Abstract

The opto-electrically and electro-optically controllable diaphragm aperture in a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) film-coated tandem-90°-twisted nematic liquid crystal (TNLC) cell is investigated. The tandem-90°-TNLC cell assembled by two common 45°-TNLC cells can be adopted for incident linearly polarized lights at any linear polarization direction. The variations of diaphragm aperture made by a PVK film-coated tandem-90°-TNLC cell are demonstrated opto-electrically and electro-optically. The differences in the degree of linear polarization between the tandem-90°-TNLC and single-90°-TNLC cells for demonstrating diaphragm apertures are investigated. The dynamic transmittance, related to orientation of LCs resulting from the built-in electric fields induced by the diffused positive and negative ions in LC bulk, the induced electric fields generated by the diffused ions in LC bulk and conductive PVK films, and the ion-moving induced force, of the PVK film-coated tandem-90°-TNLC cell is studied, and the possible mechanism based on dynamic distribution of ions (impurities) in LC bulk is also proposed. The proposed mechanism of the dynamic transmittance phenomenon can be a useful reference to the developments of other PVK film-coated LC cells. Moreover, the PVK film-coated tandem-90°-TNLC cell can be considered a controllable diaphragm aperture shutter if the above ion-induced issues are overcome.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (2)

D. S. Klyuev, V. M. Fliagin, M. Al-Muzaiqer, and N. A. Ivanova, “Laser-actuated optofluidic diaphragm capable of optical signal tracking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(1), 011602 (2019).
[Crossref]

H.-H. Chen, J.-H. Gu, Y.-X. Lai, W.-C. Lee, and J.-C. Tsai, “Digital Photography Using a High-Transmittance Electro-Optical Iris,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–8 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

2017 (1)

2016 (3)

2015 (2)

J.-H. Yoo, J.-B. In, C. Zheng, I. Sakellari, R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse,” Nanotechnology 26(16), 165303 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Xu, H.-W. Ren, and Y.-H. Lin, “Electrically actuated liquid iris,” Opt. Lett. 40(5), 831–834 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

Z.-W. Zhou, H.-W. Ren, and C.-W. Nah, “Adaptive liquid crystal iris,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9), 092201 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

G. Zhou, H. Yu, Y. Du, and F. S. Chau, “Microelectromechanical-systems-driven two-layer rotary-blade-based adjustable iris diaphragm,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1745–1747 (2012).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Liao, C.-T. Hsieh, C.-C. Kuo, and C.-Y. Huang, “Voltage-assisted ion reduction in liquid crystal-silica nanoparticle dispersions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161906 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

L. Komitov, G. Hegde, and D. Kolev, “Fast liquid crystal light shutter,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44(44), 442002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Chen, A. Y. G. Fuh, C. K. Liu, and K. T. Cheng, “Radial alignment of liquid crystal by circular rubbing the substrate coated with poly(N-vinyl carbazole) film,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44(21), 215304 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

R. Yamaguchi and L. Xiong, “Reverse-mode liquid crystal gels with twisted orientation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(6), 060203 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. P. Korniychuk, A. M. Gabovich, K. Singer, A. I. Voitenko, and Y. A. Reznikov, “Transient and steady electric currents through a liquid crystal cell,” Liq. Cryst. 37(9), 1171–1181 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

C.-Y. Huang, C.-C. Lai, Y.-H. Tseng, Y.-T. Yang, C.-J. Tien, and K.-Y. Lo, “Silica-nanoparticle-doped nematic display with multistable and dynamic modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221908 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

P. D’Angelo, M. Barra, A. Cassinese, M. G. Maglione, P. Vacca, C. Minarini, and A. Rubino, “Electrical transport properties characterization of PVK (poly N-vinylcarbazole) for electroluminescent devices applications,” Solid-State Electron. 51(1), 123–129 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

Y. Q. Lu, F. Du, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Variable optical attenuator based on polymer stabilized twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 12(7), 1221–1227 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, “The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2616–2623 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Kaczmarek and A. Dyadyusha, “Structured, Photosensitive PVK and PVCN polymer layers for control of liquid crystal alignment,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 12(04), 547–555 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

G. P. Bryan-Brown, E. L. Wood, and I. C. Sage, “Weak surface anchoring of liquid crystals,” Nature 399(6734), 338–340 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

Y. Tsuchiya, S. Kajiyama, Y. Kano, Y. Matsumura, and S. Ichiura, “Digital Video Disc/Compact Disc Compatible Pick-up with Liquid Crystal Shutter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 481–485 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

P. Bos, J. Rahman, and J. W. Doane, “A low-threshold-voltage polymer network TN device,” SID Dig. Tech. Pap. 24, 877–880 (1993).

1991 (1)

A. Sugimura, N. Matsui, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient currents in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 43(10), 8272–8276 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

A. Mochizuki, T. Yoshihara, K. Motoyoshi, and S. Kobayashi, “An Electric Bilayer Model of the Transient Current in a Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L322–L325 (1990).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

H. Mada and K. Osajima, “Time response of a nematic liquid-crystal cell in a switched dc electric field,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(9), 3111–3113 (1986).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

E. P. Raynes and I. A. Shanks, “Fast-switching twisted nematic electro-optical shutter and colour filter,” Electron. Lett. 10(7), 114–115 (1974).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, and L. Barton, “Dynamic Scattering: A New Electrooptic Effect in Certain Classes of Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Proc. IEEE 56(7), 1162–1171 (1968).
[Crossref]

Al-Muzaiqer, M.

D. S. Klyuev, V. M. Fliagin, M. Al-Muzaiqer, and N. A. Ivanova, “Laser-actuated optofluidic diaphragm capable of optical signal tracking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(1), 011602 (2019).
[Crossref]

Attridge, G. G.

R. Jacobson, S. Ray, G. G. Attridge, and N. Axford, Manual of Photography (Elsevier, 2000).

Axford, N.

R. Jacobson, S. Ray, G. G. Attridge, and N. Axford, Manual of Photography (Elsevier, 2000).

Barra, M.

P. D’Angelo, M. Barra, A. Cassinese, M. G. Maglione, P. Vacca, C. Minarini, and A. Rubino, “Electrical transport properties characterization of PVK (poly N-vinylcarbazole) for electroluminescent devices applications,” Solid-State Electron. 51(1), 123–129 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barton, L.

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, and L. Barton, “Dynamic Scattering: A New Electrooptic Effect in Certain Classes of Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Proc. IEEE 56(7), 1162–1171 (1968).
[Crossref]

Bos, P.

P. Bos, J. Rahman, and J. W. Doane, “A low-threshold-voltage polymer network TN device,” SID Dig. Tech. Pap. 24, 877–880 (1993).

Bryan-Brown, G. P.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, E. L. Wood, and I. C. Sage, “Weak surface anchoring of liquid crystals,” Nature 399(6734), 338–340 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cassinese, A.

P. D’Angelo, M. Barra, A. Cassinese, M. G. Maglione, P. Vacca, C. Minarini, and A. Rubino, “Electrical transport properties characterization of PVK (poly N-vinylcarbazole) for electroluminescent devices applications,” Solid-State Electron. 51(1), 123–129 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chao, E.

Chau, F. S.

Chen, H.-H.

H.-H. Chen, J.-H. Gu, Y.-X. Lai, W.-C. Lee, and J.-C. Tsai, “Digital Photography Using a High-Transmittance Electro-Optical Iris,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–8 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. N.

Chen, W.-H.

Chen, W.-W.

W.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, S.-H. Yu, and J.-C. Tsai, “PDLC-Based Optical Aperture Tuned by the Fringing Electric Field,” Int. Conf. Opt. MEMS Nanophoton., 1–2 (2018).

Chen, Y. D.

Y. D. Chen, A. Y. G. Fuh, C. K. Liu, and K. T. Cheng, “Radial alignment of liquid crystal by circular rubbing the substrate coated with poly(N-vinyl carbazole) film,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44(21), 215304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-F.

J.-H. Gu, W.-C. Lee, Y.-F. Chen, S.-H. Yu, and J.-C. Tsai, “Stepped-Tuning Optical Diaphragm Fabricated with a Lithography-Less Process,” Int. Conf. Opt. MEMS Nanophoton., 1–2 (2018).

Chen, Y.-L.

W.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, S.-H. Yu, and J.-C. Tsai, “PDLC-Based Optical Aperture Tuned by the Fringing Electric Field,” Int. Conf. Opt. MEMS Nanophoton., 1–2 (2018).

Cheng, K. T.

Y. D. Chen, A. Y. G. Fuh, C. K. Liu, and K. T. Cheng, “Radial alignment of liquid crystal by circular rubbing the substrate coated with poly(N-vinyl carbazole) film,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44(21), 215304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, K.-T.

Cheng, W.-F.

K.-T. Cheng, P.-Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C.-K. Liu, W.-F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically Switchable and Permanently Stable Light Scattering Modes by Dynamic Fingerprint Chiral Textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, W.-S.

Cho, D.-H.

D.-H. Cho, J.-S. Park, Y.-W. Tai, and I. Kweon, “Asymmetric stereo with catadioptric lens: High quality image generation for intelligent robot,” in Proc. IEEE 13th Int. Conf. Ubiquitous Robots Ambient Intell. (URAI), pp. 19–22, Aug. 2016.

Chung, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Chung, M.-C. Tsai, C.-K. Liu, J.-H. Li, and K.-T. Cheng, “Achromatic linear polarization rotators by tandem twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 13691 (2018).
[Crossref]

D’Angelo, P.

P. D’Angelo, M. Barra, A. Cassinese, M. G. Maglione, P. Vacca, C. Minarini, and A. Rubino, “Electrical transport properties characterization of PVK (poly N-vinylcarbazole) for electroluminescent devices applications,” Solid-State Electron. 51(1), 123–129 (2007).
[Crossref]

Doane, J. W.

P. Bos, J. Rahman, and J. W. Doane, “A low-threshold-voltage polymer network TN device,” SID Dig. Tech. Pap. 24, 877–880 (1993).

Du, F.

Du, Y.

Dyadyusha, A.

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, “The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2616–2623 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Kaczmarek and A. Dyadyusha, “Structured, Photosensitive PVK and PVCN polymer layers for control of liquid crystal alignment,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 12(04), 547–555 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and S. Slussarenko, “Dynamics and uniformity of reorientation in liquid crystal cells with PVK alignment layers,” Electronic-Liquid Crystal Communications, 1–10 (2003).

Elhadj, S.

J.-H. Yoo, J.-B. In, C. Zheng, I. Sakellari, R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse,” Nanotechnology 26(16), 165303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fliagin, V. M.

D. S. Klyuev, V. M. Fliagin, M. Al-Muzaiqer, and N. A. Ivanova, “Laser-actuated optofluidic diaphragm capable of optical signal tracking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(1), 011602 (2019).
[Crossref]

Fowles, G. R.

G. R. Fowles, Introduction to modern optics (University of Utah, 1975).

Freeman, M.

M. Freeman, The Photographer's Pocket Book: The Essential Guide to Getting the Most from Your Camera (Hachette, 2016).

Fuh, A. Y. G.

A. Y. G. Fuh, K. N. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Smart electro-optical iris diaphragm based on liquid crystal film coating with photoconductive polymer of poly(N-vinylcarbazole),” Appl. Opt. 55(22), 6034–6039 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Chen, A. Y. G. Fuh, C. K. Liu, and K. T. Cheng, “Radial alignment of liquid crystal by circular rubbing the substrate coated with poly(N-vinyl carbazole) film,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44(21), 215304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

S.-Y. Huang, S.-T. Wu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gabovich, A. M.

P. P. Korniychuk, A. M. Gabovich, K. Singer, A. I. Voitenko, and Y. A. Reznikov, “Transient and steady electric currents through a liquid crystal cell,” Liq. Cryst. 37(9), 1171–1181 (2010).
[Crossref]

Griffiths, D. J.

D. J. Griffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics (Pearson, 2014).

Grigoropoulos, C. P.

J.-H. Yoo, J.-B. In, C. Zheng, I. Sakellari, R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse,” Nanotechnology 26(16), 165303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gu, C.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystals Displays (Wiley, 1999).

Gu, J.-H.

H.-H. Chen, J.-H. Gu, Y.-X. Lai, W.-C. Lee, and J.-C. Tsai, “Digital Photography Using a High-Transmittance Electro-Optical Iris,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–8 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Gu, W.-C. Lee, Y.-F. Chen, S.-H. Yu, and J.-C. Tsai, “Stepped-Tuning Optical Diaphragm Fabricated with a Lithography-Less Process,” Int. Conf. Opt. MEMS Nanophoton., 1–2 (2018).

Hegde, G.

L. Komitov, G. Hegde, and D. Kolev, “Fast liquid crystal light shutter,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44(44), 442002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Heilmeier, G. H.

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, and L. Barton, “Dynamic Scattering: A New Electrooptic Effect in Certain Classes of Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Proc. IEEE 56(7), 1162–1171 (1968).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C.-T.

S.-W. Liao, C.-T. Hsieh, C.-C. Kuo, and C.-Y. Huang, “Voltage-assisted ion reduction in liquid crystal-silica nanoparticle dispersions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161906 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.-Y.

S.-W. Liao, C.-T. Hsieh, C.-C. Kuo, and C.-Y. Huang, “Voltage-assisted ion reduction in liquid crystal-silica nanoparticle dispersions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161906 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Huang, C.-C. Lai, Y.-H. Tseng, Y.-T. Yang, C.-J. Tien, and K.-Y. Lo, “Silica-nanoparticle-doped nematic display with multistable and dynamic modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221908 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Huang, S.-T. Wu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ichiura, S.

Y. Tsuchiya, S. Kajiyama, Y. Kano, Y. Matsumura, and S. Ichiura, “Digital Video Disc/Compact Disc Compatible Pick-up with Liquid Crystal Shutter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 481–485 (1997).
[Crossref]

In, J.-B.

J.-H. Yoo, J.-B. In, C. Zheng, I. Sakellari, R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse,” Nanotechnology 26(16), 165303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ivanova, N. A.

D. S. Klyuev, V. M. Fliagin, M. Al-Muzaiqer, and N. A. Ivanova, “Laser-actuated optofluidic diaphragm capable of optical signal tracking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(1), 011602 (2019).
[Crossref]

Jacobson, R.

R. Jacobson, S. Ray, G. G. Attridge, and N. Axford, Manual of Photography (Elsevier, 2000).

Kaczmarek, M.

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, “The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2616–2623 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Kaczmarek and A. Dyadyusha, “Structured, Photosensitive PVK and PVCN polymer layers for control of liquid crystal alignment,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 12(04), 547–555 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and S. Slussarenko, “Dynamics and uniformity of reorientation in liquid crystal cells with PVK alignment layers,” Electronic-Liquid Crystal Communications, 1–10 (2003).

Kajiyama, S.

Y. Tsuchiya, S. Kajiyama, Y. Kano, Y. Matsumura, and S. Ichiura, “Digital Video Disc/Compact Disc Compatible Pick-up with Liquid Crystal Shutter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 481–485 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kano, Y.

Y. Tsuchiya, S. Kajiyama, Y. Kano, Y. Matsumura, and S. Ichiura, “Digital Video Disc/Compact Disc Compatible Pick-up with Liquid Crystal Shutter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 481–485 (1997).
[Crossref]

Khoo, I. C.

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, “The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2616–2623 (2004).
[Crossref]

Klyuev, D. S.

D. S. Klyuev, V. M. Fliagin, M. Al-Muzaiqer, and N. A. Ivanova, “Laser-actuated optofluidic diaphragm capable of optical signal tracking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(1), 011602 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, S.

A. Mochizuki, T. Yoshihara, K. Motoyoshi, and S. Kobayashi, “An Electric Bilayer Model of the Transient Current in a Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L322–L325 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kolev, D.

L. Komitov, G. Hegde, and D. Kolev, “Fast liquid crystal light shutter,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44(44), 442002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Komitov, L.

L. Komitov, G. Hegde, and D. Kolev, “Fast liquid crystal light shutter,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44(44), 442002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Korneychuk, P. P.

Korniychuk, P. P.

P. P. Korniychuk, A. M. Gabovich, K. Singer, A. I. Voitenko, and Y. A. Reznikov, “Transient and steady electric currents through a liquid crystal cell,” Liq. Cryst. 37(9), 1171–1181 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C.-C.

S.-W. Liao, C.-T. Hsieh, C.-C. Kuo, and C.-Y. Huang, “Voltage-assisted ion reduction in liquid crystal-silica nanoparticle dispersions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161906 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kweon, I.

D.-H. Cho, J.-S. Park, Y.-W. Tai, and I. Kweon, “Asymmetric stereo with catadioptric lens: High quality image generation for intelligent robot,” in Proc. IEEE 13th Int. Conf. Ubiquitous Robots Ambient Intell. (URAI), pp. 19–22, Aug. 2016.

Lai, C.-C.

C.-Y. Huang, C.-C. Lai, Y.-H. Tseng, Y.-T. Yang, C.-J. Tien, and K.-Y. Lo, “Silica-nanoparticle-doped nematic display with multistable and dynamic modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221908 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lai, Y.-X.

H.-H. Chen, J.-H. Gu, Y.-X. Lai, W.-C. Lee, and J.-C. Tsai, “Digital Photography Using a High-Transmittance Electro-Optical Iris,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–8 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lee, P.-Y.

K.-T. Cheng, P.-Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C.-K. Liu, W.-F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically Switchable and Permanently Stable Light Scattering Modes by Dynamic Fingerprint Chiral Textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.-C.

H.-H. Chen, J.-H. Gu, Y.-X. Lai, W.-C. Lee, and J.-C. Tsai, “Digital Photography Using a High-Transmittance Electro-Optical Iris,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–8 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Gu, W.-C. Lee, Y.-F. Chen, S.-H. Yu, and J.-C. Tsai, “Stepped-Tuning Optical Diaphragm Fabricated with a Lithography-Less Process,” Int. Conf. Opt. MEMS Nanophoton., 1–2 (2018).

Li, J.-H.

T.-Y. Chung, M.-C. Tsai, C.-K. Liu, J.-H. Li, and K.-T. Cheng, “Achromatic linear polarization rotators by tandem twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 13691 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liao, S.-W.

S.-W. Liao, C.-T. Hsieh, C.-C. Kuo, and C.-Y. Huang, “Voltage-assisted ion reduction in liquid crystal-silica nanoparticle dispersions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161906 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. H.

Lin, Y.-H.

Liu, C.

Liu, C. K.

Y. D. Chen, A. Y. G. Fuh, C. K. Liu, and K. T. Cheng, “Radial alignment of liquid crystal by circular rubbing the substrate coated with poly(N-vinyl carbazole) film,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44(21), 215304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.-K.

Liu, Y.-X.

Lo, K.-Y.

C.-Y. Huang, C.-C. Lai, Y.-H. Tseng, Y.-T. Yang, C.-J. Tien, and K.-Y. Lo, “Silica-nanoparticle-doped nematic display with multistable and dynamic modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221908 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. Q.

Mada, H.

H. Mada and K. Osajima, “Time response of a nematic liquid-crystal cell in a switched dc electric field,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(9), 3111–3113 (1986).
[Crossref]

Maglione, M. G.

P. D’Angelo, M. Barra, A. Cassinese, M. G. Maglione, P. Vacca, C. Minarini, and A. Rubino, “Electrical transport properties characterization of PVK (poly N-vinylcarbazole) for electroluminescent devices applications,” Solid-State Electron. 51(1), 123–129 (2007).
[Crossref]

Matsui, N.

A. Sugimura, N. Matsui, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient currents in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 43(10), 8272–8276 (1991).
[Crossref]

Matsumura, Y.

Y. Tsuchiya, S. Kajiyama, Y. Kano, Y. Matsumura, and S. Ichiura, “Digital Video Disc/Compact Disc Compatible Pick-up with Liquid Crystal Shutter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 481–485 (1997).
[Crossref]

Matthews, M. J.

J.-H. Yoo, J.-B. In, C. Zheng, I. Sakellari, R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse,” Nanotechnology 26(16), 165303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Merlin, A. J.

Minarini, C.

P. D’Angelo, M. Barra, A. Cassinese, M. G. Maglione, P. Vacca, C. Minarini, and A. Rubino, “Electrical transport properties characterization of PVK (poly N-vinylcarbazole) for electroluminescent devices applications,” Solid-State Electron. 51(1), 123–129 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mochizuki, A.

A. Mochizuki, T. Yoshihara, K. Motoyoshi, and S. Kobayashi, “An Electric Bilayer Model of the Transient Current in a Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L322–L325 (1990).
[Crossref]

Motoyoshi, K.

A. Mochizuki, T. Yoshihara, K. Motoyoshi, and S. Kobayashi, “An Electric Bilayer Model of the Transient Current in a Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L322–L325 (1990).
[Crossref]

Nah, C.-W.

Z.-W. Zhou, H.-W. Ren, and C.-W. Nah, “Adaptive liquid crystal iris,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9), 092201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Naito, H.

A. Sugimura, N. Matsui, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient currents in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 43(10), 8272–8276 (1991).
[Crossref]

Okuda, M.

A. Sugimura, N. Matsui, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient currents in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 43(10), 8272–8276 (1991).
[Crossref]

Osajima, K.

H. Mada and K. Osajima, “Time response of a nematic liquid-crystal cell in a switched dc electric field,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(9), 3111–3113 (1986).
[Crossref]

Park, J.-S.

D.-H. Cho, J.-S. Park, Y.-W. Tai, and I. Kweon, “Asymmetric stereo with catadioptric lens: High quality image generation for intelligent robot,” in Proc. IEEE 13th Int. Conf. Ubiquitous Robots Ambient Intell. (URAI), pp. 19–22, Aug. 2016.

Qasim, M. M.

K.-T. Cheng, P.-Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C.-K. Liu, W.-F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically Switchable and Permanently Stable Light Scattering Modes by Dynamic Fingerprint Chiral Textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rahman, J.

P. Bos, J. Rahman, and J. W. Doane, “A low-threshold-voltage polymer network TN device,” SID Dig. Tech. Pap. 24, 877–880 (1993).

Raman, R. N.

J.-H. Yoo, J.-B. In, C. Zheng, I. Sakellari, R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse,” Nanotechnology 26(16), 165303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ray, S.

R. Jacobson, S. Ray, G. G. Attridge, and N. Axford, Manual of Photography (Elsevier, 2000).

Raynes, E. P.

E. P. Raynes and I. A. Shanks, “Fast-switching twisted nematic electro-optical shutter and colour filter,” Electron. Lett. 10(7), 114–115 (1974).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.-W.

M. Xu, H.-W. Ren, and Y.-H. Lin, “Electrically actuated liquid iris,” Opt. Lett. 40(5), 831–834 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z.-W. Zhou, H.-W. Ren, and C.-W. Nah, “Adaptive liquid crystal iris,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9), 092201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reshetnyak, V. Y.

Reznikov, Y. A.

P. P. Korniychuk, A. M. Gabovich, K. Singer, A. I. Voitenko, and Y. A. Reznikov, “Transient and steady electric currents through a liquid crystal cell,” Liq. Cryst. 37(9), 1171–1181 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. P. Korneychuk, O. G. Tereshchenko, Y. A. Reznikov, V. Y. Reshetnyak, and K. D. Singer, “Hidden surface photorefractive gratings in a nematic-liquid crystal cell in the absence of a deposited alignment layer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(6), 1007–1011 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rubino, A.

P. D’Angelo, M. Barra, A. Cassinese, M. G. Maglione, P. Vacca, C. Minarini, and A. Rubino, “Electrical transport properties characterization of PVK (poly N-vinylcarbazole) for electroluminescent devices applications,” Solid-State Electron. 51(1), 123–129 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sage, I. C.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, E. L. Wood, and I. C. Sage, “Weak surface anchoring of liquid crystals,” Nature 399(6734), 338–340 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sakellari, I.

J.-H. Yoo, J.-B. In, C. Zheng, I. Sakellari, R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse,” Nanotechnology 26(16), 165303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shanks, I. A.

E. P. Raynes and I. A. Shanks, “Fast-switching twisted nematic electro-optical shutter and colour filter,” Electron. Lett. 10(7), 114–115 (1974).
[Crossref]

Singer, K.

P. P. Korniychuk, A. M. Gabovich, K. Singer, A. I. Voitenko, and Y. A. Reznikov, “Transient and steady electric currents through a liquid crystal cell,” Liq. Cryst. 37(9), 1171–1181 (2010).
[Crossref]

Singer, K. D.

Slussarenko, S.

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, “The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2616–2623 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and S. Slussarenko, “Dynamics and uniformity of reorientation in liquid crystal cells with PVK alignment layers,” Electronic-Liquid Crystal Communications, 1–10 (2003).

Sonomura, H.

A. Sugimura, N. Matsui, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient currents in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 43(10), 8272–8276 (1991).
[Crossref]

Stern, K.

K. Stern, Photo 1: An Introduction to the Art of Photography (Cengage Learning, 2011).

Sugimura, A.

A. Sugimura, N. Matsui, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient currents in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 43(10), 8272–8276 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tai, Y.-W.

D.-H. Cho, J.-S. Park, Y.-W. Tai, and I. Kweon, “Asymmetric stereo with catadioptric lens: High quality image generation for intelligent robot,” in Proc. IEEE 13th Int. Conf. Ubiquitous Robots Ambient Intell. (URAI), pp. 19–22, Aug. 2016.

Takahashi, Y.

A. Sugimura, N. Matsui, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient currents in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 43(10), 8272–8276 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.

Tereshchenko, O. G.

Tien, C.-J.

C.-Y. Huang, C.-C. Lai, Y.-H. Tseng, Y.-T. Yang, C.-J. Tien, and K.-Y. Lo, “Silica-nanoparticle-doped nematic display with multistable and dynamic modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221908 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tsai, J.-C.

H.-H. Chen, J.-H. Gu, Y.-X. Lai, W.-C. Lee, and J.-C. Tsai, “Digital Photography Using a High-Transmittance Electro-Optical Iris,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–8 (2019).
[Crossref]

W.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, S.-H. Yu, and J.-C. Tsai, “PDLC-Based Optical Aperture Tuned by the Fringing Electric Field,” Int. Conf. Opt. MEMS Nanophoton., 1–2 (2018).

J.-H. Gu, W.-C. Lee, Y.-F. Chen, S.-H. Yu, and J.-C. Tsai, “Stepped-Tuning Optical Diaphragm Fabricated with a Lithography-Less Process,” Int. Conf. Opt. MEMS Nanophoton., 1–2 (2018).

Tsai, M.-C.

T.-Y. Chung, M.-C. Tsai, C.-K. Liu, J.-H. Li, and K.-T. Cheng, “Achromatic linear polarization rotators by tandem twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 13691 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tseng, Y.-H.

C.-Y. Huang, C.-C. Lai, Y.-H. Tseng, Y.-T. Yang, C.-J. Tien, and K.-Y. Lo, “Silica-nanoparticle-doped nematic display with multistable and dynamic modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221908 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tsuchiya, Y.

Y. Tsuchiya, S. Kajiyama, Y. Kano, Y. Matsumura, and S. Ichiura, “Digital Video Disc/Compact Disc Compatible Pick-up with Liquid Crystal Shutter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 481–485 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tu, C.-Y.

Vacca, P.

P. D’Angelo, M. Barra, A. Cassinese, M. G. Maglione, P. Vacca, C. Minarini, and A. Rubino, “Electrical transport properties characterization of PVK (poly N-vinylcarbazole) for electroluminescent devices applications,” Solid-State Electron. 51(1), 123–129 (2007).
[Crossref]

Voitenko, A. I.

P. P. Korniychuk, A. M. Gabovich, K. Singer, A. I. Voitenko, and Y. A. Reznikov, “Transient and steady electric currents through a liquid crystal cell,” Liq. Cryst. 37(9), 1171–1181 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.

Wilkinson, T. D.

K.-T. Cheng, P.-Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C.-K. Liu, W.-F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically Switchable and Permanently Stable Light Scattering Modes by Dynamic Fingerprint Chiral Textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
[Crossref]

Winkler, M.

Wood, E. L.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, E. L. Wood, and I. C. Sage, “Weak surface anchoring of liquid crystals,” Nature 399(6734), 338–340 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

Wu, S.-T.

S.-Y. Huang, S.-T. Wu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041104 (2006).
[Crossref]

S.-T. Wu and D.-K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2001).

Xiong, L.

R. Yamaguchi and L. Xiong, “Reverse-mode liquid crystal gels with twisted orientation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(6), 060203 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, M.

Yamaguchi, R.

R. Yamaguchi and L. Xiong, “Reverse-mode liquid crystal gels with twisted orientation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(6), 060203 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.-K.

S.-T. Wu and D.-K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2001).

Yang, Y.-T.

C.-Y. Huang, C.-C. Lai, Y.-H. Tseng, Y.-T. Yang, C.-J. Tien, and K.-Y. Lo, “Silica-nanoparticle-doped nematic display with multistable and dynamic modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221908 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystals Displays (Wiley, 1999).

Yoo, J.-H.

J.-H. Yoo, J.-B. In, C. Zheng, I. Sakellari, R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse,” Nanotechnology 26(16), 165303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yoshihara, T.

A. Mochizuki, T. Yoshihara, K. Motoyoshi, and S. Kobayashi, “An Electric Bilayer Model of the Transient Current in a Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L322–L325 (1990).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

Yu, S.-H.

J.-H. Gu, W.-C. Lee, Y.-F. Chen, S.-H. Yu, and J.-C. Tsai, “Stepped-Tuning Optical Diaphragm Fabricated with a Lithography-Less Process,” Int. Conf. Opt. MEMS Nanophoton., 1–2 (2018).

W.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, S.-H. Yu, and J.-C. Tsai, “PDLC-Based Optical Aperture Tuned by the Fringing Electric Field,” Int. Conf. Opt. MEMS Nanophoton., 1–2 (2018).

Zanoni, L. A.

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, and L. Barton, “Dynamic Scattering: A New Electrooptic Effect in Certain Classes of Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Proc. IEEE 56(7), 1162–1171 (1968).
[Crossref]

Zheng, C.

J.-H. Yoo, J.-B. In, C. Zheng, I. Sakellari, R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse,” Nanotechnology 26(16), 165303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, G.

Zhou, Z.-W.

Z.-W. Zhou, H.-W. Ren, and C.-W. Nah, “Adaptive liquid crystal iris,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9), 092201 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

K.-T. Cheng, P.-Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C.-K. Liu, W.-F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically Switchable and Permanently Stable Light Scattering Modes by Dynamic Fingerprint Chiral Textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

D. S. Klyuev, V. M. Fliagin, M. Al-Muzaiqer, and N. A. Ivanova, “Laser-actuated optofluidic diaphragm capable of optical signal tracking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(1), 011602 (2019).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Huang, S.-T. Wu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041104 (2006).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Liao, C.-T. Hsieh, C.-C. Kuo, and C.-Y. Huang, “Voltage-assisted ion reduction in liquid crystal-silica nanoparticle dispersions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161906 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Huang, C.-C. Lai, Y.-H. Tseng, Y.-T. Yang, C.-J. Tien, and K.-Y. Lo, “Silica-nanoparticle-doped nematic display with multistable and dynamic modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221908 (2008).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

E. P. Raynes and I. A. Shanks, “Fast-switching twisted nematic electro-optical shutter and colour filter,” Electron. Lett. 10(7), 114–115 (1974).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

H.-H. Chen, J.-H. Gu, Y.-X. Lai, W.-C. Lee, and J.-C. Tsai, “Digital Photography Using a High-Transmittance Electro-Optical Iris,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–8 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Mada and K. Osajima, “Time response of a nematic liquid-crystal cell in a switched dc electric field,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(9), 3111–3113 (1986).
[Crossref]

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, “The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2616–2623 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

M. Kaczmarek and A. Dyadyusha, “Structured, Photosensitive PVK and PVCN polymer layers for control of liquid crystal alignment,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 12(04), 547–555 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (2)

L. Komitov, G. Hegde, and D. Kolev, “Fast liquid crystal light shutter,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44(44), 442002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Chen, A. Y. G. Fuh, C. K. Liu, and K. T. Cheng, “Radial alignment of liquid crystal by circular rubbing the substrate coated with poly(N-vinyl carbazole) film,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44(21), 215304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

Z.-W. Zhou, H.-W. Ren, and C.-W. Nah, “Adaptive liquid crystal iris,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9), 092201 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Yamaguchi and L. Xiong, “Reverse-mode liquid crystal gels with twisted orientation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(6), 060203 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Configuration of a tandem-90°-TNLC cell [11].
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental setup drawn using Microsoft Powerpoint for measuring the normalized transmittance as a function of the applied DC voltage curve by illumination with different purple laser powers.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Optical density as a function of the position of the used ARB filter. D (25 mm) is the diameter of the filter. The maximum optical density (end density) is 2.0.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) T–V curves of three cases with illuminations of various purple laser powers and (b) T–P curves of two cases with the applications of two different DC electric fields onto the PVK film-coated tandem-90°-TNLC cell. The experimental setup is presented in Fig. 2.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Variation of ring-type-diaphragm aperture of the tandem-90°-TNLC cell by (a) application with various DC fields and continuously illumination with a constant purple laser power (∼65 mW) and (b) illumination with different purple laser powers and continuous application with a constant DC field (27 V).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Schematic of the distribution of Vth onto the TNLC cell illuminated with a purple laser through an ARB filter.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Experimental setup for measuring the DoLP-β curves of (a) the tandem-90°-TNLC cell and (b) the single-90°-TNLC cell. The definitions of all the yellow and white arrows and the corresponding notations are identical to those shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. DoLP-β curves of the tandem-90°-TNLC cell (blue curve) and the single-90°- TNLC cell (green curve).
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Dynamic transmittance (blue curve) of the tandem-90°-TNLC cell with PVK films coated onto the ITO films and the statuses (orange curve) of the applied DC field, VDC_on (27 V) and VDC_off, with time when the tandem-90°-TNLC cell was in normally white mode. (b) Dynamic transmittance (green curve) of the commercial 90°-TNLC cell without any coated PVK film onto the ITO films and the statuses (orange curve) of the applied a suitable DC field, VDC_on and VDC_off, with time when the commercial 90°-TNLC cell was in normally white mode. (c) Details of the dynamic transmittance of (b) within the time interval between 126 and 129 s.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. (a) Most of positive (negative) ions aggregate on the substrates applied with negative (positive) potential when the VDC is turned on. (b) Positive (negative) ions move normally in bulk when the VDC is just turned off. (c) Different electric fields/force applied onto the LCs in bulk and those close to the substrates. The purple glow around PVK films in (a), (b) and (c) represent they are continuously illuminated by purple laser.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Operations of the shutter made by a PVK film-coated tandem-90°-TNLC cell in normally white mode.

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