Abstract

We report the feasibility of a MAX-phase material for implementation as a saturable absorber. Our saturable absorber was fabricated as a composite of Ti2AlC particles and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) using a sandwich-structured fiber-ferrule platform. The saturation intensity and modulation depth of the prepared SA were measured at ∼31.5 MW/cm2 and ∼6.3%, respectively. Using the Ti2AlC/PVA composite-based SA within an erbium-doped fiber laser ring cavity, stable Q-switched pulses were readily obtained at a wavelength of 1.56 µm. This experimental demonstration unveils the potential of micrometer-sized MAX-phase particles for implementation as low-cost, practical, saturable absorbers.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

2018 (6)

Y. I. Jhon, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Topological insulator for mode-locking of 2-µm fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1102208 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx(T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(2), 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, S. Chertopalov, K. Maleski, B. Anasori, L. Hu, S. Bhattacharya, A. M. Rao, Y. Gogotsi, V. N. Mochalin, and R. Podila, “Saturable absorption in 2D Ti3C2 MXene thin films for passive photonic diodes,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705714 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Sun, B. Zhang, B. Yan, G. Li, H. Nie, K. Yang, C. Zhang, and J. He, “Few-layer Ti3C2Tx (T = O, OH, or F) saturable absorber for a femtosecond bulk laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(16), 3862–3865 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, Y. Kim, K. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Femtosecond mode-locking of a fiber laser using a CoSb3-skutterudite-based saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(10), C36–C43 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (8)

Y. Du, J.-X. Liu, Y. Gu, X.-G. Wang, F. Xu, and G.-J. Zhang, “Anisotropic corrosion of Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2 in supercritical water at 500°C,” Ceram. Int. 43(9), 7166–7171 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, S. H. Lim, D. M. Y. Lai, S. Y. Tan, X. Q. Koh, J. Chai, S. J. Wang, H. Jin, and J. S. Pan, “Probing the oxidation behavior of Ti2AlC MAX phase powders between 200 and 1000°C,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 37(1), 43–51 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Kong, K. Feng, Y. Bai, N. Li, X. Qi, Y. Zheng, R. Wang, and X. He, “Oxidation behavior of high-purity nonstoichiometric Ti2AlC powders in flowing air,” J. Mater. Res. 32(14), 2747–2754 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Krinitcyn, Z. Fu, J. Harris, K. Kostikov, G. A. Pribytkov, P. Greil, and N. Travitzky, “Laminated object manufacturing of in-situ synthesized MAX-phase composites,” Ceram. Int. 43(12), 9241–9245 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, J. Liu, L. Wang, X. Li, P. Ke, and A. Wang, “Dense and high-stability Ti2AlN MAX phase coatings prepared by the combined cathodic arc/sputter technique,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 396, 1435–1442 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. I. Jhon, J. Koo, B. Anasori, M. Seo, J. H. Lee, Y. Gogotsi, and Y. M. Jhon, “Metallic MXene saturable absorber for femtosecond mode-locked lasers,” Adv. Mater. 29(40), 1702496 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, B.-K. Yu, Y. I. Jhon, J. Koo, S. J. Kim, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Filled skutterudites for broadband saturable absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(11), 1700096 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “All-fiberized, femtosecond laser at 1912 nm using a bulk-like MoSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(8), 2968–2979 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (13)

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Koo, Y. I. Jhon, J. Park, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Near-infrared saturable absorption of defective bulk-structured WTe2 for femtosecond laser mode-locking,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(41), 7454–7461 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23583 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, X. Zhang, C. Guo, K. Wu, J. Chen, and J. Wang, “Tungsten diselenide Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 081306 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “End-to-end self-assembly of gold nanorods in water solution for absorption enhancement at a 1-to-2 µm band for a broadband saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(22), 5250–5257 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Lee, J. Koo, H. Chung, and J. H. Lee, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched, erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a bulk-structured bismuth telluride/polyvinyl alcohol saturable absorber,” Opt. Eng. 55(7), 076109 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Bogusławski, G. Sobon, K. Tarnowski, R. Zybała, K. Mars, A. Mikuła, K. M. Abramski, and J. Sotor, “All-polarization-maintaining-fiber laser Q-switched by evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 081316 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Ko, J. Lee, J. Koo, B. S. Joo, M. Gu, and J. H. Lee, “Chemical wet etching of an optical fiber using a hydrogen fluoride-free solution for a saturable absorber based on the evanescent field interaction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(16), 3776–3784 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Lee, J. Koo, and J. H. Lee, “Graphite saturable absorber based on the pencil-sketching method for Q-switching of an erbium fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 55(2), 303–309 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, X. Zheng, K. Yin, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Nanosecond passively Q-switched thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser based on black phosphorus nanoplatelets,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(2), 603–609 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Halim, K. M. Cook, M. Naguib, P. Eklund, Y. Gogotsi, J. Rosen, and M. W. Barsoum, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of select multi-layered transition metal carbides (MXenes),” Appl. Surf. Sci. 362, 406–417 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Haftani, M. S. Heydari, H. R. Baharvandi, and N. Ehsani, “Studying the oxidation of Ti2AlC MAX phase in atmosphere: A review,” Int. J. Refract. Hard Met. 61, 51–60 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Thomas and C. R. Bowen, “Effect of particle size on the formation of Ti2AlC using combustion synthesis,” Ceram. Int. 42(3), 4150–4157 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (11)

S. Shu, C. Tong, F. Qiu, and Q. Jiang, “Effect of ceramic content on the compression properties of TiB2-Ti2AlC/TiAl composites,” Metals 5(4), 2200–2209 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, C. Duan, C. Yang, W. Shen, F. Wang, and Z. Zhu, “A novel nitrite biosensor based on the direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin immobilized on MXene-Ti3C2,” Sens. Actuators, B 218, 60–66 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W.-K. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y.-W. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. 527(11-12), 770–776 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Mashtalir, M. R. Lukatskaya, M.-Q. Zhao, M. W. Barsoum, and Y. Gogotsi, “Amine-assisted delamination of Nb2C MXene for Li-ion energy storage devices,” Adv. Mater. 27(23), 3501–3506 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, M. R. K. Soltanian, L. Narimani, I. S. Amiri, A. Khodaei, and S. W. Harun, “Tunable S-band Q-switched fiber laser using Bi2Se3 as the saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Park, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked, 1.94-µm, all-fiberized laser using WS2 based evanescent field interaction,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19996–20006 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17482 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, T. H. Runcorn, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, E. J. R. Kelleher, and T. Hasan, “Wideband saturable absorption in few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for Q-switching Yb-, Er- and Tm-doped fiber,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20051–20061 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (10)

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. Che, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25258–25266 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935 nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7865–7874 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2 µm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Xie, Y. Xue, L. Li, S. Chen, Y. Nie, W. Ding, and Z. Wei, “Surface Al leached Ti3AlC2 as a substitute for carbon for use as a catalyst support in a harsh corrosive electrochemical system,” Nanoscale 6(19), 11035–11040 (2014).
[Crossref]

X.-D. Wang, Z.-C. Luo, H. Liu, M. Liu, A.-P. Luo, and W.-C. Xu, “Microfiber-based gold nanorods as saturable absorber for femtosecond pulse generation in a fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(16), 161107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Peng, J. Guo, Q. Zhang, J. Xiang, B. Liu, A. Zhou, R. Liu, and Y. Tian, “Unique lead adsorption behavior of activated hydroxyl group in two-dimensional titanium carbide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(11), 4113–4116 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Halim, M. R. Lukatskaya, K. M. Code, J. Lu, C. R. Smith, L-Å. Näslund, S. J. May, L. Hultman, Y. Gogotsi, P. Eklund, and M. W. Barsoum, “Transparent conductive two-dimensional titanium carbide epitaxial thin films,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2374–2381 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Ghidiu, M. R. Lukatskaya, M.-Q. Zhao, Y. Gogotsi, and M. W. Barsoum, “Conductive two-dimensional titanium carbide ‘clay’ with high volumetric capacitance,” Nature 516(7529), 78–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (3)

J. Xu, J. Liu, S. Wu, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15474–15480 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. N. Hoffman, D. W. Vinson, R. L. Sindelar, D. J. Tallman, G. Kohse, and M. W. Barsoum, “MAX phase carbides and nitrides: properties for future nuclear power plant in-core applications and neutron transmutation analysis,” Nucl. Eng. Des. 244, 17–24 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

Z. M. Sun, “Progress in research and development on MAX phases: a family of layered ternary compounds,” Int. Mater. Rev. 56(3), 143–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

G.-R. Lin and Y.-C. Lin, “Directly exfoliated and imprinted graphite nano-particle saturable absorber for passive mode-locking erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(12), 880–886 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W.-K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. H. Wang and Y. C. Zhou, “Layered machinable and electrically conductive Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2 ceramics: a review,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 385–416 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Q. Chen, Y. T. Pei, K. P. Shaha, J. Th, and M. De Hosson, “Tunable self-organization of nanocomposite multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073103 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yang, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 148–150 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. W. Byeon, J. Liu, M. Hopkins, W. Fishcer, N. Garimella, K. B. Park, M. P. Brady, M. Radovic, T. El-Raghy, and Y. H. Sohn, “Microstructure and residual stress of alumina scale formed on Ti2AlC at high temperature in air,” Oxid. Met. 68(1-2), 97–111 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

X. H. Wang and Y. C. Zhou, “High-temperature oxidation behavior of Ti2AlC in air,” Oxid. Met. 59(3-4), 303–320 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. W. Barsoum and T. El-Raghy, “The MAX phases: unique new carbide and nitride materials,” Am. Sci. 89(4), 334–343 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

R. N. Zitter, “Saturated optical absorption through band filling in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14(2), 73–74 (1969).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K. M.

J. Bogusławski, G. Sobon, K. Tarnowski, R. Zybała, K. Mars, A. Mikuła, K. M. Abramski, and J. Sotor, “All-polarization-maintaining-fiber laser Q-switched by evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 081316 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, H.

H. Ahmad, M. R. K. Soltanian, L. Narimani, I. S. Amiri, A. Khodaei, and S. W. Harun, “Tunable S-band Q-switched fiber laser using Bi2Se3 as the saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Amiri, I. S.

H. Ahmad, M. R. K. Soltanian, L. Narimani, I. S. Amiri, A. Khodaei, and S. W. Harun, “Tunable S-band Q-switched fiber laser using Bi2Se3 as the saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Anasori, B.

Y. Dong, S. Chertopalov, K. Maleski, B. Anasori, L. Hu, S. Bhattacharya, A. M. Rao, Y. Gogotsi, V. N. Mochalin, and R. Podila, “Saturable absorption in 2D Ti3C2 MXene thin films for passive photonic diodes,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705714 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. I. Jhon, J. Koo, B. Anasori, M. Seo, J. H. Lee, Y. Gogotsi, and Y. M. Jhon, “Metallic MXene saturable absorber for femtosecond mode-locked lasers,” Adv. Mater. 29(40), 1702496 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baharvandi, H. R.

M. Haftani, M. S. Heydari, H. R. Baharvandi, and N. Ehsani, “Studying the oxidation of Ti2AlC MAX phase in atmosphere: A review,” Int. J. Refract. Hard Met. 61, 51–60 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y.

F. Kong, K. Feng, Y. Bai, N. Li, X. Qi, Y. Zheng, R. Wang, and X. He, “Oxidation behavior of high-purity nonstoichiometric Ti2AlC powders in flowing air,” J. Mater. Res. 32(14), 2747–2754 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx(T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(2), 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yang, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barsoum, M. W.

J. Halim, K. M. Cook, M. Naguib, P. Eklund, Y. Gogotsi, J. Rosen, and M. W. Barsoum, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of select multi-layered transition metal carbides (MXenes),” Appl. Surf. Sci. 362, 406–417 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Mashtalir, M. R. Lukatskaya, M.-Q. Zhao, M. W. Barsoum, and Y. Gogotsi, “Amine-assisted delamination of Nb2C MXene for Li-ion energy storage devices,” Adv. Mater. 27(23), 3501–3506 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ghidiu, M. R. Lukatskaya, M.-Q. Zhao, Y. Gogotsi, and M. W. Barsoum, “Conductive two-dimensional titanium carbide ‘clay’ with high volumetric capacitance,” Nature 516(7529), 78–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Halim, M. R. Lukatskaya, K. M. Code, J. Lu, C. R. Smith, L-Å. Näslund, S. J. May, L. Hultman, Y. Gogotsi, P. Eklund, and M. W. Barsoum, “Transparent conductive two-dimensional titanium carbide epitaxial thin films,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2374–2381 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. N. Hoffman, D. W. Vinson, R. L. Sindelar, D. J. Tallman, G. Kohse, and M. W. Barsoum, “MAX phase carbides and nitrides: properties for future nuclear power plant in-core applications and neutron transmutation analysis,” Nucl. Eng. Des. 244, 17–24 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. W. Barsoum and T. El-Raghy, “The MAX phases: unique new carbide and nitride materials,” Am. Sci. 89(4), 334–343 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, S.

Y. Dong, S. Chertopalov, K. Maleski, B. Anasori, L. Hu, S. Bhattacharya, A. M. Rao, Y. Gogotsi, V. N. Mochalin, and R. Podila, “Saturable absorption in 2D Ti3C2 MXene thin films for passive photonic diodes,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705714 (2018).
[Crossref]

Boguslawski, J.

J. Bogusławski, G. Sobon, K. Tarnowski, R. Zybała, K. Mars, A. Mikuła, K. M. Abramski, and J. Sotor, “All-polarization-maintaining-fiber laser Q-switched by evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 081316 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bowen, C. R.

T. Thomas and C. R. Bowen, “Effect of particle size on the formation of Ti2AlC using combustion synthesis,” Ceram. Int. 42(3), 4150–4157 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brady, M. P.

J. W. Byeon, J. Liu, M. Hopkins, W. Fishcer, N. Garimella, K. B. Park, M. P. Brady, M. Radovic, T. El-Raghy, and Y. H. Sohn, “Microstructure and residual stress of alumina scale formed on Ti2AlC at high temperature in air,” Oxid. Met. 68(1-2), 97–111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Byeon, J. W.

J. W. Byeon, J. Liu, M. Hopkins, W. Fishcer, N. Garimella, K. B. Park, M. P. Brady, M. Radovic, T. El-Raghy, and Y. H. Sohn, “Microstructure and residual stress of alumina scale formed on Ti2AlC at high temperature in air,” Oxid. Met. 68(1-2), 97–111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z.

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2 µm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. Che, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25258–25266 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cao, R.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx(T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(2), 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chai, J.

Z. Zhang, S. H. Lim, D. M. Y. Lai, S. Y. Tan, X. Q. Koh, J. Chai, S. J. Wang, H. Jin, and J. S. Pan, “Probing the oxidation behavior of Ti2AlC MAX phase powders between 200 and 1000°C,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 37(1), 43–51 (2017).
[Crossref]

Che, K.

Chen, B.

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, X. Zhang, C. Guo, K. Wu, J. Chen, and J. Wang, “Tungsten diselenide Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 081306 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Q.

C. Q. Chen, Y. T. Pei, K. P. Shaha, J. Th, and M. De Hosson, “Tunable self-organization of nanocomposite multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, X. Zhang, C. Guo, K. Wu, J. Chen, and J. Wang, “Tungsten diselenide Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 081306 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17482 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Xie, Y. Xue, L. Li, S. Chen, Y. Nie, W. Ding, and Z. Wei, “Surface Al leached Ti3AlC2 as a substitute for carbon for use as a catalyst support in a harsh corrosive electrochemical system,” Nanoscale 6(19), 11035–11040 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, X.

Chertopalov, S.

Y. Dong, S. Chertopalov, K. Maleski, B. Anasori, L. Hu, S. Bhattacharya, A. M. Rao, Y. Gogotsi, V. N. Mochalin, and R. Podila, “Saturable absorption in 2D Ti3C2 MXene thin films for passive photonic diodes,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705714 (2018).
[Crossref]

Choi, W.-K.

K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W.-K. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y.-W. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. 527(11-12), 770–776 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chung, H.

J. Lee, J. Lee, J. Koo, H. Chung, and J. H. Lee, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched, erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a bulk-structured bismuth telluride/polyvinyl alcohol saturable absorber,” Opt. Eng. 55(7), 076109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Code, K. M.

J. Halim, M. R. Lukatskaya, K. M. Code, J. Lu, C. R. Smith, L-Å. Näslund, S. J. May, L. Hultman, Y. Gogotsi, P. Eklund, and M. W. Barsoum, “Transparent conductive two-dimensional titanium carbide epitaxial thin films,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2374–2381 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cook, K. M.

J. Halim, K. M. Cook, M. Naguib, P. Eklund, Y. Gogotsi, J. Rosen, and M. W. Barsoum, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of select multi-layered transition metal carbides (MXenes),” Appl. Surf. Sci. 362, 406–417 (2016).
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Cui, X.

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J. Lee, Y. Kim, K. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Femtosecond mode-locking of a fiber laser using a CoSb3-skutterudite-based saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(10), C36–C43 (2018).
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Y. I. Jhon, J. Koo, B. Anasori, M. Seo, J. H. Lee, Y. Gogotsi, and Y. M. Jhon, “Metallic MXene saturable absorber for femtosecond mode-locked lasers,” Adv. Mater. 29(40), 1702496 (2017).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Lee, J. Koo, H. Chung, and J. H. Lee, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched, erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a bulk-structured bismuth telluride/polyvinyl alcohol saturable absorber,” Opt. Eng. 55(7), 076109 (2016).
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M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935 nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7865–7874 (2014).
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Y. I. Jhon, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Topological insulator for mode-locking of 2-µm fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1102208 (2018).
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J. Lee, Y. Kim, K. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Femtosecond mode-locking of a fiber laser using a CoSb3-skutterudite-based saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(10), C36–C43 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, B.-K. Yu, Y. I. Jhon, J. Koo, S. J. Kim, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Filled skutterudites for broadband saturable absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(11), 1700096 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “All-fiberized, femtosecond laser at 1912 nm using a bulk-like MoSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(8), 2968–2979 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “All-fiberized, femtosecond laser at 1912 nm using a bulk-like MoSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(8), 2968–2979 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Koo, Y. I. Jhon, J. Park, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Near-infrared saturable absorption of defective bulk-structured WTe2 for femtosecond laser mode-locking,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(41), 7454–7461 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “End-to-end self-assembly of gold nanorods in water solution for absorption enhancement at a 1-to-2 µm band for a broadband saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(22), 5250–5257 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “End-to-end self-assembly of gold nanorods in water solution for absorption enhancement at a 1-to-2 µm band for a broadband saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(22), 5250–5257 (2016).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Lee, J. Koo, H. Chung, and J. H. Lee, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched, erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a bulk-structured bismuth telluride/polyvinyl alcohol saturable absorber,” Opt. Eng. 55(7), 076109 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Lee, J. Koo, and J. H. Lee, “Graphite saturable absorber based on the pencil-sketching method for Q-switching of an erbium fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 55(2), 303–309 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Lee, J. Koo, and J. H. Lee, “Graphite saturable absorber based on the pencil-sketching method for Q-switching of an erbium fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 55(2), 303–309 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Ko, J. Lee, J. Koo, B. S. Joo, M. Gu, and J. H. Lee, “Chemical wet etching of an optical fiber using a hydrogen fluoride-free solution for a saturable absorber based on the evanescent field interaction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(16), 3776–3784 (2016).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

Y. I. Jhon, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Topological insulator for mode-locking of 2-µm fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1102208 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, Y. Kim, K. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Femtosecond mode-locking of a fiber laser using a CoSb3-skutterudite-based saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(10), C36–C43 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, B.-K. Yu, Y. I. Jhon, J. Koo, S. J. Kim, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Filled skutterudites for broadband saturable absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(11), 1700096 (2017).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “All-fiberized, femtosecond laser at 1912 nm using a bulk-like MoSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(8), 2968–2979 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Koo, Y. I. Jhon, J. Park, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Near-infrared saturable absorption of defective bulk-structured WTe2 for femtosecond laser mode-locking,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(41), 7454–7461 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “End-to-end self-assembly of gold nanorods in water solution for absorption enhancement at a 1-to-2 µm band for a broadband saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(22), 5250–5257 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Lee, J. Koo, H. Chung, and J. H. Lee, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched, erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a bulk-structured bismuth telluride/polyvinyl alcohol saturable absorber,” Opt. Eng. 55(7), 076109 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Lee, J. Koo, and J. H. Lee, “Graphite saturable absorber based on the pencil-sketching method for Q-switching of an erbium fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 55(2), 303–309 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Ko, J. Lee, J. Koo, B. S. Joo, M. Gu, and J. H. Lee, “Chemical wet etching of an optical fiber using a hydrogen fluoride-free solution for a saturable absorber based on the evanescent field interaction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(16), 3776–3784 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Park, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked, 1.94-µm, all-fiberized laser using WS2 based evanescent field interaction,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19996–20006 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W.-K. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y.-W. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. 527(11-12), 770–776 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935 nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7865–7874 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

J. Lee, Y. Kim, K. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Femtosecond mode-locking of a fiber laser using a CoSb3-skutterudite-based saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(10), C36–C43 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935 nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7865–7874 (2014).
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J. Bogusławski, G. Sobon, K. Tarnowski, R. Zybała, K. Mars, A. Mikuła, K. M. Abramski, and J. Sotor, “All-polarization-maintaining-fiber laser Q-switched by evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 081316 (2016).
[Crossref]

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorber for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mashtalir, O.

O. Mashtalir, M. R. Lukatskaya, M.-Q. Zhao, M. W. Barsoum, and Y. Gogotsi, “Amine-assisted delamination of Nb2C MXene for Li-ion energy storage devices,” Adv. Mater. 27(23), 3501–3506 (2015).
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U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
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May, S. J.

J. Halim, M. R. Lukatskaya, K. M. Code, J. Lu, C. R. Smith, L-Å. Näslund, S. J. May, L. Hultman, Y. Gogotsi, P. Eklund, and M. W. Barsoum, “Transparent conductive two-dimensional titanium carbide epitaxial thin films,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2374–2381 (2014).
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Mei, T.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7965 (2015).
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Miao, L.

Mikula, A.

J. Bogusławski, G. Sobon, K. Tarnowski, R. Zybała, K. Mars, A. Mikuła, K. M. Abramski, and J. Sotor, “All-polarization-maintaining-fiber laser Q-switched by evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 081316 (2016).
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Mochalin, V. N.

Y. Dong, S. Chertopalov, K. Maleski, B. Anasori, L. Hu, S. Bhattacharya, A. M. Rao, Y. Gogotsi, V. N. Mochalin, and R. Podila, “Saturable absorption in 2D Ti3C2 MXene thin films for passive photonic diodes,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705714 (2018).
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Naguib, M.

J. Halim, K. M. Cook, M. Naguib, P. Eklund, Y. Gogotsi, J. Rosen, and M. W. Barsoum, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of select multi-layered transition metal carbides (MXenes),” Appl. Surf. Sci. 362, 406–417 (2016).
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Narimani, L.

H. Ahmad, M. R. K. Soltanian, L. Narimani, I. S. Amiri, A. Khodaei, and S. W. Harun, “Tunable S-band Q-switched fiber laser using Bi2Se3 as the saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

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J. Halim, M. R. Lukatskaya, K. M. Code, J. Lu, C. R. Smith, L-Å. Näslund, S. J. May, L. Hultman, Y. Gogotsi, P. Eklund, and M. W. Barsoum, “Transparent conductive two-dimensional titanium carbide epitaxial thin films,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2374–2381 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yang, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nie, H.

Nie, Y.

X. Xie, Y. Xue, L. Li, S. Chen, Y. Nie, W. Ding, and Z. Wei, “Surface Al leached Ti3AlC2 as a substitute for carbon for use as a catalyst support in a harsh corrosive electrochemical system,” Nanoscale 6(19), 11035–11040 (2014).
[Crossref]

Paletko, P.

Pan, J. S.

Z. Zhang, S. H. Lim, D. M. Y. Lai, S. Y. Tan, X. Q. Koh, J. Chai, S. J. Wang, H. Jin, and J. S. Pan, “Probing the oxidation behavior of Ti2AlC MAX phase powders between 200 and 1000°C,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 37(1), 43–51 (2017).
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Park, J.

Park, K.

K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W.-K. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y.-W. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. 527(11-12), 770–776 (2015).
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J. W. Byeon, J. Liu, M. Hopkins, W. Fishcer, N. Garimella, K. B. Park, M. P. Brady, M. Radovic, T. El-Raghy, and Y. H. Sohn, “Microstructure and residual stress of alumina scale formed on Ti2AlC at high temperature in air,” Oxid. Met. 68(1-2), 97–111 (2007).
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Pei, Y. T.

C. Q. Chen, Y. T. Pei, K. P. Shaha, J. Th, and M. De Hosson, “Tunable self-organization of nanocomposite multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073103 (2010).
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Peng, J.

Peng, Q.

Q. Peng, J. Guo, Q. Zhang, J. Xiang, B. Liu, A. Zhou, R. Liu, and Y. Tian, “Unique lead adsorption behavior of activated hydroxyl group in two-dimensional titanium carbide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(11), 4113–4116 (2014).
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Peng, T.

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Podila, R.

Y. Dong, S. Chertopalov, K. Maleski, B. Anasori, L. Hu, S. Bhattacharya, A. M. Rao, Y. Gogotsi, V. N. Mochalin, and R. Podila, “Saturable absorption in 2D Ti3C2 MXene thin films for passive photonic diodes,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705714 (2018).
[Crossref]

Popa, D.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[Crossref]

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M. Krinitcyn, Z. Fu, J. Harris, K. Kostikov, G. A. Pribytkov, P. Greil, and N. Travitzky, “Laminated object manufacturing of in-situ synthesized MAX-phase composites,” Ceram. Int. 43(12), 9241–9245 (2017).
[Crossref]

Qi, X.

F. Kong, K. Feng, Y. Bai, N. Li, X. Qi, Y. Zheng, R. Wang, and X. He, “Oxidation behavior of high-purity nonstoichiometric Ti2AlC powders in flowing air,” J. Mater. Res. 32(14), 2747–2754 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Qin, G.

Qin, W.

Qiu, F.

S. Shu, C. Tong, F. Qiu, and Q. Jiang, “Effect of ceramic content on the compression properties of TiB2-Ti2AlC/TiAl composites,” Metals 5(4), 2200–2209 (2015).
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J. W. Byeon, J. Liu, M. Hopkins, W. Fishcer, N. Garimella, K. B. Park, M. P. Brady, M. Radovic, T. El-Raghy, and Y. H. Sohn, “Microstructure and residual stress of alumina scale formed on Ti2AlC at high temperature in air,” Oxid. Met. 68(1-2), 97–111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rao, A. M.

Y. Dong, S. Chertopalov, K. Maleski, B. Anasori, L. Hu, S. Bhattacharya, A. M. Rao, Y. Gogotsi, V. N. Mochalin, and R. Podila, “Saturable absorption in 2D Ti3C2 MXene thin films for passive photonic diodes,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705714 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rosen, J.

J. Halim, K. M. Cook, M. Naguib, P. Eklund, Y. Gogotsi, J. Rosen, and M. W. Barsoum, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of select multi-layered transition metal carbides (MXenes),” Appl. Surf. Sci. 362, 406–417 (2016).
[Crossref]

Runcorn, T. H.

Seo, M.

Y. I. Jhon, J. Koo, B. Anasori, M. Seo, J. H. Lee, Y. Gogotsi, and Y. M. Jhon, “Metallic MXene saturable absorber for femtosecond mode-locked lasers,” Adv. Mater. 29(40), 1702496 (2017).
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Shaha, K. P.

C. Q. Chen, Y. T. Pei, K. P. Shaha, J. Th, and M. De Hosson, “Tunable self-organization of nanocomposite multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073103 (2010).
[Crossref]

She, X.

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23583 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shen, W.

H. Liu, C. Duan, C. Yang, W. Shen, F. Wang, and Z. Zhu, “A novel nitrite biosensor based on the direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin immobilized on MXene-Ti3C2,” Sens. Actuators, B 218, 60–66 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z. X.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yang, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shu, S.

S. Shu, C. Tong, F. Qiu, and Q. Jiang, “Effect of ceramic content on the compression properties of TiB2-Ti2AlC/TiAl composites,” Metals 5(4), 2200–2209 (2015).
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Sindelar, R. L.

E. N. Hoffman, D. W. Vinson, R. L. Sindelar, D. J. Tallman, G. Kohse, and M. W. Barsoum, “MAX phase carbides and nitrides: properties for future nuclear power plant in-core applications and neutron transmutation analysis,” Nucl. Eng. Des. 244, 17–24 (2012).
[Crossref]

Smith, C. R.

J. Halim, M. R. Lukatskaya, K. M. Code, J. Lu, C. R. Smith, L-Å. Näslund, S. J. May, L. Hultman, Y. Gogotsi, P. Eklund, and M. W. Barsoum, “Transparent conductive two-dimensional titanium carbide epitaxial thin films,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2374–2381 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sobon, G.

J. Bogusławski, G. Sobon, K. Tarnowski, R. Zybała, K. Mars, A. Mikuła, K. M. Abramski, and J. Sotor, “All-polarization-maintaining-fiber laser Q-switched by evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 081316 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
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J. W. Byeon, J. Liu, M. Hopkins, W. Fishcer, N. Garimella, K. B. Park, M. P. Brady, M. Radovic, T. El-Raghy, and Y. H. Sohn, “Microstructure and residual stress of alumina scale formed on Ti2AlC at high temperature in air,” Oxid. Met. 68(1-2), 97–111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Soltanian, M. R. K.

H. Ahmad, M. R. K. Soltanian, L. Narimani, I. S. Amiri, A. Khodaei, and S. W. Harun, “Tunable S-band Q-switched fiber laser using Bi2Se3 as the saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Song, K.

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.-W.

Sotor, J.

J. Bogusławski, G. Sobon, K. Tarnowski, R. Zybała, K. Mars, A. Mikuła, K. M. Abramski, and J. Sotor, “All-polarization-maintaining-fiber laser Q-switched by evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 081316 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
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Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2 µm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).
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Sun, Z.

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorber for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
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D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
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Z. M. Sun, “Progress in research and development on MAX phases: a family of layered ternary compounds,” Int. Mater. Rev. 56(3), 143–166 (2011).
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Tallman, D. J.

E. N. Hoffman, D. W. Vinson, R. L. Sindelar, D. J. Tallman, G. Kohse, and M. W. Barsoum, “MAX phase carbides and nitrides: properties for future nuclear power plant in-core applications and neutron transmutation analysis,” Nucl. Eng. Des. 244, 17–24 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tan, S. Y.

Z. Zhang, S. H. Lim, D. M. Y. Lai, S. Y. Tan, X. Q. Koh, J. Chai, S. J. Wang, H. Jin, and J. S. Pan, “Probing the oxidation behavior of Ti2AlC MAX phase powders between 200 and 1000°C,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 37(1), 43–51 (2017).
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Tanaka, Y.

Tang, D.

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
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C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
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Tang, D. Y.

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yang, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tarnowski, K.

J. Bogusławski, G. Sobon, K. Tarnowski, R. Zybała, K. Mars, A. Mikuła, K. M. Abramski, and J. Sotor, “All-polarization-maintaining-fiber laser Q-switched by evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 081316 (2016).
[Crossref]

Th, J.

C. Q. Chen, Y. T. Pei, K. P. Shaha, J. Th, and M. De Hosson, “Tunable self-organization of nanocomposite multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073103 (2010).
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T. Thomas and C. R. Bowen, “Effect of particle size on the formation of Ti2AlC using combustion synthesis,” Ceram. Int. 42(3), 4150–4157 (2016).
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Q. Peng, J. Guo, Q. Zhang, J. Xiang, B. Liu, A. Zhou, R. Liu, and Y. Tian, “Unique lead adsorption behavior of activated hydroxyl group in two-dimensional titanium carbide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(11), 4113–4116 (2014).
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Tong, C.

S. Shu, C. Tong, F. Qiu, and Q. Jiang, “Effect of ceramic content on the compression properties of TiB2-Ti2AlC/TiAl composites,” Metals 5(4), 2200–2209 (2015).
[Crossref]

Torrisi, F.

Travitzky, N.

M. Krinitcyn, Z. Fu, J. Harris, K. Kostikov, G. A. Pribytkov, P. Greil, and N. Travitzky, “Laminated object manufacturing of in-situ synthesized MAX-phase composites,” Ceram. Int. 43(12), 9241–9245 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vinson, D. W.

E. N. Hoffman, D. W. Vinson, R. L. Sindelar, D. J. Tallman, G. Kohse, and M. W. Barsoum, “MAX phase carbides and nitrides: properties for future nuclear power plant in-core applications and neutron transmutation analysis,” Nucl. Eng. Des. 244, 17–24 (2012).
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Wang, A.

Z. Wang, J. Liu, L. Wang, X. Li, P. Ke, and A. Wang, “Dense and high-stability Ti2AlN MAX phase coatings prepared by the combined cathodic arc/sputter technique,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 396, 1435–1442 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

H. Liu, C. Duan, C. Yang, W. Shen, F. Wang, and Z. Zhu, “A novel nitrite biosensor based on the direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin immobilized on MXene-Ti3C2,” Sens. Actuators, B 218, 60–66 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx(T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(2), 1700229 (2018).
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B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723–26737 (2015).
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Wang, J.

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
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B. Chen, X. Zhang, C. Guo, K. Wu, J. Chen, and J. Wang, “Tungsten diselenide Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 081306 (2016).
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B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723–26737 (2015).
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Wang, L.

Z. Wang, J. Liu, L. Wang, X. Li, P. Ke, and A. Wang, “Dense and high-stability Ti2AlN MAX phase coatings prepared by the combined cathodic arc/sputter technique,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 396, 1435–1442 (2017).
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Wang, P.

Wang, R.

F. Kong, K. Feng, Y. Bai, N. Li, X. Qi, Y. Zheng, R. Wang, and X. He, “Oxidation behavior of high-purity nonstoichiometric Ti2AlC powders in flowing air,” J. Mater. Res. 32(14), 2747–2754 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. J.

Z. Zhang, S. H. Lim, D. M. Y. Lai, S. Y. Tan, X. Q. Koh, J. Chai, S. J. Wang, H. Jin, and J. S. Pan, “Probing the oxidation behavior of Ti2AlC MAX phase powders between 200 and 1000°C,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 37(1), 43–51 (2017).
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Wang, X. H.

X. H. Wang and Y. C. Zhou, “Layered machinable and electrically conductive Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2 ceramics: a review,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 385–416 (2010).
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X. H. Wang and Y. C. Zhou, “High-temperature oxidation behavior of Ti2AlC in air,” Oxid. Met. 59(3-4), 303–320 (2003).
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X.-D. Wang, Z.-C. Luo, H. Liu, M. Liu, A.-P. Luo, and W.-C. Xu, “Microfiber-based gold nanorods as saturable absorber for femtosecond pulse generation in a fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(16), 161107 (2014).
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Wang, X.-G.

Y. Du, J.-X. Liu, Y. Gu, X.-G. Wang, F. Xu, and G.-J. Zhang, “Anisotropic corrosion of Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2 in supercritical water at 500°C,” Ceram. Int. 43(9), 7166–7171 (2017).
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Wang, Y.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yang, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, J. Liu, L. Wang, X. Li, P. Ke, and A. Wang, “Dense and high-stability Ti2AlN MAX phase coatings prepared by the combined cathodic arc/sputter technique,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 396, 1435–1442 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
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Wei, L.

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W.-K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
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Wei, Z.

X. Xie, Y. Xue, L. Li, S. Chen, Y. Nie, W. Ding, and Z. Wei, “Surface Al leached Ti3AlC2 as a substitute for carbon for use as a catalyst support in a harsh corrosive electrochemical system,” Nanoscale 6(19), 11035–11040 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wen, Q.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx(T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(2), 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wen, S.

Wen, S. C.

Weng, J.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Photograph of our prepared Ti2AlC/PVA solution. (b) Measured SEM image of the Ti2AlC particles. (c) Measured SEM image of the Ti2AlC/PVA film deposited onto the flat surface of a fiber ferrule. Inset: Magnified SEM image around the core region.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Measured EDS spectrum of the Ti2AlC particles.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) profiles of (a) Ti 2p, (b) Al 2p, and (c) C 1s spectra from the Ti2AlC particles.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Linear optical absorption spectrum of the Ti2AlC/PVA composite and (b) nonlinear transmission curve of our prepared Ti2AlC/PVA-based SA.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Passively Q-switched fiber laser configuration.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Optical spectrum of the output pulse at a pump power of 74 mW. (b) Oscilloscope traces of the output pulses at a range of pump powers.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Repetition rate and temporal width of the output pulses as a function of pump power. (b) Pulse energy and average output power as a function of pump power.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Optical spectrum of the output pulses measured every 10 min for 1 hour.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Performance comparison of the present work to previous Q-switched Er-doped fiber lasers incorporating other saturable absorption materials

Equations (1)

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T(I)=1ΔTexp(IIsat)Tns

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