Abstract

The effect of the carrier gas type on the crystal quality of GaN is investigated in detail. Compared with a single carrier gas (H2 or N2), the employment of N2 during the nucleation layer and H2 in the high temperature buffer layer growth process will lead to smoother surface, stronger photoluminescence spectral strength, and lower threading dislocation density. Furthermore, it is found that conical and snowflake-like protrusions appear on the surface for the sample under pure N2 atmosphere.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L74–L76 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. A. Jones, F. F. Wang, and D. Costinett, “Review of Commercial GaN Power Devices and GaN-Based Converter Design Challenges,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Power Electron. 4(3), 707–719 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  3. B. Mitchell, V. Dierolf, T. Gregorkiewicz, and Y. Fujiwara, “Perspective: Toward efficient GaN-based red light emitting diodes using europium doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(16), 160901 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. J. Uren, M. Casar, M. A. Gajda, and M. Kuball, “Buffer transport mechanisms in intentionally carbon doped GaN heterojunction field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 263505 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. X. C. Xia, R. S. Shen, Y. D. Liu, D. C. Yang, S. W. Song, L. Zhao, Z. F. Shi, X. P. Li, H. W. Liang, B. L. Zhang, and G. T. Du, “Dominant UV emission from p-MgZnO/n-GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(1), 38–44 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Nakamura, “III-V nitride based light-emitting devices,” Solid State Commun. 102(2-3), 237–248 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. A. L. Johnson, Z. Yu, J. D. Brown, N. A. EI-Masry, J. W. Cook JR, and J. F. Schetzina, “Scanning electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence study of the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) process for gallium nitride,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 295–300 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. M. Roskowski., P. Q. Miraglia., E. A. Preble, S. Einfeldt, and R. F. Davis, “Surface instability and associated roughness during conventional and pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN (0001) films via MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 241(1-2), 141–150 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. W. Kima, J. T. Oha, J. S. Kanga, D. J. Kima, J. H. Wona, J. W. Kima, and H. K. Chob, “Two-step growth of high quality GaN using V/III ratio variation in the initial growth stage,” J. Cryst. Growth 262(1-4), 7–13 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  12. I. W. Feng, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Effects of growth pressure on erbium doped GaN infrared emitters synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(8), 1095–1100 (2012).
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  13. M. S. Yi, H. H. Lee, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and D. Y. Noh, “Effects of growth temperature on GaN nucleation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2187–2189 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. Ougazzaden, S. Gautier, C. Sartel, N. Maloufi, J. Martin, and F. Jomard, “BGaN materials on GaN/sapphire substrate by MOVPE using N2 carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 316–319 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. S. Cho, H. Hardtdegen, N. Kaluza, N. Thillosen, R. Steins, Z. Sofer, and H. Lüth, “Effect of carrier gas on GaN epilayer characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi C 3(6), 1408–1411 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y. S. Cho, H. Hardtdegen, N. Kaluza, R. Steins, G. Heidelberger, and H. Lüth, “The growth mechanism of GaN with different H2/N2 carrier gas ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 307(1), 6–13 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  17. X. Su, T. Ye, S. Wang, Y. Shi, L. Fan, L. Liu, G. Zhang, X. Shi, M. Wei, H. Zhou, and H. Jiao, “Surface morphology of GaN nucleation layer grown by MOCVD with different carrier gas,” AIP Adv. 8(7), 075301 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by Xray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  19. K. Hiramatsu, T. Detchprohm, and I. Akasaki, “Relaxation Mechanism of Thermal Stresses in the Heterostructure of GaN Grown on Sapphire by Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 1), 1528–1533 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  20. T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19955 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. P. Cantu, F. Wu, P. Waltereit, S. Keller, A. E. Romanov, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Specka, “Role of inclined threading dislocations in stress relaxation in mismatched layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103534 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. Y. Shin, Y. I. Chang, S. K. Kwon, K. T. Lee, M. J. Cho, and K. H. Park, “The growth characteristics of a GaN layer on a cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate by TEM observation,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 50(4), 1147–1151 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  23. F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, L. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Zhang, and G. Du, “Carbon-Related Defects as a Source for theEnhancement of Yellow Luminescence ofUnintentionally Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(9), 744 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  24. F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, and L. Zhang, “Role of Si and C Impurities in Yellow and Blue Luminescence of Unintentionally and Si-Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(12), 1026 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. C. Cruz, S. Keller, T. E. Mates, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Crystallographic orientation dependence of dopant and impurity incorporation in GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(15), 3817–3823 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  26. V. M. Bermudez, “Study of oxygen chemisorption on the GaN (0001) - (1×1) surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(2), 1190–1200 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  27. G. A. Slacka, Leo. J. Schowaltera, D. Morellic, and J. A. Freitas, “Some effects of oxygen impurities on AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 246(3-4), 287–298 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  28. T. Metzger, R. Höpler, E. Born, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, R. Stömmer, M. Schuster, H. Göbel, S. Christiansen, M. Albrecht, and H. P. Strunk, “Defect structure of epitaxial GaN films determined by transmission electron microscopy and triple-axis X-ray diffractometry,” Philos. Mag. A 77(4), 1013–1025 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  29. Y. T. Moon, Y. Fu, F. Yun, S. Dogan, M. Mikkelson, D. Johnstone, and H. Morkoç, “A study of GaN regrowth on the micro-facetted GaN template formed by in-situ thermal etching,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(5), 718–721 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  30. T. Zywietz, J. Neugebauer, and M. Scheffler, “Adatom diffusion at GaN (0001) and (000(1) over-bar) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 487–489 (1998).
    [Crossref]

2018 (4)

B. Mitchell, V. Dierolf, T. Gregorkiewicz, and Y. Fujiwara, “Perspective: Toward efficient GaN-based red light emitting diodes using europium doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(16), 160901 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Su, T. Ye, S. Wang, Y. Shi, L. Fan, L. Liu, G. Zhang, X. Shi, M. Wei, H. Zhou, and H. Jiao, “Surface morphology of GaN nucleation layer grown by MOCVD with different carrier gas,” AIP Adv. 8(7), 075301 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, L. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Zhang, and G. Du, “Carbon-Related Defects as a Source for theEnhancement of Yellow Luminescence ofUnintentionally Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(9), 744 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, and L. Zhang, “Role of Si and C Impurities in Yellow and Blue Luminescence of Unintentionally and Si-Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(12), 1026 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19955 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. A. Jones, F. F. Wang, and D. Costinett, “Review of Commercial GaN Power Devices and GaN-Based Converter Design Challenges,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Power Electron. 4(3), 707–719 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

M. J. Uren, M. Casar, M. A. Gajda, and M. Kuball, “Buffer transport mechanisms in intentionally carbon doped GaN heterojunction field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 263505 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2009 (1)

S. C. Cruz, S. Keller, T. E. Mates, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Crystallographic orientation dependence of dopant and impurity incorporation in GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(15), 3817–3823 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

Y. S. Cho, H. Hardtdegen, N. Kaluza, R. Steins, G. Heidelberger, and H. Lüth, “The growth mechanism of GaN with different H2/N2 carrier gas ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 307(1), 6–13 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Shin, Y. I. Chang, S. K. Kwon, K. T. Lee, M. J. Cho, and K. H. Park, “The growth characteristics of a GaN layer on a cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate by TEM observation,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 50(4), 1147–1151 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Ougazzaden, S. Gautier, C. Sartel, N. Maloufi, J. Martin, and F. Jomard, “BGaN materials on GaN/sapphire substrate by MOVPE using N2 carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 316–319 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Y. S. Cho, H. Hardtdegen, N. Kaluza, N. Thillosen, R. Steins, Z. Sofer, and H. Lüth, “Effect of carrier gas on GaN epilayer characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi C 3(6), 1408–1411 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

P. Cantu, F. Wu, P. Waltereit, S. Keller, A. E. Romanov, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Specka, “Role of inclined threading dislocations in stress relaxation in mismatched layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103534 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Moon, Y. Fu, F. Yun, S. Dogan, M. Mikkelson, D. Johnstone, and H. Morkoç, “A study of GaN regrowth on the micro-facetted GaN template formed by in-situ thermal etching,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(5), 718–721 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. W. Kima, J. T. Oha, J. S. Kanga, D. J. Kima, J. H. Wona, J. W. Kima, and H. K. Chob, “Two-step growth of high quality GaN using V/III ratio variation in the initial growth stage,” J. Cryst. Growth 262(1-4), 7–13 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

A. M. Roskowski., P. Q. Miraglia., E. A. Preble, S. Einfeldt, and R. F. Davis, “Surface instability and associated roughness during conventional and pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN (0001) films via MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 241(1-2), 141–150 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. M. Roskowski., P. Q. Miraglia., E. A. Preble, S. Einfeldt, and R. F. Davis, “Surface instability and associated roughness during conventional and pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN (0001) films via MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 241(1-2), 141–150 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. M. Roskowski., P. Q. Miraglia., E. A. Preble, S. Einfeldt, and R. F. Davis, “Surface instability and associated roughness during conventional and pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN (0001) films via MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 241(1-2), 141–150 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. A. Slacka, Leo. J. Schowaltera, D. Morellic, and J. A. Freitas, “Some effects of oxygen impurities on AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 246(3-4), 287–298 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by Xray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

M. A. L. Johnson, Z. Yu, J. D. Brown, N. A. EI-Masry, J. W. Cook JR, and J. F. Schetzina, “Scanning electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence study of the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) process for gallium nitride,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 295–300 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. S. Yi, H. H. Lee, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and D. Y. Noh, “Effects of growth temperature on GaN nucleation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2187–2189 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

T. Metzger, R. Höpler, E. Born, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, R. Stömmer, M. Schuster, H. Göbel, S. Christiansen, M. Albrecht, and H. P. Strunk, “Defect structure of epitaxial GaN films determined by transmission electron microscopy and triple-axis X-ray diffractometry,” Philos. Mag. A 77(4), 1013–1025 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Zywietz, J. Neugebauer, and M. Scheffler, “Adatom diffusion at GaN (0001) and (000(1) over-bar) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 487–489 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. Nakamura, “III-V nitride based light-emitting devices,” Solid State Commun. 102(2-3), 237–248 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L74–L76 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. M. Bermudez, “Study of oxygen chemisorption on the GaN (0001) - (1×1) surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(2), 1190–1200 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

K. Hiramatsu, T. Detchprohm, and I. Akasaki, “Relaxation Mechanism of Thermal Stresses in the Heterostructure of GaN Grown on Sapphire by Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 1), 1528–1533 (1993).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

K. Hiramatsu, T. Detchprohm, and I. Akasaki, “Relaxation Mechanism of Thermal Stresses in the Heterostructure of GaN Grown on Sapphire by Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 1), 1528–1533 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, M.

T. Metzger, R. Höpler, E. Born, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, R. Stömmer, M. Schuster, H. Göbel, S. Christiansen, M. Albrecht, and H. P. Strunk, “Defect structure of epitaxial GaN films determined by transmission electron microscopy and triple-axis X-ray diffractometry,” Philos. Mag. A 77(4), 1013–1025 (1998).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
[Crossref]

Ambacher, O.

T. Metzger, R. Höpler, E. Born, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, R. Stömmer, M. Schuster, H. Göbel, S. Christiansen, M. Albrecht, and H. P. Strunk, “Defect structure of epitaxial GaN films determined by transmission electron microscopy and triple-axis X-ray diffractometry,” Philos. Mag. A 77(4), 1013–1025 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bermudez, V. M.

V. M. Bermudez, “Study of oxygen chemisorption on the GaN (0001) - (1×1) surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(2), 1190–1200 (1996).
[Crossref]

Born, E.

T. Metzger, R. Höpler, E. Born, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, R. Stömmer, M. Schuster, H. Göbel, S. Christiansen, M. Albrecht, and H. P. Strunk, “Defect structure of epitaxial GaN films determined by transmission electron microscopy and triple-axis X-ray diffractometry,” Philos. Mag. A 77(4), 1013–1025 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brown, J. D.

M. A. L. Johnson, Z. Yu, J. D. Brown, N. A. EI-Masry, J. W. Cook JR, and J. F. Schetzina, “Scanning electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence study of the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) process for gallium nitride,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 295–300 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cantu, P.

P. Cantu, F. Wu, P. Waltereit, S. Keller, A. E. Romanov, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Specka, “Role of inclined threading dislocations in stress relaxation in mismatched layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103534 (2005).
[Crossref]

Casar, M.

M. J. Uren, M. Casar, M. A. Gajda, and M. Kuball, “Buffer transport mechanisms in intentionally carbon doped GaN heterojunction field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 263505 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. I.

H. Y. Shin, Y. I. Chang, S. K. Kwon, K. T. Lee, M. J. Cho, and K. H. Park, “The growth characteristics of a GaN layer on a cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate by TEM observation,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 50(4), 1147–1151 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, L. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Zhang, and G. Du, “Carbon-Related Defects as a Source for theEnhancement of Yellow Luminescence ofUnintentionally Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(9), 744 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, and L. Zhang, “Role of Si and C Impurities in Yellow and Blue Luminescence of Unintentionally and Si-Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(12), 1026 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cho, M. J.

H. Y. Shin, Y. I. Chang, S. K. Kwon, K. T. Lee, M. J. Cho, and K. H. Park, “The growth characteristics of a GaN layer on a cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate by TEM observation,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 50(4), 1147–1151 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cho, Y. S.

Y. S. Cho, H. Hardtdegen, N. Kaluza, R. Steins, G. Heidelberger, and H. Lüth, “The growth mechanism of GaN with different H2/N2 carrier gas ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 307(1), 6–13 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Cho, H. Hardtdegen, N. Kaluza, N. Thillosen, R. Steins, Z. Sofer, and H. Lüth, “Effect of carrier gas on GaN epilayer characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi C 3(6), 1408–1411 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chob, H. K.

S. W. Kima, J. T. Oha, J. S. Kanga, D. J. Kima, J. H. Wona, J. W. Kima, and H. K. Chob, “Two-step growth of high quality GaN using V/III ratio variation in the initial growth stage,” J. Cryst. Growth 262(1-4), 7–13 (2004).
[Crossref]

Christiansen, S.

T. Metzger, R. Höpler, E. Born, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, R. Stömmer, M. Schuster, H. Göbel, S. Christiansen, M. Albrecht, and H. P. Strunk, “Defect structure of epitaxial GaN films determined by transmission electron microscopy and triple-axis X-ray diffractometry,” Philos. Mag. A 77(4), 1013–1025 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cook JR, J. W.

M. A. L. Johnson, Z. Yu, J. D. Brown, N. A. EI-Masry, J. W. Cook JR, and J. F. Schetzina, “Scanning electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence study of the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) process for gallium nitride,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 295–300 (1999).
[Crossref]

Costinett, D.

E. A. Jones, F. F. Wang, and D. Costinett, “Review of Commercial GaN Power Devices and GaN-Based Converter Design Challenges,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Power Electron. 4(3), 707–719 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cruz, S. C.

S. C. Cruz, S. Keller, T. E. Mates, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Crystallographic orientation dependence of dopant and impurity incorporation in GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(15), 3817–3823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Davis, R. F.

A. M. Roskowski., P. Q. Miraglia., E. A. Preble, S. Einfeldt, and R. F. Davis, “Surface instability and associated roughness during conventional and pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN (0001) films via MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 241(1-2), 141–150 (2002).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. C. Cruz, S. Keller, T. E. Mates, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Crystallographic orientation dependence of dopant and impurity incorporation in GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(15), 3817–3823 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Cantu, F. Wu, P. Waltereit, S. Keller, A. E. Romanov, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Specka, “Role of inclined threading dislocations in stress relaxation in mismatched layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103534 (2005).
[Crossref]

Detchprohm, T.

K. Hiramatsu, T. Detchprohm, and I. Akasaki, “Relaxation Mechanism of Thermal Stresses in the Heterostructure of GaN Grown on Sapphire by Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 1), 1528–1533 (1993).
[Crossref]

Dierolf, V.

B. Mitchell, V. Dierolf, T. Gregorkiewicz, and Y. Fujiwara, “Perspective: Toward efficient GaN-based red light emitting diodes using europium doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(16), 160901 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dogan, S.

Y. T. Moon, Y. Fu, F. Yun, S. Dogan, M. Mikkelson, D. Johnstone, and H. Morkoç, “A study of GaN regrowth on the micro-facetted GaN template formed by in-situ thermal etching,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(5), 718–721 (2005).
[Crossref]

Du, G.

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, L. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Zhang, and G. Du, “Carbon-Related Defects as a Source for theEnhancement of Yellow Luminescence ofUnintentionally Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(9), 744 (2018).
[Crossref]

Du, G. T.

EI-Masry, N. A.

M. A. L. Johnson, Z. Yu, J. D. Brown, N. A. EI-Masry, J. W. Cook JR, and J. F. Schetzina, “Scanning electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence study of the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) process for gallium nitride,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 295–300 (1999).
[Crossref]

Einfeldt, S.

A. M. Roskowski., P. Q. Miraglia., E. A. Preble, S. Einfeldt, and R. F. Davis, “Surface instability and associated roughness during conventional and pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN (0001) films via MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 241(1-2), 141–150 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fan, L.

X. Su, T. Ye, S. Wang, Y. Shi, L. Fan, L. Liu, G. Zhang, X. Shi, M. Wei, H. Zhou, and H. Jiao, “Surface morphology of GaN nucleation layer grown by MOCVD with different carrier gas,” AIP Adv. 8(7), 075301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Feng, I. W.

Freitas, J. A.

G. A. Slacka, Leo. J. Schowaltera, D. Morellic, and J. A. Freitas, “Some effects of oxygen impurities on AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 246(3-4), 287–298 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fu, Y.

Y. T. Moon, Y. Fu, F. Yun, S. Dogan, M. Mikkelson, D. Johnstone, and H. Morkoç, “A study of GaN regrowth on the micro-facetted GaN template formed by in-situ thermal etching,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(5), 718–721 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, Y.

B. Mitchell, V. Dierolf, T. Gregorkiewicz, and Y. Fujiwara, “Perspective: Toward efficient GaN-based red light emitting diodes using europium doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(16), 160901 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fuke, S.

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by Xray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, Y.

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by Xray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gajda, M. A.

M. J. Uren, M. Casar, M. A. Gajda, and M. Kuball, “Buffer transport mechanisms in intentionally carbon doped GaN heterojunction field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 263505 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gautier, S.

A. Ougazzaden, S. Gautier, C. Sartel, N. Maloufi, J. Martin, and F. Jomard, “BGaN materials on GaN/sapphire substrate by MOVPE using N2 carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 316–319 (2007).
[Crossref]

Göbel, H.

T. Metzger, R. Höpler, E. Born, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, R. Stömmer, M. Schuster, H. Göbel, S. Christiansen, M. Albrecht, and H. P. Strunk, “Defect structure of epitaxial GaN films determined by transmission electron microscopy and triple-axis X-ray diffractometry,” Philos. Mag. A 77(4), 1013–1025 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gregorkiewicz, T.

B. Mitchell, V. Dierolf, T. Gregorkiewicz, and Y. Fujiwara, “Perspective: Toward efficient GaN-based red light emitting diodes using europium doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(16), 160901 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hao, Y.

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19955 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hardtdegen, H.

Y. S. Cho, H. Hardtdegen, N. Kaluza, R. Steins, G. Heidelberger, and H. Lüth, “The growth mechanism of GaN with different H2/N2 carrier gas ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 307(1), 6–13 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Cho, H. Hardtdegen, N. Kaluza, N. Thillosen, R. Steins, Z. Sofer, and H. Lüth, “Effect of carrier gas on GaN epilayer characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi C 3(6), 1408–1411 (2006).
[Crossref]

Heidelberger, G.

Y. S. Cho, H. Hardtdegen, N. Kaluza, R. Steins, G. Heidelberger, and H. Lüth, “The growth mechanism of GaN with different H2/N2 carrier gas ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 307(1), 6–13 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hiramatsu, K.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Hiramatsu, T. Detchprohm, and I. Akasaki, “Relaxation Mechanism of Thermal Stresses in the Heterostructure of GaN Grown on Sapphire by Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 1), 1528–1533 (1993).
[Crossref]

Höpler, R.

T. Metzger, R. Höpler, E. Born, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, R. Stömmer, M. Schuster, H. Göbel, S. Christiansen, M. Albrecht, and H. P. Strunk, “Defect structure of epitaxial GaN films determined by transmission electron microscopy and triple-axis X-ray diffractometry,” Philos. Mag. A 77(4), 1013–1025 (1998).
[Crossref]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L74–L76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Iyechika, Y.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jiang, D.

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, and L. Zhang, “Role of Si and C Impurities in Yellow and Blue Luminescence of Unintentionally and Si-Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(12), 1026 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, L. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Zhang, and G. Du, “Carbon-Related Defects as a Source for theEnhancement of Yellow Luminescence ofUnintentionally Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(9), 744 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H. X.

Jiang, T.

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19955 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiao, H.

X. Su, T. Ye, S. Wang, Y. Shi, L. Fan, L. Liu, G. Zhang, X. Shi, M. Wei, H. Zhou, and H. Jiao, “Surface morphology of GaN nucleation layer grown by MOCVD with different carrier gas,” AIP Adv. 8(7), 075301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Johnson, M. A. L.

M. A. L. Johnson, Z. Yu, J. D. Brown, N. A. EI-Masry, J. W. Cook JR, and J. F. Schetzina, “Scanning electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence study of the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) process for gallium nitride,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 295–300 (1999).
[Crossref]

Johnstone, D.

Y. T. Moon, Y. Fu, F. Yun, S. Dogan, M. Mikkelson, D. Johnstone, and H. Morkoç, “A study of GaN regrowth on the micro-facetted GaN template formed by in-situ thermal etching,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(5), 718–721 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jomard, F.

A. Ougazzaden, S. Gautier, C. Sartel, N. Maloufi, J. Martin, and F. Jomard, “BGaN materials on GaN/sapphire substrate by MOVPE using N2 carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 316–319 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jones, E. A.

E. A. Jones, F. F. Wang, and D. Costinett, “Review of Commercial GaN Power Devices and GaN-Based Converter Design Challenges,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Power Electron. 4(3), 707–719 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kaluza, N.

Y. S. Cho, H. Hardtdegen, N. Kaluza, R. Steins, G. Heidelberger, and H. Lüth, “The growth mechanism of GaN with different H2/N2 carrier gas ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 307(1), 6–13 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Cho, H. Hardtdegen, N. Kaluza, N. Thillosen, R. Steins, Z. Sofer, and H. Lüth, “Effect of carrier gas on GaN epilayer characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi C 3(6), 1408–1411 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kanga, J. S.

S. W. Kima, J. T. Oha, J. S. Kanga, D. J. Kima, J. H. Wona, J. W. Kima, and H. K. Chob, “Two-step growth of high quality GaN using V/III ratio variation in the initial growth stage,” J. Cryst. Growth 262(1-4), 7–13 (2004).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

S. C. Cruz, S. Keller, T. E. Mates, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Crystallographic orientation dependence of dopant and impurity incorporation in GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(15), 3817–3823 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Cantu, F. Wu, P. Waltereit, S. Keller, A. E. Romanov, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Specka, “Role of inclined threading dislocations in stress relaxation in mismatched layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103534 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. J.

M. S. Yi, H. H. Lee, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and D. Y. Noh, “Effects of growth temperature on GaN nucleation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2187–2189 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kima, D. J.

S. W. Kima, J. T. Oha, J. S. Kanga, D. J. Kima, J. H. Wona, J. W. Kima, and H. K. Chob, “Two-step growth of high quality GaN using V/III ratio variation in the initial growth stage,” J. Cryst. Growth 262(1-4), 7–13 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kima, J. W.

S. W. Kima, J. T. Oha, J. S. Kanga, D. J. Kima, J. H. Wona, J. W. Kima, and H. K. Chob, “Two-step growth of high quality GaN using V/III ratio variation in the initial growth stage,” J. Cryst. Growth 262(1-4), 7–13 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kima, S. W.

S. W. Kima, J. T. Oha, J. S. Kanga, D. J. Kima, J. H. Wona, J. W. Kima, and H. K. Chob, “Two-step growth of high quality GaN using V/III ratio variation in the initial growth stage,” J. Cryst. Growth 262(1-4), 7–13 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L74–L76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kuball, M.

M. J. Uren, M. Casar, M. A. Gajda, and M. Kuball, “Buffer transport mechanisms in intentionally carbon doped GaN heterojunction field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 263505 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kwon, S. K.

H. Y. Shin, Y. I. Chang, S. K. Kwon, K. T. Lee, M. J. Cho, and K. H. Park, “The growth characteristics of a GaN layer on a cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate by TEM observation,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 50(4), 1147–1151 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. H.

M. S. Yi, H. H. Lee, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and D. Y. Noh, “Effects of growth temperature on GaN nucleation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2187–2189 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. T.

H. Y. Shin, Y. I. Chang, S. K. Kwon, K. T. Lee, M. J. Cho, and K. H. Park, “The growth characteristics of a GaN layer on a cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate by TEM observation,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 50(4), 1147–1151 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by Xray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, M.

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, L. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Zhang, and G. Du, “Carbon-Related Defects as a Source for theEnhancement of Yellow Luminescence ofUnintentionally Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(9), 744 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, X. P.

Liang, F.

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, and L. Zhang, “Role of Si and C Impurities in Yellow and Blue Luminescence of Unintentionally and Si-Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(12), 1026 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, L. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Zhang, and G. Du, “Carbon-Related Defects as a Source for theEnhancement of Yellow Luminescence ofUnintentionally Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(9), 744 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liang, H. W.

Lin, J. Y.

Liu, L.

X. Su, T. Ye, S. Wang, Y. Shi, L. Fan, L. Liu, G. Zhang, X. Shi, M. Wei, H. Zhou, and H. Jiao, “Surface morphology of GaN nucleation layer grown by MOCVD with different carrier gas,” AIP Adv. 8(7), 075301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, L. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Zhang, and G. Du, “Carbon-Related Defects as a Source for theEnhancement of Yellow Luminescence ofUnintentionally Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(9), 744 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, and L. Zhang, “Role of Si and C Impurities in Yellow and Blue Luminescence of Unintentionally and Si-Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(12), 1026 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. D.

Liu, Z.

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, and L. Zhang, “Role of Si and C Impurities in Yellow and Blue Luminescence of Unintentionally and Si-Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(12), 1026 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, L. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Zhang, and G. Du, “Carbon-Related Defects as a Source for theEnhancement of Yellow Luminescence ofUnintentionally Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(9), 744 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lüth, H.

Y. S. Cho, H. Hardtdegen, N. Kaluza, R. Steins, G. Heidelberger, and H. Lüth, “The growth mechanism of GaN with different H2/N2 carrier gas ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 307(1), 6–13 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Cho, H. Hardtdegen, N. Kaluza, N. Thillosen, R. Steins, Z. Sofer, and H. Lüth, “Effect of carrier gas on GaN epilayer characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi C 3(6), 1408–1411 (2006).
[Crossref]

Maeda, T.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[Crossref]

Maloufi, N.

A. Ougazzaden, S. Gautier, C. Sartel, N. Maloufi, J. Martin, and F. Jomard, “BGaN materials on GaN/sapphire substrate by MOVPE using N2 carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 316–319 (2007).
[Crossref]

Martin, J.

A. Ougazzaden, S. Gautier, C. Sartel, N. Maloufi, J. Martin, and F. Jomard, “BGaN materials on GaN/sapphire substrate by MOVPE using N2 carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 316–319 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mates, T. E.

S. C. Cruz, S. Keller, T. E. Mates, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Crystallographic orientation dependence of dopant and impurity incorporation in GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(15), 3817–3823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L74–L76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Metzger, T.

T. Metzger, R. Höpler, E. Born, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, R. Stömmer, M. Schuster, H. Göbel, S. Christiansen, M. Albrecht, and H. P. Strunk, “Defect structure of epitaxial GaN films determined by transmission electron microscopy and triple-axis X-ray diffractometry,” Philos. Mag. A 77(4), 1013–1025 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mikkelson, M.

Y. T. Moon, Y. Fu, F. Yun, S. Dogan, M. Mikkelson, D. Johnstone, and H. Morkoç, “A study of GaN regrowth on the micro-facetted GaN template formed by in-situ thermal etching,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(5), 718–721 (2005).
[Crossref]

Miraglia, P. Q.

A. M. Roskowski., P. Q. Miraglia., E. A. Preble, S. Einfeldt, and R. F. Davis, “Surface instability and associated roughness during conventional and pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN (0001) films via MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 241(1-2), 141–150 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

S. C. Cruz, S. Keller, T. E. Mates, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Crystallographic orientation dependence of dopant and impurity incorporation in GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(15), 3817–3823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, B.

B. Mitchell, V. Dierolf, T. Gregorkiewicz, and Y. Fujiwara, “Perspective: Toward efficient GaN-based red light emitting diodes using europium doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(16), 160901 (2018).
[Crossref]

Miyake, H.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mizutani, H.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[Crossref]

Moon, Y. T.

Y. T. Moon, Y. Fu, F. Yun, S. Dogan, M. Mikkelson, D. Johnstone, and H. Morkoç, “A study of GaN regrowth on the micro-facetted GaN template formed by in-situ thermal etching,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(5), 718–721 (2005).
[Crossref]

Morellic, D.

G. A. Slacka, Leo. J. Schowaltera, D. Morellic, and J. A. Freitas, “Some effects of oxygen impurities on AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 246(3-4), 287–298 (2002).
[Crossref]

Morkoç, H.

Y. T. Moon, Y. Fu, F. Yun, S. Dogan, M. Mikkelson, D. Johnstone, and H. Morkoç, “A study of GaN regrowth on the micro-facetted GaN template formed by in-situ thermal etching,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(5), 718–721 (2005).
[Crossref]

Motogaito, A.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L74–L76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, “III-V nitride based light-emitting devices,” Solid State Commun. 102(2-3), 237–248 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L74–L76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Narukawa, M.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[Crossref]

Neugebauer, J.

T. Zywietz, J. Neugebauer, and M. Scheffler, “Adatom diffusion at GaN (0001) and (000(1) over-bar) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 487–489 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nishiyama, K.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[Crossref]

Noh, D. Y.

M. S. Yi, H. H. Lee, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and D. Y. Noh, “Effects of growth temperature on GaN nucleation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2187–2189 (1999).
[Crossref]

Oha, J. T.

S. W. Kima, J. T. Oha, J. S. Kanga, D. J. Kima, J. H. Wona, J. W. Kima, and H. K. Chob, “Two-step growth of high quality GaN using V/III ratio variation in the initial growth stage,” J. Cryst. Growth 262(1-4), 7–13 (2004).
[Crossref]

Onishi, M.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ougazzaden, A.

A. Ougazzaden, S. Gautier, C. Sartel, N. Maloufi, J. Martin, and F. Jomard, “BGaN materials on GaN/sapphire substrate by MOVPE using N2 carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 316–319 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, K. H.

H. Y. Shin, Y. I. Chang, S. K. Kwon, K. T. Lee, M. J. Cho, and K. H. Park, “The growth characteristics of a GaN layer on a cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate by TEM observation,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 50(4), 1147–1151 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, S. J.

M. S. Yi, H. H. Lee, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and D. Y. Noh, “Effects of growth temperature on GaN nucleation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2187–2189 (1999).
[Crossref]

Preble, E. A.

A. M. Roskowski., P. Q. Miraglia., E. A. Preble, S. Einfeldt, and R. F. Davis, “Surface instability and associated roughness during conventional and pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN (0001) films via MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 241(1-2), 141–150 (2002).
[Crossref]

Que, D.

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by Xray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[Crossref]

Romanov, A. E.

P. Cantu, F. Wu, P. Waltereit, S. Keller, A. E. Romanov, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Specka, “Role of inclined threading dislocations in stress relaxation in mismatched layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103534 (2005).
[Crossref]

Roskowski, A. M.

A. M. Roskowski., P. Q. Miraglia., E. A. Preble, S. Einfeldt, and R. F. Davis, “Surface instability and associated roughness during conventional and pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN (0001) films via MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 241(1-2), 141–150 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sartel, C.

A. Ougazzaden, S. Gautier, C. Sartel, N. Maloufi, J. Martin, and F. Jomard, “BGaN materials on GaN/sapphire substrate by MOVPE using N2 carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 316–319 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sawaki, N.

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
[Crossref]

Scheffler, M.

T. Zywietz, J. Neugebauer, and M. Scheffler, “Adatom diffusion at GaN (0001) and (000(1) over-bar) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 487–489 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schetzina, J. F.

M. A. L. Johnson, Z. Yu, J. D. Brown, N. A. EI-Masry, J. W. Cook JR, and J. F. Schetzina, “Scanning electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence study of the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) process for gallium nitride,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 295–300 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schowaltera, Leo. J.

G. A. Slacka, Leo. J. Schowaltera, D. Morellic, and J. A. Freitas, “Some effects of oxygen impurities on AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 246(3-4), 287–298 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schuster, M.

T. Metzger, R. Höpler, E. Born, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, R. Stömmer, M. Schuster, H. Göbel, S. Christiansen, M. Albrecht, and H. P. Strunk, “Defect structure of epitaxial GaN films determined by transmission electron microscopy and triple-axis X-ray diffractometry,” Philos. Mag. A 77(4), 1013–1025 (1998).
[Crossref]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L74–L76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shen, R. S.

Shi, X.

X. Su, T. Ye, S. Wang, Y. Shi, L. Fan, L. Liu, G. Zhang, X. Shi, M. Wei, H. Zhou, and H. Jiao, “Surface morphology of GaN nucleation layer grown by MOCVD with different carrier gas,” AIP Adv. 8(7), 075301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y.

X. Su, T. Ye, S. Wang, Y. Shi, L. Fan, L. Liu, G. Zhang, X. Shi, M. Wei, H. Zhou, and H. Jiao, “Surface morphology of GaN nucleation layer grown by MOCVD with different carrier gas,” AIP Adv. 8(7), 075301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shi, Z. F.

Shin, H. Y.

H. Y. Shin, Y. I. Chang, S. K. Kwon, K. T. Lee, M. J. Cho, and K. H. Park, “The growth characteristics of a GaN layer on a cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate by TEM observation,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 50(4), 1147–1151 (2007).
[Crossref]

Slacka, G. A.

G. A. Slacka, Leo. J. Schowaltera, D. Morellic, and J. A. Freitas, “Some effects of oxygen impurities on AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 246(3-4), 287–298 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sofer, Z.

Y. S. Cho, H. Hardtdegen, N. Kaluza, N. Thillosen, R. Steins, Z. Sofer, and H. Lüth, “Effect of carrier gas on GaN epilayer characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi C 3(6), 1408–1411 (2006).
[Crossref]

Song, S. W.

Specka, J. S.

P. Cantu, F. Wu, P. Waltereit, S. Keller, A. E. Romanov, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Specka, “Role of inclined threading dislocations in stress relaxation in mismatched layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103534 (2005).
[Crossref]

Steins, R.

Y. S. Cho, H. Hardtdegen, N. Kaluza, R. Steins, G. Heidelberger, and H. Lüth, “The growth mechanism of GaN with different H2/N2 carrier gas ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 307(1), 6–13 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Cho, H. Hardtdegen, N. Kaluza, N. Thillosen, R. Steins, Z. Sofer, and H. Lüth, “Effect of carrier gas on GaN epilayer characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi C 3(6), 1408–1411 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stömmer, R.

T. Metzger, R. Höpler, E. Born, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, R. Stömmer, M. Schuster, H. Göbel, S. Christiansen, M. Albrecht, and H. P. Strunk, “Defect structure of epitaxial GaN films determined by transmission electron microscopy and triple-axis X-ray diffractometry,” Philos. Mag. A 77(4), 1013–1025 (1998).
[Crossref]

Strunk, H. P.

T. Metzger, R. Höpler, E. Born, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, R. Stömmer, M. Schuster, H. Göbel, S. Christiansen, M. Albrecht, and H. P. Strunk, “Defect structure of epitaxial GaN films determined by transmission electron microscopy and triple-axis X-ray diffractometry,” Philos. Mag. A 77(4), 1013–1025 (1998).
[Crossref]

Stutzmann, M.

T. Metzger, R. Höpler, E. Born, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, R. Stömmer, M. Schuster, H. Göbel, S. Christiansen, M. Albrecht, and H. P. Strunk, “Defect structure of epitaxial GaN films determined by transmission electron microscopy and triple-axis X-ray diffractometry,” Philos. Mag. A 77(4), 1013–1025 (1998).
[Crossref]

Su, X.

X. Su, T. Ye, S. Wang, Y. Shi, L. Fan, L. Liu, G. Zhang, X. Shi, M. Wei, H. Zhou, and H. Jiao, “Surface morphology of GaN nucleation layer grown by MOCVD with different carrier gas,” AIP Adv. 8(7), 075301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L74–L76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sumiya, M.

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by Xray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, Y.

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by Xray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[Crossref]

Thillosen, N.

Y. S. Cho, H. Hardtdegen, N. Kaluza, N. Thillosen, R. Steins, Z. Sofer, and H. Lüth, “Effect of carrier gas on GaN epilayer characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi C 3(6), 1408–1411 (2006).
[Crossref]

Toyoda, Y.

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
[Crossref]

Uren, M. J.

M. J. Uren, M. Casar, M. A. Gajda, and M. Kuball, “Buffer transport mechanisms in intentionally carbon doped GaN heterojunction field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 263505 (2014).
[Crossref]

Waltereit, P.

P. Cantu, F. Wu, P. Waltereit, S. Keller, A. E. Romanov, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Specka, “Role of inclined threading dislocations in stress relaxation in mismatched layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103534 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, F. F.

E. A. Jones, F. F. Wang, and D. Costinett, “Review of Commercial GaN Power Devices and GaN-Based Converter Design Challenges,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Power Electron. 4(3), 707–719 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

X. Su, T. Ye, S. Wang, Y. Shi, L. Fan, L. Liu, G. Zhang, X. Shi, M. Wei, H. Zhou, and H. Jiao, “Surface morphology of GaN nucleation layer grown by MOCVD with different carrier gas,” AIP Adv. 8(7), 075301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wei, M.

X. Su, T. Ye, S. Wang, Y. Shi, L. Fan, L. Liu, G. Zhang, X. Shi, M. Wei, H. Zhou, and H. Jiao, “Surface morphology of GaN nucleation layer grown by MOCVD with different carrier gas,” AIP Adv. 8(7), 075301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wona, J. H.

S. W. Kima, J. T. Oha, J. S. Kanga, D. J. Kima, J. H. Wona, J. W. Kima, and H. K. Chob, “Two-step growth of high quality GaN using V/III ratio variation in the initial growth stage,” J. Cryst. Growth 262(1-4), 7–13 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

P. Cantu, F. Wu, P. Waltereit, S. Keller, A. E. Romanov, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Specka, “Role of inclined threading dislocations in stress relaxation in mismatched layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103534 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xia, X. C.

Xie, Y.

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19955 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xing, Y.

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, and L. Zhang, “Role of Si and C Impurities in Yellow and Blue Luminescence of Unintentionally and Si-Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(12), 1026 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, L. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Zhang, and G. Du, “Carbon-Related Defects as a Source for theEnhancement of Yellow Luminescence ofUnintentionally Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(9), 744 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, S. R.

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19955 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L74–L76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by Xray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. C.

Yang, J.

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, L. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Zhang, and G. Du, “Carbon-Related Defects as a Source for theEnhancement of Yellow Luminescence ofUnintentionally Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(9), 744 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, and L. Zhang, “Role of Si and C Impurities in Yellow and Blue Luminescence of Unintentionally and Si-Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(12), 1026 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ye, T.

X. Su, T. Ye, S. Wang, Y. Shi, L. Fan, L. Liu, G. Zhang, X. Shi, M. Wei, H. Zhou, and H. Jiao, “Surface morphology of GaN nucleation layer grown by MOCVD with different carrier gas,” AIP Adv. 8(7), 075301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yi, M. S.

M. S. Yi, H. H. Lee, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and D. Y. Noh, “Effects of growth temperature on GaN nucleation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2187–2189 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

M. A. L. Johnson, Z. Yu, J. D. Brown, N. A. EI-Masry, J. W. Cook JR, and J. F. Schetzina, “Scanning electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence study of the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) process for gallium nitride,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 295–300 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yun, F.

Y. T. Moon, Y. Fu, F. Yun, S. Dogan, M. Mikkelson, D. Johnstone, and H. Morkoç, “A study of GaN regrowth on the micro-facetted GaN template formed by in-situ thermal etching,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(5), 718–721 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zavada, J.

Zhang, B. L.

Zhang, G.

X. Su, T. Ye, S. Wang, Y. Shi, L. Fan, L. Liu, G. Zhang, X. Shi, M. Wei, H. Zhou, and H. Jiao, “Surface morphology of GaN nucleation layer grown by MOCVD with different carrier gas,” AIP Adv. 8(7), 075301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. C.

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19955 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, and L. Zhang, “Role of Si and C Impurities in Yellow and Blue Luminescence of Unintentionally and Si-Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(12), 1026 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, L. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Zhang, and G. Du, “Carbon-Related Defects as a Source for theEnhancement of Yellow Luminescence ofUnintentionally Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(9), 744 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, L. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Zhang, and G. Du, “Carbon-Related Defects as a Source for theEnhancement of Yellow Luminescence ofUnintentionally Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(9), 744 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, D.

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, and L. Zhang, “Role of Si and C Impurities in Yellow and Blue Luminescence of Unintentionally and Si-Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(12), 1026 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, L. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Zhang, and G. Du, “Carbon-Related Defects as a Source for theEnhancement of Yellow Luminescence ofUnintentionally Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(9), 744 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

Zhou, H.

X. Su, T. Ye, S. Wang, Y. Shi, L. Fan, L. Liu, G. Zhang, X. Shi, M. Wei, H. Zhou, and H. Jiao, “Surface morphology of GaN nucleation layer grown by MOCVD with different carrier gas,” AIP Adv. 8(7), 075301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, L. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Zhang, and G. Du, “Carbon-Related Defects as a Source for theEnhancement of Yellow Luminescence ofUnintentionally Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(9), 744 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, and L. Zhang, “Role of Si and C Impurities in Yellow and Blue Luminescence of Unintentionally and Si-Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(12), 1026 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zywietz, T.

T. Zywietz, J. Neugebauer, and M. Scheffler, “Adatom diffusion at GaN (0001) and (000(1) over-bar) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 487–489 (1998).
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (1)

X. Su, T. Ye, S. Wang, Y. Shi, L. Fan, L. Liu, G. Zhang, X. Shi, M. Wei, H. Zhou, and H. Jiao, “Surface morphology of GaN nucleation layer grown by MOCVD with different carrier gas,” AIP Adv. 8(7), 075301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
[Crossref]

M. S. Yi, H. H. Lee, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and D. Y. Noh, “Effects of growth temperature on GaN nucleation layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2187–2189 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. J. Uren, M. Casar, M. A. Gajda, and M. Kuball, “Buffer transport mechanisms in intentionally carbon doped GaN heterojunction field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 263505 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Zywietz, J. Neugebauer, and M. Scheffler, “Adatom diffusion at GaN (0001) and (000(1) over-bar) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 487–489 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Power Electron. (1)

E. A. Jones, F. F. Wang, and D. Costinett, “Review of Commercial GaN Power Devices and GaN-Based Converter Design Challenges,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Power Electron. 4(3), 707–719 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

B. Mitchell, V. Dierolf, T. Gregorkiewicz, and Y. Fujiwara, “Perspective: Toward efficient GaN-based red light emitting diodes using europium doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(16), 160901 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by Xray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Cantu, F. Wu, P. Waltereit, S. Keller, A. E. Romanov, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Specka, “Role of inclined threading dislocations in stress relaxation in mismatched layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103534 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. M. Bermudez, “Study of oxygen chemisorption on the GaN (0001) - (1×1) surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(2), 1190–1200 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (7)

G. A. Slacka, Leo. J. Schowaltera, D. Morellic, and J. A. Freitas, “Some effects of oxygen impurities on AlN and GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 246(3-4), 287–298 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. C. Cruz, S. Keller, T. E. Mates, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Crystallographic orientation dependence of dopant and impurity incorporation in GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(15), 3817–3823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Cho, H. Hardtdegen, N. Kaluza, R. Steins, G. Heidelberger, and H. Lüth, “The growth mechanism of GaN with different H2/N2 carrier gas ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 307(1), 6–13 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Ougazzaden, S. Gautier, C. Sartel, N. Maloufi, J. Martin, and F. Jomard, “BGaN materials on GaN/sapphire substrate by MOVPE using N2 carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 316–319 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. M. Roskowski., P. Q. Miraglia., E. A. Preble, S. Einfeldt, and R. F. Davis, “Surface instability and associated roughness during conventional and pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN (0001) films via MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 241(1-2), 141–150 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. W. Kima, J. T. Oha, J. S. Kanga, D. J. Kima, J. H. Wona, J. W. Kima, and H. K. Chob, “Two-step growth of high quality GaN using V/III ratio variation in the initial growth stage,” J. Cryst. Growth 262(1-4), 7–13 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

M. A. L. Johnson, Z. Yu, J. D. Brown, N. A. EI-Masry, J. W. Cook JR, and J. F. Schetzina, “Scanning electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence study of the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) process for gallium nitride,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 295–300 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

H. Y. Shin, Y. I. Chang, S. K. Kwon, K. T. Lee, M. J. Cho, and K. H. Park, “The growth characteristics of a GaN layer on a cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate by TEM observation,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 50(4), 1147–1151 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L74–L76 (1996).
[Crossref]

K. Hiramatsu, T. Detchprohm, and I. Akasaki, “Relaxation Mechanism of Thermal Stresses in the Heterostructure of GaN Grown on Sapphire by Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 1), 1528–1533 (1993).
[Crossref]

Nanomaterials (2)

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, L. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Zhang, and G. Du, “Carbon-Related Defects as a Source for theEnhancement of Yellow Luminescence ofUnintentionally Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(9), 744 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Liang, D. Zhao, D. Jiang, Z. Liu, J. Zhu, P. Chen, J. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Xing, and L. Zhang, “Role of Si and C Impurities in Yellow and Blue Luminescence of Unintentionally and Si-Doped GaN,” Nanomaterials 8(12), 1026 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Philos. Mag. A (1)

T. Metzger, R. Höpler, E. Born, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, R. Stömmer, M. Schuster, H. Göbel, S. Christiansen, M. Albrecht, and H. P. Strunk, “Defect structure of epitaxial GaN films determined by transmission electron microscopy and triple-axis X-ray diffractometry,” Philos. Mag. A 77(4), 1013–1025 (1998).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

Y. T. Moon, Y. Fu, F. Yun, S. Dogan, M. Mikkelson, D. Johnstone, and H. Morkoç, “A study of GaN regrowth on the micro-facetted GaN template formed by in-situ thermal etching,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(5), 718–721 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

Y. S. Cho, H. Hardtdegen, N. Kaluza, N. Thillosen, R. Steins, Z. Sofer, and H. Lüth, “Effect of carrier gas on GaN epilayer characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi C 3(6), 1408–1411 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19955 (2016).
[Crossref]

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S. Nakamura, “III-V nitride based light-emitting devices,” Solid State Commun. 102(2-3), 237–248 (1997).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Growth condition. (a) TMGa flow rate, (b) NH3 flow rate, (c) temperature, and (d) pressure.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. AFM and SEM images of GaN epilayers grow with different carrier gas. The AFM of (a) sample A (5×5 µm2), (b) sample B (50×50 µm2), and (c) sample C (5×5 µm2). The SEM of (d) sample A (e) Sample B and (f) sample C.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The SEM images of (a) before corrosion and (b) after corrosion.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The Raman spectra of sample A, B, and C (a) ranging from 300 to 800 cm-1. (b) ranging from 560 to 576 cm-1.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Raman mapping of (a) E2 (high) mode intensity, (b) E2 (high) mode peak frequency, and (c) E2 (high) mode FWHM.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The PL spectra of (a) samples A, B (flat, conical and snowflake-like regions) and Crangingfrom 300 nm to 600 nm, (b) samples A and C near 365 nm, and (c) flat, conical and snowflake-like regions of sample B ranging from 320 nm to 500 nm.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. XRCs of sample A, B, and C with respect to (a) (002) and (b) (102) reflection.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. The reaction process of samples A, B and C
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. In-situ reflectance transients for all the samples.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. The experimental conditions of the sample A-C

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