Abstract

The development of optical fibers has revolutionized telecommunications by enabling long-distance broadband transmission with minimal loss. In turn, the ubiquity of high-quality, low-cost fibers has enabled a number of additional applications, including fiber sensors, fiber lasers, and imaging fiber bundles. Recently, we showed that a multimode optical fiber can also function as a spectrometer by measuring the wavelength-dependent speckle pattern formed by interference between the guided modes. Here, we reach a record resolution of 1 pm at a wavelength of 1500 nm using a 100 m long multimode fiber, outperforming the state-of-the-art grating spectrometers. We also achieved broadband operation with a 4 cm long fiber, covering 400–750 nm with 1 nm resolution. The fiber spectrometer, consisting of the fiber, which can be coiled to a small volume, and a monochrome camera that records the speckle pattern, is compact, lightweight, and low cost while providing ultrahigh resolution, broad bandwidth, and low loss.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (1)

2013 (2)

B. Redding, S. F. Liew, R. Sarma, H. Cao, “Compact spectrometer based on a disordered photonic chip,” Nat. Photonics 7, 746–751 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Redding, S. M. Popoff, H. Cao, “All-fiber spectrometer based on speckle pattern reconstruction,” Opt. Express 21, 6584–6600 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

O. A. Oraby, J. W. Spencer, G. R. Jones, “Monitoring changes in the speckle field from an optical fibre exposed to low frequency acoustical vibrations,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 55–66 (2009).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

1997 (1)

1994 (2)

K. Pan, C. M. Uang, F. Cheng, F. T. S. Yu, “Multimode fiber sensing by using mean-absolute speckle-intensity variation,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2095–2098 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. Hlubina, “Spectral and dispersion analysis of laser sources and multimode fibres via the statistics of the intensity pattern,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1001–1014 (1994).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

W. Freude, C. Fritzsche, G. Grau, L. Shan-Da, “Speckle interferometry for spectral analysis of laser sources and multimode optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 64–72 (1986).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

Adibi, A.

Brady, D.

Bromberg, Y.

Cao, H.

Cheng, F.

Choi, H. S.

Choma, M. A.

Dogariu, A.

Foulger, S.

Freude, W.

W. Freude, C. Fritzsche, G. Grau, L. Shan-Da, “Speckle interferometry for spectral analysis of laser sources and multimode optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 64–72 (1986).
[Crossref]

Fritzsche, C.

W. Freude, C. Fritzsche, G. Grau, L. Shan-Da, “Speckle interferometry for spectral analysis of laser sources and multimode optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 64–72 (1986).
[Crossref]

Goodman, J. W.

Grau, G.

W. Freude, C. Fritzsche, G. Grau, L. Shan-Da, “Speckle interferometry for spectral analysis of laser sources and multimode optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 64–72 (1986).
[Crossref]

Guo, N.

Hang, Q.

Hlubina, P.

P. Hlubina, “Spectral and dispersion analysis of laser sources and multimode fibres via the statistics of the intensity pattern,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1001–1014 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ho, K.-P.

K.-P. Ho, J. M. Kahn, Mode Coupling and its Impact on Spatially Multiplexed Systems, Vol. VIB of Optical Fiber Telecommunications (Academic, 2013).

Jones, G. R.

O. A. Oraby, J. W. Spencer, G. R. Jones, “Monitoring changes in the speckle field from an optical fibre exposed to low frequency acoustical vibrations,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 55–66 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kahn, J. M.

K.-P. Ho, J. M. Kahn, Mode Coupling and its Impact on Spatially Multiplexed Systems, Vol. VIB of Optical Fiber Telecommunications (Academic, 2013).

Kohlgraf-Owens, T. W.

Lee, C. E.

Liew, S. F.

B. Redding, S. F. Liew, R. Sarma, H. Cao, “Compact spectrometer based on a disordered photonic chip,” Nat. Photonics 7, 746–751 (2013).
[Crossref]

Norton, R. E.

Okamoto, T.

Oraby, O. A.

O. A. Oraby, J. W. Spencer, G. R. Jones, “Monitoring changes in the speckle field from an optical fibre exposed to low frequency acoustical vibrations,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 55–66 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pan, K.

Popoff, S. M.

Rawson, E. G.

Redding, B.

Sarma, R.

B. Redding, S. F. Liew, R. Sarma, H. Cao, “Compact spectrometer based on a disordered photonic chip,” Nat. Photonics 7, 746–751 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shan-Da, L.

W. Freude, C. Fritzsche, G. Grau, L. Shan-Da, “Speckle interferometry for spectral analysis of laser sources and multimode optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 64–72 (1986).
[Crossref]

Skorobogatiy, M.

Spencer, J. W.

O. A. Oraby, J. W. Spencer, G. R. Jones, “Monitoring changes in the speckle field from an optical fibre exposed to low frequency acoustical vibrations,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 55–66 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, M.

Syed, I.

Taylor, H. F.

Uang, C. M.

Ung, B.

Wang, Z.

Xu, Z.

Yamaguchi, I.

Yu, F. T. S.

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

W. Freude, C. Fritzsche, G. Grau, L. Shan-Da, “Speckle interferometry for spectral analysis of laser sources and multimode optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 64–72 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

O. A. Oraby, J. W. Spencer, G. R. Jones, “Monitoring changes in the speckle field from an optical fibre exposed to low frequency acoustical vibrations,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 55–66 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Hlubina, “Spectral and dispersion analysis of laser sources and multimode fibres via the statistics of the intensity pattern,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1001–1014 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Redding, S. F. Liew, R. Sarma, H. Cao, “Compact spectrometer based on a disordered photonic chip,” Nat. Photonics 7, 746–751 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (2)

K.-P. Ho, J. M. Kahn, Mode Coupling and its Impact on Spatially Multiplexed Systems, Vol. VIB of Optical Fiber Telecommunications (Academic, 2013).

J. W. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena in Optics (Roberts & Company, 2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Photograph of the fiber spectrometer. Probe light is coupled to the polarization-maintaining SMF which is fused to the MMF. The light then excites a superposition of guided modes in the MMF, which travel 100 meters around the 3” coil. The output end of the fiber was secured to an insulating block placed in front of a monochrome camera, which records the wavelength-dependent speckle pattern in the far field. (b) Optical microscope image of a SMF spliced to a MMF, confirming that the SMF core was fused to the MMF core to minimize the coupling loss. By coupling the probe light through the polarization-maintaining SMF to the MMF, we ensure that the same combination of guided modes is always excited in the MMF.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Speckle pattern recorded at λ=1500nm from the end of a 100 m long step-index MMF (core diameter=105μm, NA=0.22). From the number of speckles, we estimated that approximately 400 spatial modes were excited in the MMF. (b) Measured spectral correlation function of the speckle pattern, showing a half-width at half-maximum (HWHM) of 1.5 pm. The small spectral correlation width enables high resolution.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Reconstructed spectra for a series of narrow lines using the 100 m long MMF spectrometer. The probe frequencies are marked by vertical black dotted lines. (b) Reconstructed spectrum (blue line) of two narrow spectral lines separated by 1 pm. The red dotted lines mark the center wavelengths of the probe lines.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Each row shows five spectra reconstructed from the speckle patterns of five probe lines measured within 30 s of each other at some time, t, after calibration (indicated next to the curves). Vertical black lines mark the spectral position of the probe lines. At t1 min (bottom row), the MMF spectrometer accurately recovers all five probe lines; but at t10 min (middle row) and 20 min (top row), the reconstructed lines shift from the actual wavelengths due to temperature fluctuations. Fortunately, all five lines in the same row (recorded within 30 s of each other) drift together, and thus a single wavelength shift δλ can be used to correct for the drift. (b) Wavelength shift δλ of the probe line at λ=1500.045nm was used to correct the drift of other lines in the same row. The corrected spectra match the probe lines well. (c) Histogram of the error between the input wavelength and reconstructed wavelength, δλ, for 4000 measurements recorded over 10 h. Before correction, the error ranges from 15 to +15pm due to thermal fluctuations. After correction, 95% of the measurements fall within ±3pm of the correct wavelength.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Speckle patterns recorded using a color CCD camera at the end of a 4 cm MMF. (b) Reconstructed spectra for a series of 10nm wide probes across the visible spectrum. Each solid colored line shows the reconstructed spectrum from a separate measurement and the black dotted lines show the corresponding spectra measured separately by a grating spectrometer.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Schematic of the experimental setup for the photoluminescence measurement. The Rhodamine dye solution in the cuvette was pumped by a diode laser at λ=532nm, and the emission was collected by a SMF which was coupled to the MMF. (b) Photoluminescence spectrum of the Rhodamine dye measured by the fiber spectrometer and a grating spectrometer. The inset is a close-up of the speckle produced by the Rhodamine emission at the end of the 4 cm MMF.

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