 2.8 μm emission of Ho3+ doped PbF2 single crystal,” Opt. Lett. 39(13), 3942–3945 (2014).
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J. Yin, Y. Hang, X. He, L. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Hu, and J. Gong, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Yb-doped and Yb, Na-codoped PbF2 laser crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(23), 6567–6570 (2011).
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Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Zhu, and C. Tu, “Growth, structure and spectroscopic properties of melilite Er: CaLaGa3O7 crystal for use in mid-infrared laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 706, 387–394 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yuan, J.

J. Yuan, S. X. Shen, D. D. Chen, Q. Qian, M. Y. Peng, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Efficient 2.0μm emission in Nd3+/Ho3+ co-doped tungsten tellurite glasses for a diode-pump 2.0 μm laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 113(17), 173507 (2013).

Yuan, Y.

Y. Shao, Q. Yang, Y. Gui, Y. Yuan, and Q. Lu, “Spectroscopic properties of Er/Nd co-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide transparent ceramics pumped at 980 nm,” J. Alloys Compd. 667, 76–81 (2016).
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M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguilo, and F. Dıaz, “Yb sensitising of Er3+ up-conversion emission in KGd (WO4) 2: Er: Yb single crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 323, 362–366 (2001).
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D. K. Sardar, W. M. Bradley, J. J. Perez, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, C. W. Trussell, and M. R. Kokta, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of the Er3+ (4f11) absorption intensities in Er3+− doped garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2602–2607 (2003).
[Crossref]

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H. Zhan, A. Zhang, J. He, Z. Zhou, L. Li, T. Shi, X. Xiao, J. Si, and A. Lin, “Enhanced 2.7 μm emission of Er/Pr-codoped water-free fluortellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 582, 742–746 (2014).
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H. Zhan, A. Zhang, J. He, Z. Zhou, L. Li, T. Shi, X. Xiao, J. Si, and A. Lin, “Enhanced 2.7 μm emission of Er/Pr-codoped water-free fluortellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 582, 742–746 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, Z. Bi, J. Chen, A. Huang, Y. Zhu, B. Chen, and Z. Xiao, “Spectroscopic investigation of Er3+ in fluorotellurite glasses for 2.7μm luminescence,” J. Alloys Compd. 649, 1191–1196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

F. Wang, F. Song, G. Zhang, Y. Han, Q. Li, C. Ming, and J. Tian, “Upconversion and pump saturation mechanisms in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Y2Ti2O7 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(13), 134310 (2014).
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J. Zhang, E. Cassan, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced mid-to-near-infrared second harmonic generation in silicon plasmonic microring resonators with low pump power,” Photon. Res. 2(5), 143–149 (2014).
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F. Huang, Y. Guo, Y. Ma, L. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “Highly Er(3+)-doped ZrF4-based fluoride glasses for 2.7 μm laser materials,” Appl. Opt. 52(7), 1399–1403 (2013).
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Y. Guo, Y. Ma, F. Huang, Y. Peng, L. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “2.7 μm emission properties of Er3+ doped tungsten-tellurite glass sensitized by Yb3+ ions,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 111, 150–153 (2013).
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Y. Guo, M. Li, L. Hu, J. Zhang, Y. Guo, M. Li, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Effect of fluorine ions on 2.7 μm emission in Er3+/Nd(3+)-codoped fluorotellurite glass,” J. Phys. Chem. A 116(23), 5571–5576 (2012).
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Y. Guo, M. Li, L. Hu, J. Zhang, Y. Guo, M. Li, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Effect of fluorine ions on 2.7 μm emission in Er3+/Nd(3+)-codoped fluorotellurite glass,” J. Phys. Chem. A 116(23), 5571–5576 (2012).
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Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Fluorescence properties and energy transfer study of Er3+/Nd3+ doped fluorophosphate glass pumped at 800 and 980nm for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Observation of 2.7 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+/Pr3+-codoped fluorophosphate glass,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 109–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

P. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Hong, L. Zhang, J. He, and Y. Hang, “Enhanced emission of 2.86 μm from diode-pumped Ho(3+)/Yb(3+)-codoped PbF(2) crystal,” Opt. Express 23(4), 3920–3927 (2015).
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P. Zhang, J. Yin, B. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Hong, J. He, and Y. Hang, “Intense 2.8 μm emission of Ho3+ doped PbF2 single crystal,” Opt. Lett. 39(13), 3942–3945 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, X. Liu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Emission enhancement in Er3+/Pr3+-co-doped germanate glasses and their use as a 2.7-mm laser material,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(12), 121601 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Huang, Y. Guo, Y. Ma, L. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “Highly Er(3+)-doped ZrF4-based fluoride glasses for 2.7 μm laser materials,” Appl. Opt. 52(7), 1399–1403 (2013).
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Y. Guo, Y. Ma, F. Huang, Y. Peng, L. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “2.7 μm emission properties of Er3+ doped tungsten-tellurite glass sensitized by Yb3+ ions,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 111, 150–153 (2013).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Observation of 2.7 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+/Pr3+-codoped fluorophosphate glass,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 109–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yin, Y. Hang, X. He, L. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Hu, and J. Gong, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Yb-doped and Yb, Na-codoped PbF2 laser crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(23), 6567–6570 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, P.

Zhang, Q. Y.

W. C. Wang, B. Zhou, S. H. Xu, Z. M. Yang, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Recent advances in soft optical glass fiber and fiber laser,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 101, 90–171 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Yuan, S. X. Shen, D. D. Chen, Q. Qian, M. Y. Peng, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Efficient 2.0μm emission in Nd3+/Ho3+ co-doped tungsten tellurite glasses for a diode-pump 2.0 μm laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 113(17), 173507 (2013).

W. J. Zhang, Q. Y. Zhang, Q. J. Chen, Q. Qian, Z. M. Yang, J. R. Qiu, P. Huang, and Y. S. Wang, “Enhanced 2.0 μm emission and gain coefficient of transparent glass ceramic containing BaF2: Ho3+,Tm3+ nanocrystals,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20952–20958 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

H. Luo, Z. Guan, Z. He, W. Huang, W. Zhang, R. Niu, C. Yao, Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Zhang, “Investigation on growth and defects of Ho3+: BaY2F8 crystals grown by Czochralski method,” J. Alloys Compd. 648, 803–808 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W. J.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Z.

H. Luo, Z. Guan, Z. He, W. Huang, W. Zhang, R. Niu, C. Yao, Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Zhang, “Investigation on growth and defects of Ho3+: BaY2F8 crystals grown by Czochralski method,” J. Alloys Compd. 648, 803–808 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Luo, Z. Guan, Z. He, W. Huang, W. Zhang, R. Niu, C. Yao, Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Zhang, “Investigation on growth and defects of Ho3+: BaY2F8 crystals grown by Czochralski method,” J. Alloys Compd. 648, 803–808 (2015).
[Crossref]

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J. Yin, Y. Hang, X. He, L. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Hu, and J. Gong, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Yb-doped and Yb, Na-codoped PbF2 laser crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(23), 6567–6570 (2011).
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W. C. Wang, B. Zhou, S. H. Xu, Z. M. Yang, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Recent advances in soft optical glass fiber and fiber laser,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 101, 90–171 (2019).
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S. Hubert, D. Meichenin, B. W. Zhou, and F. Auzel, “Emission properties oscillator strenghts and laser parameters of Er3+ in LiYF4 at 2.7μm,” J. Lumin. 50(1), 7–15 (1991).
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R. Wang, X. Huang, Y. Wang, R. Huang, P. Zhang, S. Zhu, Y. Hao, Z. Chen, Z. Yi, and G. Zhou, “Intense 3.9 µm emission of Ho3+ doped YAlO3 single crystal,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 88, 97–101 (2018).
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F. Zhang, Z. Bi, J. Chen, A. Huang, Y. Zhu, B. Chen, and Z. Xiao, “Spectroscopic investigation of Er3+ in fluorotellurite glasses for 2.7μm luminescence,” J. Alloys Compd. 649, 1191–1196 (2015).
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Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Zhu, and C. Tu, “Growth, structure and spectroscopic properties of melilite Er: CaLaGa3O7 crystal for use in mid-infrared laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 706, 387–394 (2017).
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H. Zhan, A. Zhang, J. He, Z. Zhou, L. Li, T. Shi, X. Xiao, J. Si, and A. Lin, “Enhanced 2.7 μm emission of Er/Pr-codoped water-free fluortellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 582, 742–746 (2014).
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F. Zhang, Z. Bi, J. Chen, A. Huang, Y. Zhu, B. Chen, and Z. Xiao, “Spectroscopic investigation of Er3+ in fluorotellurite glasses for 2.7μm luminescence,” J. Alloys Compd. 649, 1191–1196 (2015).
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J. Yin, Y. Hang, X. He, L. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Hu, and J. Gong, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Yb-doped and Yb, Na-codoped PbF2 laser crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(23), 6567–6570 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, L. Su, H. Li, L. Zheng, X. Guo, D. Jiang, H. Zhao, J. Xu, W. Ryba-Romanowski, P. Solarz, and R. Lisiecki, “Optical spectra and excited state relaxation dynamics of Nd3+ in CaF2 single crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(36), 8880–8884 (2011).
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S. Hubert, D. Meichenin, B. W. Zhou, and F. Auzel, “Emission properties oscillator strenghts and laser parameters of Er3+ in LiYF4 at 2.7μm,” J. Lumin. 50(1), 7–15 (1991).
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Y. Guo, M. Li, L. Hu, J. Zhang, Y. Guo, M. Li, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Effect of fluorine ions on 2.7 μm emission in Er3+/Nd(3+)-codoped fluorotellurite glass,” J. Phys. Chem. A 116(23), 5571–5576 (2012).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Simplified energy level diagram of Er3+ and Nd3+ co-doped system. ET1: energy transfer from Nd3+: 4F3/2 level to Er3+: 4I11/2 level; ET2: energy transfer from Er3+: 4I13/2 level to Nd3+: 4I15/2 level; CR: cross relaxion between Nd3+ and Er3+(Nd: 4I15/2 + Er: 4I13/2 → Nd: 4I9/2 + Er: 4I9/2)
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Absorption spectra of Er: PbF2, Er/Nd: PbF2 crystals in the range of 400-1700 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Emission spectra and emission cross sections of Er: PbF2 and Er/Nd: PbF2 crystals; (a): Emission spectra at the wavelength range around 2600-3000 nm. (b): Emission spectra at the wavelength range around 1450-1650 nm. (c): Emission spectra at the wavelength range around 500-700 nm. (d): Emission cross section at the wavelength range around 2550–3000 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Fluorescence decay curves of Nd: PbF2 and Er/Nd: PbF2 crystals for the 4F3/2 mainfold.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Fluorescence decay curves of Er: PbF2 and Er/Nd: PbF2 crystals for the 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 mainfold.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Barycenter wavelengths, and measured and calculated line strengths of Er/Nd: PbF2 crystal.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Judd–Ofelt parameters, calculated branching ratio, and lifetime of Er: PbF2 and Er/Nd: PbF2 crystals.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Line strengths, branching ratios, and transition probabilities in Er/Nd: PbF2 crystal.

Tables Icon

Table 4 Judd–Ofelt parameters of Er3+ in various materials.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ abs = α c
σ em = β λ 5 I(λ) 8πc n 2 τ R λI(λ)dλ

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