Abstract

Femtosecond laser direct writing (FLDW) enables precise three-dimensional structuring of transparent host materials such as fused silica. With this technique, reliable integrated optical circuits can be written, which are also a possible candidate for future quantum technologies. We demonstrate the manufacturing of integrated waveplates with arbitrary orientations and various phase delays by combining embedded birefringent nanograting structures and FLDW waveguides in fused silica glass. These waveplates can be used both for classical applications and for quantum gates.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729 (1996).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. Meany, M. Gräfe, R. Heilmann, A. Perez-Leija, S. Gross, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, and A. Szameit, “Laser written circuits for quantum photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 363–384 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. R. Herman, J. S. Aitchison, and P. V. Marques, “Stress induced birefringence tuning in femtosecond laser fabricated waveguides in fused silica,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24103–24114 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. V. Marques, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Strong birefringence tuning of optical waveguides with femtosecond laser irradiation of bulk fused silica and single mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(22), 3563–3569 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Heilmann, M. Gräfe, S. Nolte, and A. Szameit, “Arbitrary photonic wave plate operations on chip: realizing hadamard, pauli-x, and rotation gates for polarisation qubits,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4118 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. R. Herman, J. S. Aitchison, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser writing of waveguide retarders in fused silica for polarization control in optical circuits,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18294–18301 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. R. Herman, J. S. Aitchison, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of birefringent directional couplers as polarization beam splitters in fused silica,” Opt. Express 19(13), 11992–11999 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 566 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  13. J. Zeuner, A. N. Sharma, M. Tillmann, R. Heilmann, M. Gräfe, A. Moqanaki, A. Szameit, and P. Walther, “Integrated-optics heralded controlled-not gate for polarization-encoded qubits,” NPJ Quantum Inf. 4(1), 13 (2018).
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    [Crossref]
  18. L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171(4-6), 279–284 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  20. P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, “Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5280–5283 (2004).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  25. M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization sensitive elements fabricated by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(4), 783–795 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  27. M. Lancry, R. Desmarchelier, K. Cook, B. Poumellec, and J. Canning, “Compact birefringent waveplates photo-induced in silica by femtosecond laser,” Micromachines 5(4), 825–838 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  28. F. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Cheng, Y. Dai, and J. Qiu, “Fabrication of polarization-dependent light attenuator in fused silica using a low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(13), 2212–2214 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  29. Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  30. G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 $\mu$μm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1938–1940 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  31. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  32. A. R. De la Cruz, A. Ferrer, J. Del Hoyo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Modeling of astigmatic-elliptical beam shaping during fs-laser waveguide writing including beam truncation and diffraction effects,” Appl. Phys. A 104(2), 687–693 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  33. R. Keil, Y. Lahini, Y. Shechtman, M. Heinrich, R. Pugatch, F. Dreisow, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and A. Szameit, “Perfect imaging through a disordered waveguide lattice,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 809–811 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  34. J. Guan, X. Liu, P. S. Salter, and M. J. Booth, “Hybrid laser written waveguides in fused silica for low loss and polarization independence,” Opt. Express 25(5), 4845–4859 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  35. R. Heilmann, C. Greganti, M. Gräfe, S. Nolte, P. Walther, and A. Szameit, “Tapering of femtosecond laser-written waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 57(3), 377–381 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  36. I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, “An improved procedure to calculate the refractive index profile from the measured near-field intensity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 423–428 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  37. E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  38. J. L. Dodd, T. C. Ralph, and G. Milburn, “Experimental requirements for grover’s algorithm in optical quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 042328 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  39. J. L. O’brien, “Optical quantum computing,” Science 318(5856), 1567–1570 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  40. J. H. Burnett, Z. H. Levine, and E. L. Shirley, “Intrinsic birefringence in calcium fluoride and barium fluoride,” Phys. Rev. B 64(24), 241102 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  41. J. Qiu, P. Kazanski, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1940–1942 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  42. M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, and P. Kazansky, “Broadband anisotropy of femtosecond laser induced nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131903 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  43. A. Champion, M. Beresna, P. Kazansky, and Y. Bellouard, “Stress distribution around femtosecond laser affected zones: effect of nanogratings orientation,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24942–24951 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  44. B. McMillen and Y. Bellouard, “On the anisotropy of stress-distribution induced in glasses and crystals by non-ablative femtosecond laser exposure,” Opt. Express 23(1), 86–100 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  45. A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  46. L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 200503 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  47. P. O. Boykin, T. Mor, M. Pulver, V. Roychowdhury, and F. Vatan, “On universal and fault-tolerant quantum computing: a novel basis and a new constructive proof of universality for shor’s basis,” in Foundations of Computer Science, 1999. 40th Annual Symposium on (IEEE, 1999), pp. 486–494.
  48. R. Drevinskas and P. G. Kazansky, “High-performance geometric phase elements in silica glass,” APL Photonics 2(6), 066104 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  49. C.-K. Hong, Z.-Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(18), 2044–2046 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  50. S. Barz, “Quantum computing with photons: introduction to the circuit model, the one-way quantum computer, and the fundamental principles of photonic experiments,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 48(8), 083001 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

2018 (2)

R. Heilmann, C. Greganti, M. Gräfe, S. Nolte, P. Walther, and A. Szameit, “Tapering of femtosecond laser-written waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 57(3), 377–381 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zeuner, A. N. Sharma, M. Tillmann, R. Heilmann, M. Gräfe, A. Moqanaki, A. Szameit, and P. Walther, “Integrated-optics heralded controlled-not gate for polarization-encoded qubits,” NPJ Quantum Inf. 4(1), 13 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

I. Pitsios, F. Samara, G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, and R. Osellame, “Geometrically-controlled polarisation processing in femtosecond-laser-written photonic circuits,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11342 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Drevinskas and P. G. Kazansky, “High-performance geometric phase elements in silica glass,” APL Photonics 2(6), 066104 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Guan, X. Liu, P. S. Salter, and M. J. Booth, “Hybrid laser written waveguides in fused silica for low loss and polarization independence,” Opt. Express 25(5), 4845–4859 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Dyakonov, M. Y. Saygin, I. Kondratyev, A. Kalinkin, S. Straupe, and S. Kulik, “Laser-written polarizing directional coupler with reduced interaction length,” Opt. Lett. 42(20), 4231–4234 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, R. Desmarchelier, E. Hervé, and B. Bourguignon, “Parity violation in chiral structure creation under femtosecond laser irradiation in silica glass?” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(11), e16178 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

T. Meany, M. Gräfe, R. Heilmann, A. Perez-Leija, S. Gross, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, and A. Szameit, “Laser written circuits for quantum photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 363–384 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Barz, “Quantum computing with photons: introduction to the circuit model, the one-way quantum computer, and the fundamental principles of photonic experiments,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 48(8), 083001 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. McMillen and Y. Bellouard, “On the anisotropy of stress-distribution induced in glasses and crystals by non-ablative femtosecond laser exposure,” Opt. Express 23(1), 86–100 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

R. Heilmann, M. Gräfe, S. Nolte, and A. Szameit, “Arbitrary photonic wave plate operations on chip: realizing hadamard, pauli-x, and rotation gates for polarisation qubits,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4118 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, R. Geremia, R. Ramponi, L. Sansoni, A. Santinelli, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, and R. Osellame, “Rotated waveplates in integrated waveguide optics,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4249 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lancry, R. Desmarchelier, K. Cook, B. Poumellec, and J. Canning, “Compact birefringent waveplates photo-induced in silica by femtosecond laser,” Micromachines 5(4), 825–838 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

2012 (2)

2011 (7)

A. R. De la Cruz, A. Ferrer, J. Del Hoyo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Modeling of astigmatic-elliptical beam shaping during fs-laser waveguide writing including beam truncation and diffraction effects,” Appl. Phys. A 104(2), 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. R. Herman, J. S. Aitchison, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of birefringent directional couplers as polarization beam splitters in fused silica,” Opt. Express 19(13), 11992–11999 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization sensitive elements fabricated by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(4), 783–795 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. R. Herman, J. S. Aitchison, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser writing of waveguide retarders in fused silica for polarization control in optical circuits,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18294–18301 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. A 104(2), 503–507 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 566 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 200503 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. L. O’brien, “Optical quantum computing,” Science 318(5856), 1567–1570 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. B. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, “Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5280–5283 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. L. Dodd, T. C. Ralph, and G. Milburn, “Experimental requirements for grover’s algorithm in optical quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 042328 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

J. H. Burnett, Z. H. Levine, and E. L. Shirley, “Intrinsic birefringence in calcium fluoride and barium fluoride,” Phys. Rev. B 64(24), 241102 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Qiu, P. Kazanski, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1940–1942 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171(4-6), 279–284 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, “An improved procedure to calculate the refractive index profile from the measured near-field intensity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 423–428 (1996).
[Crossref]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729 (1996).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

C.-K. Hong, Z.-Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(18), 2044–2046 (1987).
[Crossref]

Aitchison, J. S.

Arbabi, A.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barz, S.

S. Barz, “Quantum computing with photons: introduction to the circuit model, the one-way quantum computer, and the fundamental principles of photonic experiments,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 48(8), 083001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bellouard, Y.

Beresna, M.

A. Champion, M. Beresna, P. Kazansky, and Y. Bellouard, “Stress distribution around femtosecond laser affected zones: effect of nanogratings orientation,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24942–24951 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, and P. Kazansky, “Broadband anisotropy of femtosecond laser induced nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131903 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization sensitive elements fabricated by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(4), 783–795 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bongioanni, I.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 566 (2011).
[Crossref]

Booth, M. J.

Bourguignon, B.

B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, R. Desmarchelier, E. Hervé, and B. Bourguignon, “Parity violation in chiral structure creation under femtosecond laser irradiation in silica glass?” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(11), e16178 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boykin, P. O.

P. O. Boykin, T. Mor, M. Pulver, V. Roychowdhury, and F. Vatan, “On universal and fault-tolerant quantum computing: a novel basis and a new constructive proof of universality for shor’s basis,” in Foundations of Computer Science, 1999. 40th Annual Symposium on (IEEE, 1999), pp. 486–494.

Burnett, J. H.

J. H. Burnett, Z. H. Levine, and E. L. Shirley, “Intrinsic birefringence in calcium fluoride and barium fluoride,” Phys. Rev. B 64(24), 241102 (2001).
[Crossref]

Burns, G. R.

P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, “Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5280–5283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Caccavale, F.

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, “An improved procedure to calculate the refractive index profile from the measured near-field intensity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 423–428 (1996).
[Crossref]

Canning, J.

M. Lancry, R. Desmarchelier, K. Cook, B. Poumellec, and J. Canning, “Compact birefringent waveplates photo-induced in silica by femtosecond laser,” Micromachines 5(4), 825–838 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

Champion, A.

Chan, J. W.

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C.

Cook, K.

M. Lancry, R. Desmarchelier, K. Cook, B. Poumellec, and J. Canning, “Compact birefringent waveplates photo-induced in silica by femtosecond laser,” Micromachines 5(4), 825–838 (2014).
[Crossref]

Corrielli, G.

I. Pitsios, F. Samara, G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, and R. Osellame, “Geometrically-controlled polarisation processing in femtosecond-laser-written photonic circuits,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11342 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, R. Geremia, R. Ramponi, L. Sansoni, A. Santinelli, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, and R. Osellame, “Rotated waveplates in integrated waveguide optics,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4249 (2014).
[Crossref]

Crespi, A.

I. Pitsios, F. Samara, G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, and R. Osellame, “Geometrically-controlled polarisation processing in femtosecond-laser-written photonic circuits,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11342 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, R. Geremia, R. Ramponi, L. Sansoni, A. Santinelli, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, and R. Osellame, “Rotated waveplates in integrated waveguide optics,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4249 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 566 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 200503 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dai, Y.

Davis, K. M.

De la Cruz, A. R.

A. R. De la Cruz, A. Ferrer, J. Del Hoyo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Modeling of astigmatic-elliptical beam shaping during fs-laser waveguide writing including beam truncation and diffraction effects,” Appl. Phys. A 104(2), 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref]

De Silvestri, S.

Del Hoyo, J.

A. R. De la Cruz, A. Ferrer, J. Del Hoyo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Modeling of astigmatic-elliptical beam shaping during fs-laser waveguide writing including beam truncation and diffraction effects,” Appl. Phys. A 104(2), 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref]

Desmarchelier, R.

B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, R. Desmarchelier, E. Hervé, and B. Bourguignon, “Parity violation in chiral structure creation under femtosecond laser irradiation in silica glass?” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(11), e16178 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lancry, R. Desmarchelier, K. Cook, B. Poumellec, and J. Canning, “Compact birefringent waveplates photo-induced in silica by femtosecond laser,” Micromachines 5(4), 825–838 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dodd, J. L.

J. L. Dodd, T. C. Ralph, and G. Milburn, “Experimental requirements for grover’s algorithm in optical quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 042328 (2003).
[Crossref]

Döring, S.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. A 104(2), 503–507 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dreisow, F.

R. Keil, Y. Lahini, Y. Shechtman, M. Heinrich, R. Pugatch, F. Dreisow, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and A. Szameit, “Perfect imaging through a disordered waveguide lattice,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 809–811 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Drevinskas, R.

R. Drevinskas and P. G. Kazansky, “High-performance geometric phase elements in silica glass,” APL Photonics 2(6), 066104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dyakonov, I.

Faraon, A.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fernandes, L. A.

Ferrer, A.

A. R. De la Cruz, A. Ferrer, J. Del Hoyo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Modeling of astigmatic-elliptical beam shaping during fs-laser waveguide writing including beam truncation and diffraction effects,” Appl. Phys. A 104(2), 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref]

Franco, M.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171(4-6), 279–284 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

J. Qiu, P. Kazanski, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1940–1942 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gao, J.

Gecevicius, M.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, and P. Kazansky, “Broadband anisotropy of femtosecond laser induced nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131903 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization sensitive elements fabricated by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(4), 783–795 (2011).
[Crossref]

Geremia, R.

G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, R. Geremia, R. Ramponi, L. Sansoni, A. Santinelli, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, and R. Osellame, “Rotated waveplates in integrated waveguide optics,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4249 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gertus, T.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gräfe, M.

J. Zeuner, A. N. Sharma, M. Tillmann, R. Heilmann, M. Gräfe, A. Moqanaki, A. Szameit, and P. Walther, “Integrated-optics heralded controlled-not gate for polarization-encoded qubits,” NPJ Quantum Inf. 4(1), 13 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Heilmann, C. Greganti, M. Gräfe, S. Nolte, P. Walther, and A. Szameit, “Tapering of femtosecond laser-written waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 57(3), 377–381 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Meany, M. Gräfe, R. Heilmann, A. Perez-Leija, S. Gross, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, and A. Szameit, “Laser written circuits for quantum photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 363–384 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Heilmann, M. Gräfe, S. Nolte, and A. Szameit, “Arbitrary photonic wave plate operations on chip: realizing hadamard, pauli-x, and rotation gates for polarisation qubits,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4118 (2014).
[Crossref]

Greganti, C.

Grenier, J. R.

Gross, S.

T. Meany, M. Gräfe, R. Heilmann, A. Perez-Leija, S. Gross, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, and A. Szameit, “Laser written circuits for quantum photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 363–384 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guan, J.

Guo, J.

P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, “Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5280–5283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Heilmann, R.

J. Zeuner, A. N. Sharma, M. Tillmann, R. Heilmann, M. Gräfe, A. Moqanaki, A. Szameit, and P. Walther, “Integrated-optics heralded controlled-not gate for polarization-encoded qubits,” NPJ Quantum Inf. 4(1), 13 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Heilmann, C. Greganti, M. Gräfe, S. Nolte, P. Walther, and A. Szameit, “Tapering of femtosecond laser-written waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 57(3), 377–381 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Meany, M. Gräfe, R. Heilmann, A. Perez-Leija, S. Gross, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, and A. Szameit, “Laser written circuits for quantum photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 363–384 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Heilmann, M. Gräfe, S. Nolte, and A. Szameit, “Arbitrary photonic wave plate operations on chip: realizing hadamard, pauli-x, and rotation gates for polarisation qubits,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4118 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heinrich, M.

R. Keil, Y. Lahini, Y. Shechtman, M. Heinrich, R. Pugatch, F. Dreisow, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and A. Szameit, “Perfect imaging through a disordered waveguide lattice,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 809–811 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. A 104(2), 503–507 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Herman, P. R.

Hervé, E.

B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, R. Desmarchelier, E. Hervé, and B. Bourguignon, “Parity violation in chiral structure creation under femtosecond laser irradiation in silica glass?” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(11), e16178 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, P. Kazanski, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1940–1942 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hong, C.-K.

C.-K. Hong, Z.-Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(18), 2044–2046 (1987).
[Crossref]

Horie, Y.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huser, T.

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[Crossref]

Inouye, H.

P. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Itoh, K.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. B. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jin, X.-M.

Kalinkin, A.

Kazanski, P.

J. Qiu, P. Kazanski, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1940–1942 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kazansky, P.

A. Champion, M. Beresna, P. Kazansky, and Y. Bellouard, “Stress distribution around femtosecond laser affected zones: effect of nanogratings orientation,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24942–24951 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, and P. Kazansky, “Broadband anisotropy of femtosecond laser induced nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131903 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kazansky, P. G.

R. Drevinskas and P. G. Kazansky, “High-performance geometric phase elements in silica glass,” APL Photonics 2(6), 066104 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization sensitive elements fabricated by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(4), 783–795 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kazuyuki, H.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and H. Kazuyuki, “Nanomodification of glass using fs laser,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 4(3), 182–191 (2013).
[Crossref]

Keil, R.

R. Keil, Y. Lahini, Y. Shechtman, M. Heinrich, R. Pugatch, F. Dreisow, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and A. Szameit, “Perfect imaging through a disordered waveguide lattice,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 809–811 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Knill, E.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kondratyev, I.

Korovin, A. V.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Krol, D.

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kulik, S.

Laflamme, R.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lahini, Y.

Lancry, M.

B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, R. Desmarchelier, E. Hervé, and B. Bourguignon, “Parity violation in chiral structure creation under femtosecond laser irradiation in silica glass?” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(11), e16178 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lancry, R. Desmarchelier, K. Cook, B. Poumellec, and J. Canning, “Compact birefringent waveplates photo-induced in silica by femtosecond laser,” Micromachines 5(4), 825–838 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, and P. Kazansky, “Broadband anisotropy of femtosecond laser induced nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laporta, P.

Levine, Z. H.

J. H. Burnett, Z. H. Levine, and E. L. Shirley, “Intrinsic birefringence in calcium fluoride and barium fluoride,” Phys. Rev. B 64(24), 241102 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Luk, T. S.

P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, “Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5280–5283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mandel, L.

C.-K. Hong, Z.-Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(18), 2044–2046 (1987).
[Crossref]

Mansour, I.

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, “An improved procedure to calculate the refractive index profile from the measured near-field intensity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 423–428 (1996).
[Crossref]

Marangoni, M.

Marques, P. V.

Mataloni, P.

G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, R. Geremia, R. Ramponi, L. Sansoni, A. Santinelli, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, and R. Osellame, “Rotated waveplates in integrated waveguide optics,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4249 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 566 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 200503 (2010).
[Crossref]

McMillen, B.

Meany, T.

T. Meany, M. Gräfe, R. Heilmann, A. Perez-Leija, S. Gross, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, and A. Szameit, “Laser written circuits for quantum photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 363–384 (2015).
[Crossref]

Milburn, G.

J. L. Dodd, T. C. Ralph, and G. Milburn, “Experimental requirements for grover’s algorithm in optical quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 042328 (2003).
[Crossref]

Milburn, G. J.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mitsuyu, T.

J. Qiu, P. Kazanski, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1940–1942 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Miura, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and H. Kazuyuki, “Nanomodification of glass using fs laser,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 4(3), 182–191 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, P. Kazanski, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1940–1942 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729 (1996).
[Crossref]

Moqanaki, A.

J. Zeuner, A. N. Sharma, M. Tillmann, R. Heilmann, M. Gräfe, A. Moqanaki, A. Szameit, and P. Walther, “Integrated-optics heralded controlled-not gate for polarization-encoded qubits,” NPJ Quantum Inf. 4(1), 13 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mor, T.

P. O. Boykin, T. Mor, M. Pulver, V. Roychowdhury, and F. Vatan, “On universal and fault-tolerant quantum computing: a novel basis and a new constructive proof of universality for shor’s basis,” in Foundations of Computer Science, 1999. 40th Annual Symposium on (IEEE, 1999), pp. 486–494.

Mysyrowicz, A.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171(4-6), 279–284 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nolte, S.

R. Heilmann, C. Greganti, M. Gräfe, S. Nolte, P. Walther, and A. Szameit, “Tapering of femtosecond laser-written waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 57(3), 377–381 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Heilmann, M. Gräfe, S. Nolte, and A. Szameit, “Arbitrary photonic wave plate operations on chip: realizing hadamard, pauli-x, and rotation gates for polarisation qubits,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4118 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Keil, Y. Lahini, Y. Shechtman, M. Heinrich, R. Pugatch, F. Dreisow, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and A. Szameit, “Perfect imaging through a disordered waveguide lattice,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 809–811 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. A 104(2), 503–507 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. B. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006).
[Crossref]

O’brien, J. L.

J. L. O’brien, “Optical quantum computing,” Science 318(5856), 1567–1570 (2007).
[Crossref]

Osellame, R.

I. Pitsios, F. Samara, G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, and R. Osellame, “Geometrically-controlled polarisation processing in femtosecond-laser-written photonic circuits,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11342 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, R. Geremia, R. Ramponi, L. Sansoni, A. Santinelli, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, and R. Osellame, “Rotated waveplates in integrated waveguide optics,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4249 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 566 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 200503 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 $\mu$μm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1938–1940 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ou, Z.-Y.

C.-K. Hong, Z.-Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(18), 2044–2046 (1987).
[Crossref]

Perez-Leija, A.

T. Meany, M. Gräfe, R. Heilmann, A. Perez-Leija, S. Gross, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, and A. Szameit, “Laser written circuits for quantum photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 363–384 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peschel, U.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pitsios, I.

I. Pitsios, F. Samara, G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, and R. Osellame, “Geometrically-controlled polarisation processing in femtosecond-laser-written photonic circuits,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11342 (2017).
[Crossref]

Polli, D.

Poumellec, B.

B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, R. Desmarchelier, E. Hervé, and B. Bourguignon, “Parity violation in chiral structure creation under femtosecond laser irradiation in silica glass?” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(11), e16178 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lancry, R. Desmarchelier, K. Cook, B. Poumellec, and J. Canning, “Compact birefringent waveplates photo-induced in silica by femtosecond laser,” Micromachines 5(4), 825–838 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, and P. Kazansky, “Broadband anisotropy of femtosecond laser induced nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Prade, B.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171(4-6), 279–284 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pugatch, R.

Pulver, M.

P. O. Boykin, T. Mor, M. Pulver, V. Roychowdhury, and F. Vatan, “On universal and fault-tolerant quantum computing: a novel basis and a new constructive proof of universality for shor’s basis,” in Foundations of Computer Science, 1999. 40th Annual Symposium on (IEEE, 1999), pp. 486–494.

Qiu, J.

F. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Cheng, Y. Dai, and J. Qiu, “Fabrication of polarization-dependent light attenuator in fused silica using a low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(13), 2212–2214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, P. Kazanski, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1940–1942 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ralph, T. C.

J. L. Dodd, T. C. Ralph, and G. Milburn, “Experimental requirements for grover’s algorithm in optical quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 042328 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ramirez, L. P. R.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ramponi, R.

G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, R. Geremia, R. Ramponi, L. Sansoni, A. Santinelli, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, and R. Osellame, “Rotated waveplates in integrated waveguide optics,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4249 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 566 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 200503 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 $\mu$μm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1938–1940 (2002).
[Crossref]

Richter, S.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. A 104(2), 503–507 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Risbud, S.

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[Crossref]

Roychowdhury, V.

P. O. Boykin, T. Mor, M. Pulver, V. Roychowdhury, and F. Vatan, “On universal and fault-tolerant quantum computing: a novel basis and a new constructive proof of universality for shor’s basis,” in Foundations of Computer Science, 1999. 40th Annual Symposium on (IEEE, 1999), pp. 486–494.

Sakakura, M.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

Salter, P. S.

Samara, F.

I. Pitsios, F. Samara, G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, and R. Osellame, “Geometrically-controlled polarisation processing in femtosecond-laser-written photonic circuits,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11342 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sansoni, L.

G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, R. Geremia, R. Ramponi, L. Sansoni, A. Santinelli, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, and R. Osellame, “Rotated waveplates in integrated waveguide optics,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4249 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 566 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 200503 (2010).
[Crossref]

Santinelli, A.

G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, R. Geremia, R. Ramponi, L. Sansoni, A. Santinelli, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, and R. Osellame, “Rotated waveplates in integrated waveguide optics,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4249 (2014).
[Crossref]

Saygin, M. Y.

Schaffer, C. B.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. B. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sciarrino, F.

G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, R. Geremia, R. Ramponi, L. Sansoni, A. Santinelli, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, and R. Osellame, “Rotated waveplates in integrated waveguide optics,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4249 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 566 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 200503 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sharma, A. N.

J. Zeuner, A. N. Sharma, M. Tillmann, R. Heilmann, M. Gräfe, A. Moqanaki, A. Szameit, and P. Walther, “Integrated-optics heralded controlled-not gate for polarization-encoded qubits,” NPJ Quantum Inf. 4(1), 13 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shechtman, Y.

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and H. Kazuyuki, “Nanomodification of glass using fs laser,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 4(3), 182–191 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shirley, E. L.

J. H. Burnett, Z. H. Levine, and E. L. Shirley, “Intrinsic birefringence in calcium fluoride and barium fluoride,” Phys. Rev. B 64(24), 241102 (2001).
[Crossref]

Si, J.

J. Qiu, P. Kazanski, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1940–1942 (2000).
[Crossref]

Siegel, J.

A. R. De la Cruz, A. Ferrer, J. Del Hoyo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Modeling of astigmatic-elliptical beam shaping during fs-laser waveguide writing including beam truncation and diffraction effects,” Appl. Phys. A 104(2), 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref]

Solis, J.

A. R. De la Cruz, A. Ferrer, J. Del Hoyo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Modeling of astigmatic-elliptical beam shaping during fs-laser waveguide writing including beam truncation and diffraction effects,” Appl. Phys. A 104(2), 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref]

Starrost, F.

P. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[Crossref]

Steel, M. J.

T. Meany, M. Gräfe, R. Heilmann, A. Perez-Leija, S. Gross, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, and A. Szameit, “Laser written circuits for quantum photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 363–384 (2015).
[Crossref]

Straupe, S.

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171(4-6), 279–284 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sugimoto, N.

Szameit, A.

R. Heilmann, C. Greganti, M. Gräfe, S. Nolte, P. Walther, and A. Szameit, “Tapering of femtosecond laser-written waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 57(3), 377–381 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zeuner, A. N. Sharma, M. Tillmann, R. Heilmann, M. Gräfe, A. Moqanaki, A. Szameit, and P. Walther, “Integrated-optics heralded controlled-not gate for polarization-encoded qubits,” NPJ Quantum Inf. 4(1), 13 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Meany, M. Gräfe, R. Heilmann, A. Perez-Leija, S. Gross, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, and A. Szameit, “Laser written circuits for quantum photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 363–384 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Heilmann, M. Gräfe, S. Nolte, and A. Szameit, “Arbitrary photonic wave plate operations on chip: realizing hadamard, pauli-x, and rotation gates for polarisation qubits,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4118 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Keil, Y. Lahini, Y. Shechtman, M. Heinrich, R. Pugatch, F. Dreisow, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and A. Szameit, “Perfect imaging through a disordered waveguide lattice,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 809–811 (2012).
[Crossref]

Taccheo, S.

Tillmann, M.

J. Zeuner, A. N. Sharma, M. Tillmann, R. Heilmann, M. Gräfe, A. Moqanaki, A. Szameit, and P. Walther, “Integrated-optics heralded controlled-not gate for polarization-encoded qubits,” NPJ Quantum Inf. 4(1), 13 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

R. Keil, Y. Lahini, Y. Shechtman, M. Heinrich, R. Pugatch, F. Dreisow, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and A. Szameit, “Perfect imaging through a disordered waveguide lattice,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 809–811 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. A 104(2), 503–507 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vallone, G.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 566 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 200503 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vatan, F.

P. O. Boykin, T. Mor, M. Pulver, V. Roychowdhury, and F. Vatan, “On universal and fault-tolerant quantum computing: a novel basis and a new constructive proof of universality for shor’s basis,” in Foundations of Computer Science, 1999. 40th Annual Symposium on (IEEE, 1999), pp. 486–494.

Vawter, G. A.

P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, “Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5280–5283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Walther, P.

J. Zeuner, A. N. Sharma, M. Tillmann, R. Heilmann, M. Gräfe, A. Moqanaki, A. Szameit, and P. Walther, “Integrated-optics heralded controlled-not gate for polarization-encoded qubits,” NPJ Quantum Inf. 4(1), 13 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Heilmann, C. Greganti, M. Gräfe, S. Nolte, P. Walther, and A. Szameit, “Tapering of femtosecond laser-written waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 57(3), 377–381 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-Y.

Watanabe, W.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. B. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006).
[Crossref]

Withford, M. J.

T. Meany, M. Gräfe, R. Heilmann, A. Perez-Leija, S. Gross, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, and A. Szameit, “Laser written circuits for quantum photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 363–384 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, P.

P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, “Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5280–5283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Zeuner, J.

J. Zeuner, A. N. Sharma, M. Tillmann, R. Heilmann, M. Gräfe, A. Moqanaki, A. Szameit, and P. Walther, “Integrated-optics heralded controlled-not gate for polarization-encoded qubits,” NPJ Quantum Inf. 4(1), 13 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

APL Photonics (1)

R. Drevinskas and P. G. Kazansky, “High-performance geometric phase elements in silica glass,” APL Photonics 2(6), 066104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (4)

A. R. De la Cruz, A. Ferrer, J. Del Hoyo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Modeling of astigmatic-elliptical beam shaping during fs-laser waveguide writing including beam truncation and diffraction effects,” Appl. Phys. A 104(2), 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. A 104(2), 503–507 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, P. Kazanski, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1940–1942 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, and P. Kazansky, “Broadband anisotropy of femtosecond laser induced nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and H. Kazuyuki, “Nanomodification of glass using fs laser,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 4(3), 182–191 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, “Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5280–5283 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

S. Barz, “Quantum computing with photons: introduction to the circuit model, the one-way quantum computer, and the fundamental principles of photonic experiments,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 48(8), 083001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

T. Meany, M. Gräfe, R. Heilmann, A. Perez-Leija, S. Gross, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, and A. Szameit, “Laser written circuits for quantum photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 363–384 (2015).
[Crossref]

Light: Sci. Appl. (1)

B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, R. Desmarchelier, E. Hervé, and B. Bourguignon, “Parity violation in chiral structure creation under femtosecond laser irradiation in silica glass?” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(11), e16178 (2016).
[Crossref]

Micromachines (1)

M. Lancry, R. Desmarchelier, K. Cook, B. Poumellec, and J. Canning, “Compact birefringent waveplates photo-induced in silica by femtosecond laser,” Micromachines 5(4), 825–838 (2014).
[Crossref]

MRS Bull. (1)

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. B. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, R. Geremia, R. Ramponi, L. Sansoni, A. Santinelli, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, and R. Osellame, “Rotated waveplates in integrated waveguide optics,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4249 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Sketch of the sample. The nanograting depiction is not to scale; typical nanograting layers had a thickness of 50 µm to 110 µm, depending on the fabrication parameters. The nanogratings started 0.8 mm to 0.9 mm from the sample’s rear end. The waveguides were inscribed 0.3 mm below the surface.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Normalized near field images of mode fields when vertically or horizontally polarized light at $\lambda =808\, \textrm {nm}$ is launched into the waveguide. The image was filtered using a Butterworth filter. The setup for measuring this mode field corresponds to the setup in Fig. 4, whereby the power meter is replaced by a CCD camera.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Refractive index profile calculated from mode field images shown in Fig. 2, based on the technique presented in [36].
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Sketch of the characterization setup.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Measured phase delay induced by nanogratings for light of 808 nm wavelength and thickness of nanograting layers for various writing laser pulse energies. The gratings were written at 100 kHz repetition rate and 15 mm/min scanning speed. Error bars of the phase delay induced by the nanogratings refer to the standard deviation of the birefringence measured over a nanograting area of 0.26 mm × 0.26 mm. Error bars of the layer thickness refer to the measurement tolerances.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Measured phase delay of the combination of nanogratings with waveguides compared to the measured phase delay for the nanogratings, for various writing laser pulse energies, at a wavelength of 808 nm. Only the writing laser pulse energy for the nanograting was altered, while the writing parameters of the waveguides were kept the same for all measurement points. The gratings were written at 100 kHz repetition rate and 15 mm/min scanning speed. Error bars refer to the standard deviation of the birefringence measured over a nanograting area of 0.26 mm × 0.26 mm. Error bars of the combination measurements refer to the fit accuracies.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Influence of writing laser polarization angle on the optical axis and induced phase delay of nanograting-waveguide-combinations. Error bars are based on the standard deviation of the polarimeter measurement and on fit accuracies. The dotted line is a guide for the eye to distinguish the data sets. An orientation of 0° corresponds to horizontally polarized light. The nanogratings were written at 100 kHz, 15 mm/min scannning speed and 0.8 µJ pulse energy.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Normalized transmission through crossed polarizers of Eq. (1) for the Pauli-x, Pauli-z, Pi/8th and Hadamard gates with according sine square fit function. Error bars are based on the standard deviation of at least 18 measurements at each point.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Single photon measurement setup. The wavelength of the single photon source is $\lambda ={815}\,\textrm{nm}$, close to the characterization wavelength of Fig. 4. (PBS = Polarizing Beam Splitter, MM = Multi-Mode, SM = Single Mode)
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Retrieved matrices for the Pi/8th, Pauli-z, Pauli-x and Hadamard gates.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Reconstructed matrices of quantum gates.

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Table 2. Calculated fidelities.

Equations (4)

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T n o r m = A sin 2 [ 2 ( ϕ ϕ 0 ) ] .
| δ | = | arccos ( 1 2 A ) | .
σ x = [ 0 1 1 0 ] ; σ y = [ 0 i i 0 ] ; σ z = [ 1 0 0 1 ] .
H = 1 2 [ 1 1 1 1 ] ; Π 8 t h = [ 1 0 0 e i π / 4 ] .

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