Abstract

A gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber is used to structure near-infrared ultrashort pulses and enable the generation and time-resolved detection of multi-terahertz radiation. Due to self-phase modulation, near-infrared pulses launched into the fiber experience spectral broadening characterized by the appearance of side lobes at the edges of the spectrum. Phase-locked terahertz generation between 10 and 18 terahertz is achieved by difference-frequency mixing of these spectral side lobes. This method allows for an implementation of time-resolved spectroscopy in the multi-terahertz range through the efficient production of near-infrared pulses with tailored spectra, without requiring ultrabroadband optical sources.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

M. Seidel, X. Xiao, S. A. Hussain, G. Arisholm, A. Hartung, K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, F. Habel, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “Multi-watt, multi-octave, mid-infrared femtosecond source,” Sci. Adv. 4(4), eaaq1526 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Cui, A. W. Schiff-Kearn, E. Zhang, N. Couture, F. Tani, D. Novoa, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-M. Ménard, “Broadband and tunable time-resolved THz system using argon-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” APL Photonics 3(11), 111301 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

C. Riek, P. Sulzer, M. Seeger, A. S. Moskalenko, G. Burkard, D. V. Seletskiy, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Subcycle quantum electrodynamics,” Nature 541(7637), 376–379 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Steinleitner, P. Merkl, P. Nagler, J. Mornhinweg, C. Schüller, T. Korn, A. Chernikov, and R. Huber, “Direct Observation of Ultrafast Exciton Formation in a Monolayer of WSe$_2$2,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1455–1460 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Li, G. Ren, B. Zhu, Y. Gao, B. Yin, J. Wang, and S. Jian, “Guiding terahertz orbital angular momentum beams in multimode Kagome hollow-core fibers,” Opt. Lett. 42(2), 179 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Knorr, J. Raab, M. Tauer, P. Merkl, D. Peller, E. Wittmann, E. Riedle, C. Lange, and R. Huber, “Phase-locked multi-terahertz electric fields exceeding 13 MV/cm at a 190 kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4367 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

M. A. Huber, M. Plankl, M. Eisele, R. E. Marvel, F. Sandner, T. Korn, C. Schüller, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and T. L. Cocker, “Ultrafast Mid-Infrared Nanoscopy of Strained Vanadium Dioxide Nanobeams,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1421–1427 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad Terahertz Spectrum Generation from an Air-Based Filament Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Ménard, F. Köttig, and P. St. J. Russell, “Broadband electric-field-induced LP$_{01}$01 and LP$_{02}$02 second harmonic generation in Xe-filled hollow-core PCF,” Opt. Lett. 41(16), 3795–3798 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, J. Zhao, C. Gong, H. Tian, L. Sun, P. Chen, L. Lin, and W. Liu, “3D printed low-loss THz waveguide based on Kagome photonic crystal structure,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22454 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Fan, T. Balčiūnas, T. Kanai, T. Flöry, G. Andriukaitis, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, and A. Baltuška, “Hollow-core-waveguide compression of multi-millijoule CEP-stable 32 μm pulses,” Optica 3(12), 1308 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

K. F. Mak, M. Seidel, O. Pronin, M. H. Frosz, A. Abdolvand, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, J. C. Travers, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compressing µJ-level pulses from 250 fs to sub-10 fs at 38-MHz repetition rate using two gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber stages,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1238–1241 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Gebhardt, C. Gaida, S. Hädrich, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Nonlinear compression of an ultrashort-pulse thulium-based fiber laser to sub-70 fs in Kagome photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2770 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Ménard and P. St. J. Russell, “Phase-matched electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation in Xe-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3679–3682 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Balčiūnas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. A. Voronin, A. M. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuška, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6117 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Riek, D. V. Seletskiy, A. S. Moskalenko, J. F. Schmidt, P. Krauspe, S. Eckart, S. Eggert, G. Burkard, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Direct sampling of electric-field vacuum fluctuations,” Science 350(6259), 420–423 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, T. Paasch-Colberg, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721–724 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. A. Valverde-Chavez, C. S. Ponseca, C. C. Stoumpos, A. Yartsev, M. G. Kanatzidis, V. Sundström, and D. G. Cooke, “Intrinsic femtosecond charge generation dynamics in single crystal CH$_3$3NH$_3$3PbI$_3$3,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(12), 3700–3707 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

C. J. Docherty, P. Parkinson, H. J. Joyce, M.-H. Chiu, C.-H. Chen, M.-Y. Lee, L.-J. Li, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, “Ultrafast Transient Terahertz Conductivity of Monolayer MoS$_2$2 and WSe$_2$2 Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11147–11153 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. St. J. Russell, P. Hölzer, W. Chang, A. Abdolvand, and J. C. Travers, “Hollow-core photonic crystal fibres for gas-based nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 278–286 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

P. Parkinson, C. Dodson, H. J. Joyce, K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, “Noncontact Measurement of Charge Carrier Lifetime and Mobility in GaN Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4600–4604 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband coherent electric field from far infrared to 200 THz using air plasma induced by 10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011105 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

E. Hendry, M. Koeberg, J. Schins, H. Nienhuys, V. Sundström, L. Siebbeles, and M. Bonn, “Interchain effects in the ultrafast photophysics of a semiconducting polymer: THz time-domain spectroscopy of thin films and isolated chains in solution,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125201 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3360–3362 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(29), 7146–7159 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. A. Hegmann, R. R. Tykwinski, K. P. H. Lui, J. E. Bullock, and J. E. Anthony, “Picosecond Transient Photoconductivity in Functionalized Pentacene Molecular Crystals Probed by Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(22), 227403 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(22), 3191–3193 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. A. Kaindl, F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe: Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1060–1062 (1999).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

1964 (1)

E. Marcatili and R. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
[Crossref]

Abdolvand, A.

Adam, A. J. L.

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Elsevier, 2013).

Andreeva, V. A.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad Terahertz Spectrum Generation from an Air-Based Filament Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Andriukaitis, G.

Anthony, J.

Anthony, J. E.

F. A. Hegmann, R. R. Tykwinski, K. P. H. Lui, J. E. Bullock, and J. E. Anthony, “Picosecond Transient Photoconductivity in Functionalized Pentacene Molecular Crystals Probed by Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(22), 227403 (2002).
[Crossref]

Apolonski, A.

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, T. Paasch-Colberg, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721–724 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. F. Mak, M. Seidel, O. Pronin, M. H. Frosz, A. Abdolvand, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, J. C. Travers, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compressing µJ-level pulses from 250 fs to sub-10 fs at 38-MHz repetition rate using two gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber stages,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1238–1241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Argyros, A.

Arisholm, G.

M. Seidel, X. Xiao, S. A. Hussain, G. Arisholm, A. Hartung, K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, F. Habel, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “Multi-watt, multi-octave, mid-infrared femtosecond source,” Sci. Adv. 4(4), eaaq1526 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ashida, M.

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband coherent electric field from far infrared to 200 THz using air plasma induced by 10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Balciunas, T.

G. Fan, T. Balčiūnas, T. Kanai, T. Flöry, G. Andriukaitis, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, and A. Baltuška, “Hollow-core-waveguide compression of multi-millijoule CEP-stable 32 μm pulses,” Optica 3(12), 1308 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Balčiūnas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. A. Voronin, A. M. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuška, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6117 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baltuška, A.

G. Fan, T. Balčiūnas, T. Kanai, T. Flöry, G. Andriukaitis, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, and A. Baltuška, “Hollow-core-waveguide compression of multi-millijoule CEP-stable 32 μm pulses,” Optica 3(12), 1308 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Balčiūnas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. A. Voronin, A. M. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuška, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6117 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bang, O.

Beard, M. C.

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P. Parkinson, C. Dodson, H. J. Joyce, K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, “Noncontact Measurement of Charge Carrier Lifetime and Mobility in GaN Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4600–4604 (2012).
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I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, T. Paasch-Colberg, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721–724 (2015).
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K. F. Mak, M. Seidel, O. Pronin, M. H. Frosz, A. Abdolvand, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, J. C. Travers, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compressing µJ-level pulses from 250 fs to sub-10 fs at 38-MHz repetition rate using two gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber stages,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1238–1241 (2015).
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Pupeza, I.

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C. Riek, D. V. Seletskiy, A. S. Moskalenko, J. F. Schmidt, P. Krauspe, S. Eckart, S. Eggert, G. Burkard, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Direct sampling of electric-field vacuum fluctuations,” Science 350(6259), 420–423 (2015).
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Sánchez, D.

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M. A. Huber, M. Plankl, M. Eisele, R. E. Marvel, F. Sandner, T. Korn, C. Schüller, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and T. L. Cocker, “Ultrafast Mid-Infrared Nanoscopy of Strained Vanadium Dioxide Nanobeams,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1421–1427 (2016).
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P. Parkinson, C. Dodson, H. J. Joyce, K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, “Noncontact Measurement of Charge Carrier Lifetime and Mobility in GaN Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4600–4604 (2012).
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W. Cui, A. W. Schiff-Kearn, E. Zhang, N. Couture, F. Tani, D. Novoa, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-M. Ménard, “Broadband and tunable time-resolved THz system using argon-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” APL Photonics 3(11), 111301 (2018).
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E. Marcatili and R. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
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Schmidt, J. F.

C. Riek, D. V. Seletskiy, A. S. Moskalenko, J. F. Schmidt, P. Krauspe, S. Eckart, S. Eggert, G. Burkard, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Direct sampling of electric-field vacuum fluctuations,” Science 350(6259), 420–423 (2015).
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M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(29), 7146–7159 (2002).
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P. Steinleitner, P. Merkl, P. Nagler, J. Mornhinweg, C. Schüller, T. Korn, A. Chernikov, and R. Huber, “Direct Observation of Ultrafast Exciton Formation in a Monolayer of WSe$_2$2,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1455–1460 (2017).
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M. A. Huber, M. Plankl, M. Eisele, R. E. Marvel, F. Sandner, T. Korn, C. Schüller, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and T. L. Cocker, “Ultrafast Mid-Infrared Nanoscopy of Strained Vanadium Dioxide Nanobeams,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1421–1427 (2016).
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M. Seidel, X. Xiao, S. A. Hussain, G. Arisholm, A. Hartung, K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, F. Habel, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “Multi-watt, multi-octave, mid-infrared femtosecond source,” Sci. Adv. 4(4), eaaq1526 (2018).
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C. Riek, P. Sulzer, M. Seeger, A. S. Moskalenko, G. Burkard, D. V. Seletskiy, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Subcycle quantum electrodynamics,” Nature 541(7637), 376–379 (2017).
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M. Seidel, X. Xiao, S. A. Hussain, G. Arisholm, A. Hartung, K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, F. Habel, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “Multi-watt, multi-octave, mid-infrared femtosecond source,” Sci. Adv. 4(4), eaaq1526 (2018).
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I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, T. Paasch-Colberg, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721–724 (2015).
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K. F. Mak, M. Seidel, O. Pronin, M. H. Frosz, A. Abdolvand, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, J. C. Travers, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compressing µJ-level pulses from 250 fs to sub-10 fs at 38-MHz repetition rate using two gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber stages,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1238–1241 (2015).
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Seletskiy, D. V.

C. Riek, P. Sulzer, M. Seeger, A. S. Moskalenko, G. Burkard, D. V. Seletskiy, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Subcycle quantum electrodynamics,” Nature 541(7637), 376–379 (2017).
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C. Riek, D. V. Seletskiy, A. S. Moskalenko, J. F. Schmidt, P. Krauspe, S. Eckart, S. Eggert, G. Burkard, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Direct sampling of electric-field vacuum fluctuations,” Science 350(6259), 420–423 (2015).
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V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad Terahertz Spectrum Generation from an Air-Based Filament Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
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E. Hendry, M. Koeberg, J. Schins, H. Nienhuys, V. Sundström, L. Siebbeles, and M. Bonn, “Interchain effects in the ultrafast photophysics of a semiconducting polymer: THz time-domain spectroscopy of thin films and isolated chains in solution,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125201 (2005).
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V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad Terahertz Spectrum Generation from an Air-Based Filament Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
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Steinleitner, P.

P. Steinleitner, P. Merkl, P. Nagler, J. Mornhinweg, C. Schüller, T. Korn, A. Chernikov, and R. Huber, “Direct Observation of Ultrafast Exciton Formation in a Monolayer of WSe$_2$2,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1455–1460 (2017).
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Stoumpos, C. C.

D. A. Valverde-Chavez, C. S. Ponseca, C. C. Stoumpos, A. Yartsev, M. G. Kanatzidis, V. Sundström, and D. G. Cooke, “Intrinsic femtosecond charge generation dynamics in single crystal CH$_3$3NH$_3$3PbI$_3$3,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(12), 3700–3707 (2015).
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Südmeyer, T.

Sulzer, P.

C. Riek, P. Sulzer, M. Seeger, A. S. Moskalenko, G. Burkard, D. V. Seletskiy, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Subcycle quantum electrodynamics,” Nature 541(7637), 376–379 (2017).
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Sundström, V.

D. A. Valverde-Chavez, C. S. Ponseca, C. C. Stoumpos, A. Yartsev, M. G. Kanatzidis, V. Sundström, and D. G. Cooke, “Intrinsic femtosecond charge generation dynamics in single crystal CH$_3$3NH$_3$3PbI$_3$3,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(12), 3700–3707 (2015).
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E. Hendry, M. Koeberg, J. Schins, H. Nienhuys, V. Sundström, L. Siebbeles, and M. Bonn, “Interchain effects in the ultrafast photophysics of a semiconducting polymer: THz time-domain spectroscopy of thin films and isolated chains in solution,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125201 (2005).
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Tang, T.-T.

Tani, F.

W. Cui, A. W. Schiff-Kearn, E. Zhang, N. Couture, F. Tani, D. Novoa, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-M. Ménard, “Broadband and tunable time-resolved THz system using argon-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” APL Photonics 3(11), 111301 (2018).
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Tauser, F.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(22), 3191–3193 (2000).
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Trant, M.

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M. Seidel, X. Xiao, S. A. Hussain, G. Arisholm, A. Hartung, K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, F. Habel, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “Multi-watt, multi-octave, mid-infrared femtosecond source,” Sci. Adv. 4(4), eaaq1526 (2018).
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Tübel, S.

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3360–3362 (2004).
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Tünnermann, A.

Turner, G. M.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(29), 7146–7159 (2002).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Measured loss spectrum of the HC-PCF, showing low losses in the vicinity of the wavelengths of interest in these experiments. Inset: electron micrograph of the cross-section of the fiber, showing the kagomé lattice and 34 µm-diameter core (scale bar of 50 µm).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic of the experimental setup. Ultrashort NIR pulses are coupled into a HC-PCF filled with 13 bar of Ar gas. THz radiation is subsequently generated and detected using a standard THz-TDS system. CMP: chirped mirror pair; TS: translation stage; Gen.: generation crystal; Ge: germanium wafer; Si: silicon wafer; Det: detection crystal; $\lambda$/4: quarter-wave plate; WP: Wollaston prism.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Measured NIR spectra (plotted in amplitude) following broadening in the HC-PCF through SPM for increasing pulse energies injected into the fiber and (b) their corresponding measured intensity autocorrelation traces. The full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of the autocorrelation traces are displayed. The spectral and temporal profiles of the reference pulse, before entering the HC-PCF, are shown in the top panels in black. Solid lines represent experimental data while dashed lines are simulations. The spectra are re-centered about the central frequency of the laser.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) THz transients and (b) spectra corresponding to the pulse energies given in Fig. 3. In the top panels we show the measured THz transient and spectrum corresponding to the reference NIR pulse before entering the HC-PCF. For low pulse-energies injected into the HC-PCF the time-domain traces contain mostly low-frequency oscillations. For higher pulse energies, the field transients shorten considerably, and the high-frequency components of the transient become more evident in the spectral domain.

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