Abstract

We present a high angular tolerant structural coloration based on strong interference effects in a nanocavity patterned at a subwavelength scale on a flexible substrate. The structural colors, fabricated over a large area by nanoimprint lithography, feature a non-iridescent performance over a wide angle of incidence up to 60°, which is of great importance to various applications, such as imaging sensors and colored display systems. In addition to the non-iridescence, the transmissive colors of the proposed structure, simply consisting of triple layers, can be tuned with ease by altering a duty cycle of nanostructures, thus enabling the creation of individual RGB colors in a pixel unit via a facile one-step approach. Moreover, it is confirmed that their performances remain unchanged to the 10 mm bending radius condition, and the encapsulation effects of a polymer material on their optical properties are investigated for practical usage. The presented strategy could provide a new avenue for achieving improved efficiency and desired functionality, thereby opening the door to many potential applications, including anti-counterfeit tagging, imaging sensor systems, and color e-paper displays.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

Kyu-Tae Lee, Ji-Yun Jang, Sang Jin Park, Ujwal Kumar Thakur, Chengang Ji, L. Jay Guo, and Hui Joon Park, "Subwavelength nanocavity for flexible structural transmissive color generation with wide viewing angle: publisher’s note," Optica 4, 345-345 (2017)
https://www.osapublishing.org/optica/abstract.cfm?uri=optica-4-3-345

31 January 2017: A correction was made to the author listing.


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References

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2016 (9)

C.-S. Park, V. R. Shrestha, S.-S. Lee, and D.-Y. Choi, “Trans-reflective color filters based on a phase compensated etalon enabling adjustable color saturation,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25496 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Mao, W. Shen, C. Yang, X. Fang, W. Yuan, Y. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Angle insensitive color filters in transmission covering the visible region,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19289 (2016).
[Crossref]

K.-T. Lee, J.-Y. Jang, S. J. Park, C. Ji, S.-M. Yang, L. J. Guo, and H. J. Park, “Angle-insensitive and CMOS-compatible subwavelength color printing,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1696 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Olson, A. Manjavacas, T. Basu, D. Huang, A. E. Schlather, B. Zheng, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, and S. Link, “High chromaticity aluminum plasmonic pixels for active liquid crystal displays,” ACS Nano 10, 1108–1117 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, R. J. H. Ng, S. Safari Dinachali, M. Jalali, Y. Yu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Large area plasmonic color palettes with expanded gamut using colloidal self-assembly,” ACS Photon. 3, 627–633 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Berger, E. Yoskovitz, L. Adler-Abramovich, and E. Gazit, “Spectral transition in bio-inspired self-assembled peptide nucleic acid photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2195–2200 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Yu, P. Mazumder, N. F. Borrelli, A. Carrilero, D. S. Ghosh, R. A. Maniyara, D. Baker, F. J. García de Abajo, and V. Pruneri, “Structural coloring of glass using dewetted nanoparticles and ultrathin films of metals,” ACS Photon. 3, 1194–1201 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. M. Cox, J. P. Killgore, Z. Li, R. Long, A. W. Sanders, J. Xiao, and Y. Ding, “Influences of substrate adhesion and particle size on the shape memory effect of polystyrene particles,” Langmuir 32, 3691–3698 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. C. P. Sturmberg, T. K. Chong, D.-Y. Choi, T. P. White, L. C. Botten, K. B. Dossou, C. G. Poulton, K. R. Catchpole, R. C. McPhedran, and C. Martijn de Sterke, “Total absorption of visible light in ultrathin weakly absorbing semiconductor gratings,” Optica 3, 556–562 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (17)

H. Song, S. Jiang, D. Ji, X. Zeng, N. Zhang, K. Liu, C. Wang, Y. Xu, and Q. Gan, “Nanocavity absorption enhancement for two-dimensional material monolayer systems,” Opt. Express 23, 7120–7130 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Cheng, J. Gao, L. Stan, D. Rosenmann, D. Czaplewski, and X. Yang, “Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing,” Opt. Express 23, 14552 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Cheng, X. Yang, D. Rosenmann, L. Stan, D. Czaplewski, and J. Gao, “Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials coated with a thin polymer layer,” Opt. Express 23, 25329 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. G. Ok, Y. J. Shin, H. J. Park, and L. J. Guo, “A step toward next-generation nanoimprint lithography: extending productivity and applicability,” Appl. Phys. A 121, 343–356 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Xiao, Y. Li, M. C. Allen, D. D. Deheyn, X. Yue, J. Zhao, N. C. Gianneschi, M. D. Shawkey, and A. Dhinojwala, “Bio-inspired structural colors produced via self-assembly of synthetic melanin nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 9, 5454–5460 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-S. Park, V. R. Shrestha, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Omnidirectional color filters capitalizing on a nano-resonator of Ag-TiO2-Ag integrated with a phase compensating dielectric overlay,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8467 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Maruf, Z. Li, J. A. Yoshimura, J. Xiao, A. R. Greenberg, and Y. Ding, “Influence of nanoimprint lithography on membrane structure and performance,” Polymer 69, 129–137 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Kyu-Tae, L. Jae Yong, S. Sungyong, and L. J. Guo, “Microcavity-integrated colored semitransparent hybrid photovoltaics with improved efficiency and color purity,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 5, 1654–1658 (2015).
[Crossref]

K.-T. Lee, C. Ji, D. Banerjee, and L. J. Guo, “Angular- and polarization-independent structural colors based on 1D photonic crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 354–362 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Raj Shrestha, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Polarization-tuned dynamic color filters incorporating a dielectric-loaded aluminum nanowire array,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12450 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7337 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yun, S.-Y. Lee, K. Hong, J. Yeom, and B. Lee, “Plasmonic cavity-apertures as dynamic pixels for the simultaneous control of colour and intensity,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7133 (2015).
[Crossref]

K.-T. Lee, S. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “High-color-purity subtractive color filters with a wide viewing angle based on plasmonic perfect absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 347–352 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Yang, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, K. Li, X. Fang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Compact multilayer film structure for angle insensitive color filtering,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9285 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Cheng, J. Gao, T. S. Luk, and X. Yang, “Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11045 (2015).
[Crossref]

K.-T. Lee, M. Fukuda, S. Joglekar, and L. J. Guo, “Colored, see-through perovskite solar cells employing an optical cavity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 3, 5377–5382 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Steenhoff, M. Theuring, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Ultrathin resonant-cavity-enhanced solar cells with amorphous germanium absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 182–186 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (12)

K.-T. Lee, S. Seo, J. Y. Lee, and L. J. Guo, “Strong resonance effect in a lossy medium-based optical cavity for angle robust spectrum filters,” Adv. Mater. 26, 6324–6328 (2014).
[Crossref]

K.-T. Lee, S. Seo, J. Yong Lee, and L. Jay Guo, “Ultrathin metal-semiconductor-metal resonator for angle invariant visible band transmission filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 231112 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Lee, K.-T. Lee, S. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4192 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Guo, C. M. Huard, Y. Yang, Y. J. Shin, K.-T. Lee, and L. J. Guo, “ITO-free, compact, color liquid crystal devices using integrated structural color filters and graphene electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 435–441 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Y. Zheng, Y. Wang, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Color-selective and CMOS-compatible photodetection based on aluminum plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 26, 6318–6323 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. M. Cox, J. P. Killgore, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. C. Hurley, J. Xiao, and Y. Ding, “Morphing metal-polymer Janus particles,” Adv. Mater. 26, 899–904 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. M. Cox, Z. Li, N. Sowan, D. Nair, J. Xiao, C. N. Bowman, and Y. Ding, “Reconfigurable surface patterns on covalent adaptive network polymers using nanoimprint lithography,” Polymer 55, 5933–5937 (2014).
[Crossref]

K.-T. Lee, J. Y. Lee, S. Seo, and L. Guo, “Colored ultrathin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e215 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. R. Shrestha, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Non-iridescent transmissive structural color filter featuring highly efficient transmission and high excitation purity,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4921 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Song, L. Guo, Z. Liu, K. Liu, X. Zeng, D. Ji, N. Zhang, H. Hu, S. Jiang, and Q. Gan, “Nanocavity enhancement for ultra-thin film optical absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26, 2737–2743 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Uddin, T. Khaleque, and R. Magnusson, “Guided-mode resonant polarization-controlled tunable color filters,” Opt. Express 22, 12307–12315 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. B. Mazulquim, K. J. Lee, J. W. Yoon, L. V. Muniz, B.-H. V. Borges, L. G. Neto, and R. Magnusson, “Efficient band-pass color filters enabled by resonant modes and plasmons near the Rayleigh anomaly,” Opt. Express 22, 30843–30851 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

M. J. Uddin and R. Magnusson, “Highly efficient color filter array using resonant Si3N4 gratings,” Opt. Express 21, 12495–12506 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Formica, D. S. Ghosh, A. Carrilero, T. L. Chen, R. E. Simpson, and V. Pruneri, “Ultrastable and atomically smooth ultrathin silver films grown on a copper seed layer,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 3048–3053 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-K. R. Wu, A. E. Hollowell, C. Zhang, and L. J. Guo, “Angle-insensitive structural colours based on metallic nanocavities and coloured pixels beyond the diffraction limit,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1194 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Ai, Y. Yu, H. Möhwald, and G. Zhang, “Responsive monochromatic color display based on nanovolcano arrays,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 724–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Do, J. H. Park, B. Y. Hwang, S.-M. Lee, B.-K. Ju, and K. C. Choi, “Plasmonic color filter and its fabrication for large-area applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 133–138 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12, 20–24 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. Kats, S. J. Byrnes, R. Blanchard, M. Kolle, P. Genevet, J. Aizenberg, and F. Capasso, “Enhancement of absorption and color contrast in ultra-thin highly absorbing optical coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 101104 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

H. J. Park, T. Xu, J. Y. Lee, A. Ledbetter, and L. J. Guo, “Photonic color filters integrated with organic solar cells for energy harvesting,” ACS Nano 5, 7055–7060 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

T. Xu, Y.-K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat. Commun. 1, 59 (2010).

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

Y.-T. Yoon, H.-S. Lee, S.-S. Lee, S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, and K.-D. Lee, “Color filter incorporating a subwavelength patterned grating in poly silicon,” Opt. Express 16, 2374–2380 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. H. Ahn and L. J. Guo, “High-speed roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography on flexible plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater. 20, 2044–2049 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Y. Kanamori, M. Shimono, and K. Hane, “Fabrication of transmission color filters using silicon subwavelength gratings on quartz substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2126–2128 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

R. W. Sabnis, “Color filter technology for liquid crystal displays,” Displays 20, 119–129 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

Adler-Abramovich, L.

O. Berger, E. Yoskovitz, L. Adler-Abramovich, and E. Gazit, “Spectral transition in bio-inspired self-assembled peptide nucleic acid photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2195–2200 (2016).
[Crossref]

Agert, C.

V. Steenhoff, M. Theuring, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Ultrathin resonant-cavity-enhanced solar cells with amorphous germanium absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 182–186 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ahn, S. H.

S. H. Ahn and L. J. Guo, “High-speed roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography on flexible plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater. 20, 2044–2049 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ai, B.

B. Ai, Y. Yu, H. Möhwald, and G. Zhang, “Responsive monochromatic color display based on nanovolcano arrays,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 724–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aizenberg, J.

M. A. Kats, S. J. Byrnes, R. Blanchard, M. Kolle, P. Genevet, J. Aizenberg, and F. Capasso, “Enhancement of absorption and color contrast in ultra-thin highly absorbing optical coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 101104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Allen, M. C.

M. Xiao, Y. Li, M. C. Allen, D. D. Deheyn, X. Yue, J. Zhao, N. C. Gianneschi, M. D. Shawkey, and A. Dhinojwala, “Bio-inspired structural colors produced via self-assembly of synthetic melanin nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 9, 5454–5460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baker, D.

R. Yu, P. Mazumder, N. F. Borrelli, A. Carrilero, D. S. Ghosh, R. A. Maniyara, D. Baker, F. J. García de Abajo, and V. Pruneri, “Structural coloring of glass using dewetted nanoparticles and ultrathin films of metals,” ACS Photon. 3, 1194–1201 (2016).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, D.

K.-T. Lee, C. Ji, D. Banerjee, and L. J. Guo, “Angular- and polarization-independent structural colors based on 1D photonic crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 354–362 (2015).
[Crossref]

Basov, D. N.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Basu, T.

J. Olson, A. Manjavacas, T. Basu, D. Huang, A. E. Schlather, B. Zheng, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, and S. Link, “High chromaticity aluminum plasmonic pixels for active liquid crystal displays,” ACS Nano 10, 1108–1117 (2016).
[Crossref]

Berger, O.

O. Berger, E. Yoskovitz, L. Adler-Abramovich, and E. Gazit, “Spectral transition in bio-inspired self-assembled peptide nucleic acid photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2195–2200 (2016).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

M. A. Kats, S. J. Byrnes, R. Blanchard, M. Kolle, P. Genevet, J. Aizenberg, and F. Capasso, “Enhancement of absorption and color contrast in ultra-thin highly absorbing optical coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 101104 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12, 20–24 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Borges, B.-H. V.

Boroumand, J.

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7337 (2015).
[Crossref]

Borrelli, N. F.

R. Yu, P. Mazumder, N. F. Borrelli, A. Carrilero, D. S. Ghosh, R. A. Maniyara, D. Baker, F. J. García de Abajo, and V. Pruneri, “Structural coloring of glass using dewetted nanoparticles and ultrathin films of metals,” ACS Photon. 3, 1194–1201 (2016).
[Crossref]

Botten, L. C.

Bowman, C. N.

L. M. Cox, Z. Li, N. Sowan, D. Nair, J. Xiao, C. N. Bowman, and Y. Ding, “Reconfigurable surface patterns on covalent adaptive network polymers using nanoimprint lithography,” Polymer 55, 5933–5937 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bräuer, R.

Bryngdahl, O.

Byrnes, S. J.

M. A. Kats, S. J. Byrnes, R. Blanchard, M. Kolle, P. Genevet, J. Aizenberg, and F. Capasso, “Enhancement of absorption and color contrast in ultra-thin highly absorbing optical coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 101104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

M. A. Kats, S. J. Byrnes, R. Blanchard, M. Kolle, P. Genevet, J. Aizenberg, and F. Capasso, “Enhancement of absorption and color contrast in ultra-thin highly absorbing optical coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 101104 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12, 20–24 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Carrilero, A.

R. Yu, P. Mazumder, N. F. Borrelli, A. Carrilero, D. S. Ghosh, R. A. Maniyara, D. Baker, F. J. García de Abajo, and V. Pruneri, “Structural coloring of glass using dewetted nanoparticles and ultrathin films of metals,” ACS Photon. 3, 1194–1201 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Formica, D. S. Ghosh, A. Carrilero, T. L. Chen, R. E. Simpson, and V. Pruneri, “Ultrastable and atomically smooth ultrathin silver films grown on a copper seed layer,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 3048–3053 (2013).
[Crossref]

Catchpole, K. R.

Catrysse, P. B.

Chanda, D.

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7337 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. L.

N. Formica, D. S. Ghosh, A. Carrilero, T. L. Chen, R. E. Simpson, and V. Pruneri, “Ultrastable and atomically smooth ultrathin silver films grown on a copper seed layer,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 3048–3053 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7337 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, F.

Cheong, B.-H.

Cho, E.-H.

Choi, D.-Y.

C.-S. Park, V. R. Shrestha, S.-S. Lee, and D.-Y. Choi, “Trans-reflective color filters based on a phase compensated etalon enabling adjustable color saturation,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25496 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. C. P. Sturmberg, T. K. Chong, D.-Y. Choi, T. P. White, L. C. Botten, K. B. Dossou, C. G. Poulton, K. R. Catchpole, R. C. McPhedran, and C. Martijn de Sterke, “Total absorption of visible light in ultrathin weakly absorbing semiconductor gratings,” Optica 3, 556–562 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Raj Shrestha, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Polarization-tuned dynamic color filters incorporating a dielectric-loaded aluminum nanowire array,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12450 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-S. Park, V. R. Shrestha, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Omnidirectional color filters capitalizing on a nano-resonator of Ag-TiO2-Ag integrated with a phase compensating dielectric overlay,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8467 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. R. Shrestha, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Non-iridescent transmissive structural color filter featuring highly efficient transmission and high excitation purity,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4921 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.-Y.

Choi, K. C.

Y. S. Do, J. H. Park, B. Y. Hwang, S.-M. Lee, B.-K. Ju, and K. C. Choi, “Plasmonic color filter and its fabrication for large-area applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 133–138 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chong, T. K.

Collin, S.

Cox, L. M.

L. M. Cox, J. P. Killgore, Z. Li, R. Long, A. W. Sanders, J. Xiao, and Y. Ding, “Influences of substrate adhesion and particle size on the shape memory effect of polystyrene particles,” Langmuir 32, 3691–3698 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. M. Cox, Z. Li, N. Sowan, D. Nair, J. Xiao, C. N. Bowman, and Y. Ding, “Reconfigurable surface patterns on covalent adaptive network polymers using nanoimprint lithography,” Polymer 55, 5933–5937 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. M. Cox, J. P. Killgore, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. C. Hurley, J. Xiao, and Y. Ding, “Morphing metal-polymer Janus particles,” Adv. Mater. 26, 899–904 (2014).
[Crossref]

Czaplewski, D.

Deheyn, D. D.

M. Xiao, Y. Li, M. C. Allen, D. D. Deheyn, X. Yue, J. Zhao, N. C. Gianneschi, M. D. Shawkey, and A. Dhinojwala, “Bio-inspired structural colors produced via self-assembly of synthetic melanin nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 9, 5454–5460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dhinojwala, A.

M. Xiao, Y. Li, M. C. Allen, D. D. Deheyn, X. Yue, J. Zhao, N. C. Gianneschi, M. D. Shawkey, and A. Dhinojwala, “Bio-inspired structural colors produced via self-assembly of synthetic melanin nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 9, 5454–5460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y.

L. M. Cox, J. P. Killgore, Z. Li, R. Long, A. W. Sanders, J. Xiao, and Y. Ding, “Influences of substrate adhesion and particle size on the shape memory effect of polystyrene particles,” Langmuir 32, 3691–3698 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. H. Maruf, Z. Li, J. A. Yoshimura, J. Xiao, A. R. Greenberg, and Y. Ding, “Influence of nanoimprint lithography on membrane structure and performance,” Polymer 69, 129–137 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. M. Cox, J. P. Killgore, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. C. Hurley, J. Xiao, and Y. Ding, “Morphing metal-polymer Janus particles,” Adv. Mater. 26, 899–904 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. M. Cox, Z. Li, N. Sowan, D. Nair, J. Xiao, C. N. Bowman, and Y. Ding, “Reconfigurable surface patterns on covalent adaptive network polymers using nanoimprint lithography,” Polymer 55, 5933–5937 (2014).
[Crossref]

Do, Y. S.

Y. S. Do, J. H. Park, B. Y. Hwang, S.-M. Lee, B.-K. Ju, and K. C. Choi, “Plasmonic color filter and its fabrication for large-area applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 133–138 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dossou, K. B.

Fan, S.

Fang, X.

K. Mao, W. Shen, C. Yang, X. Fang, W. Yuan, Y. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Angle insensitive color filters in transmission covering the visible region,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19289 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Yang, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, K. Li, X. Fang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Compact multilayer film structure for angle insensitive color filtering,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9285 (2015).
[Crossref]

Formica, N.

N. Formica, D. S. Ghosh, A. Carrilero, T. L. Chen, R. E. Simpson, and V. Pruneri, “Ultrastable and atomically smooth ultrathin silver films grown on a copper seed layer,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 3048–3053 (2013).
[Crossref]

Franklin, D.

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7337 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, M.

K.-T. Lee, M. Fukuda, S. Joglekar, and L. J. Guo, “Colored, see-through perovskite solar cells employing an optical cavity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 3, 5377–5382 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gan, Q.

H. Song, S. Jiang, D. Ji, X. Zeng, N. Zhang, K. Liu, C. Wang, Y. Xu, and Q. Gan, “Nanocavity absorption enhancement for two-dimensional material monolayer systems,” Opt. Express 23, 7120–7130 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Song, L. Guo, Z. Liu, K. Liu, X. Zeng, D. Ji, N. Zhang, H. Hu, S. Jiang, and Q. Gan, “Nanocavity enhancement for ultra-thin film optical absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26, 2737–2743 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gao, J.

García de Abajo, F. J.

R. Yu, P. Mazumder, N. F. Borrelli, A. Carrilero, D. S. Ghosh, R. A. Maniyara, D. Baker, F. J. García de Abajo, and V. Pruneri, “Structural coloring of glass using dewetted nanoparticles and ultrathin films of metals,” ACS Photon. 3, 1194–1201 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gazit, E.

O. Berger, E. Yoskovitz, L. Adler-Abramovich, and E. Gazit, “Spectral transition in bio-inspired self-assembled peptide nucleic acid photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2195–2200 (2016).
[Crossref]

Genevet, P.

M. A. Kats, S. J. Byrnes, R. Blanchard, M. Kolle, P. Genevet, J. Aizenberg, and F. Capasso, “Enhancement of absorption and color contrast in ultra-thin highly absorbing optical coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 101104 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12, 20–24 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, D. S.

R. Yu, P. Mazumder, N. F. Borrelli, A. Carrilero, D. S. Ghosh, R. A. Maniyara, D. Baker, F. J. García de Abajo, and V. Pruneri, “Structural coloring of glass using dewetted nanoparticles and ultrathin films of metals,” ACS Photon. 3, 1194–1201 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Formica, D. S. Ghosh, A. Carrilero, T. L. Chen, R. E. Simpson, and V. Pruneri, “Ultrastable and atomically smooth ultrathin silver films grown on a copper seed layer,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 3048–3053 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gianneschi, N. C.

M. Xiao, Y. Li, M. C. Allen, D. D. Deheyn, X. Yue, J. Zhao, N. C. Gianneschi, M. D. Shawkey, and A. Dhinojwala, “Bio-inspired structural colors produced via self-assembly of synthetic melanin nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 9, 5454–5460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Greenberg, A. R.

S. H. Maruf, Z. Li, J. A. Yoshimura, J. Xiao, A. R. Greenberg, and Y. Ding, “Influence of nanoimprint lithography on membrane structure and performance,” Polymer 69, 129–137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guérineau, N.

Guo, J.

J. Guo, C. M. Huard, Y. Yang, Y. J. Shin, K.-T. Lee, and L. J. Guo, “ITO-free, compact, color liquid crystal devices using integrated structural color filters and graphene electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 435–441 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, L.

K.-T. Lee, J. Y. Lee, S. Seo, and L. Guo, “Colored ultrathin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e215 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Song, L. Guo, Z. Liu, K. Liu, X. Zeng, D. Ji, N. Zhang, H. Hu, S. Jiang, and Q. Gan, “Nanocavity enhancement for ultra-thin film optical absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26, 2737–2743 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, L. J.

K.-T. Lee, J.-Y. Jang, S. J. Park, C. Ji, S.-M. Yang, L. J. Guo, and H. J. Park, “Angle-insensitive and CMOS-compatible subwavelength color printing,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1696 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Kyu-Tae, L. Jae Yong, S. Sungyong, and L. J. Guo, “Microcavity-integrated colored semitransparent hybrid photovoltaics with improved efficiency and color purity,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 5, 1654–1658 (2015).
[Crossref]

K.-T. Lee, M. Fukuda, S. Joglekar, and L. J. Guo, “Colored, see-through perovskite solar cells employing an optical cavity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 3, 5377–5382 (2015).
[Crossref]

K.-T. Lee, S. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “High-color-purity subtractive color filters with a wide viewing angle based on plasmonic perfect absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 347–352 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. G. Ok, Y. J. Shin, H. J. Park, and L. J. Guo, “A step toward next-generation nanoimprint lithography: extending productivity and applicability,” Appl. Phys. A 121, 343–356 (2015).
[Crossref]

K.-T. Lee, C. Ji, D. Banerjee, and L. J. Guo, “Angular- and polarization-independent structural colors based on 1D photonic crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 354–362 (2015).
[Crossref]

K.-T. Lee, S. Seo, J. Y. Lee, and L. J. Guo, “Strong resonance effect in a lossy medium-based optical cavity for angle robust spectrum filters,” Adv. Mater. 26, 6324–6328 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Guo, C. M. Huard, Y. Yang, Y. J. Shin, K.-T. Lee, and L. J. Guo, “ITO-free, compact, color liquid crystal devices using integrated structural color filters and graphene electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 435–441 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Lee, K.-T. Lee, S. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4192 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-K. R. Wu, A. E. Hollowell, C. Zhang, and L. J. Guo, “Angle-insensitive structural colours based on metallic nanocavities and coloured pixels beyond the diffraction limit,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1194 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. J. Park, T. Xu, J. Y. Lee, A. Ledbetter, and L. J. Guo, “Photonic color filters integrated with organic solar cells for energy harvesting,” ACS Nano 5, 7055–7060 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Xu, Y.-K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat. Commun. 1, 59 (2010).

S. H. Ahn and L. J. Guo, “High-speed roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography on flexible plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater. 20, 2044–2049 (2008).
[Crossref]

Haïdar, R.

Halas, N. J.

J. Olson, A. Manjavacas, T. Basu, D. Huang, A. E. Schlather, B. Zheng, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, and S. Link, “High chromaticity aluminum plasmonic pixels for active liquid crystal displays,” ACS Nano 10, 1108–1117 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Y. Zheng, Y. Wang, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Color-selective and CMOS-compatible photodetection based on aluminum plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 26, 6318–6323 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hane, K.

Y. Kanamori, M. Shimono, and K. Hane, “Fabrication of transmission color filters using silicon subwavelength gratings on quartz substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2126–2128 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hollowell, A. E.

Y.-K. R. Wu, A. E. Hollowell, C. Zhang, and L. J. Guo, “Angle-insensitive structural colours based on metallic nanocavities and coloured pixels beyond the diffraction limit,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1194 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hong, K.

H. Yun, S.-Y. Lee, K. Hong, J. Yeom, and B. Lee, “Plasmonic cavity-apertures as dynamic pixels for the simultaneous control of colour and intensity,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7133 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

H. Song, L. Guo, Z. Liu, K. Liu, X. Zeng, D. Ji, N. Zhang, H. Hu, S. Jiang, and Q. Gan, “Nanocavity enhancement for ultra-thin film optical absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26, 2737–2743 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

J. Olson, A. Manjavacas, T. Basu, D. Huang, A. E. Schlather, B. Zheng, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, and S. Link, “High chromaticity aluminum plasmonic pixels for active liquid crystal displays,” ACS Nano 10, 1108–1117 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huard, C. M.

J. Guo, C. M. Huard, Y. Yang, Y. J. Shin, K.-T. Lee, and L. J. Guo, “ITO-free, compact, color liquid crystal devices using integrated structural color filters and graphene electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 435–441 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hurley, D. C.

L. M. Cox, J. P. Killgore, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. C. Hurley, J. Xiao, and Y. Ding, “Morphing metal-polymer Janus particles,” Adv. Mater. 26, 899–904 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hwang, B. Y.

Y. S. Do, J. H. Park, B. Y. Hwang, S.-M. Lee, B.-K. Ju, and K. C. Choi, “Plasmonic color filter and its fabrication for large-area applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 133–138 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jae Yong, L.

L. Kyu-Tae, L. Jae Yong, S. Sungyong, and L. J. Guo, “Microcavity-integrated colored semitransparent hybrid photovoltaics with improved efficiency and color purity,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 5, 1654–1658 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jalali, M.

L. Wang, R. J. H. Ng, S. Safari Dinachali, M. Jalali, Y. Yu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Large area plasmonic color palettes with expanded gamut using colloidal self-assembly,” ACS Photon. 3, 627–633 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jang, J.-Y.

K.-T. Lee, J.-Y. Jang, S. J. Park, C. Ji, S.-M. Yang, L. J. Guo, and H. J. Park, “Angle-insensitive and CMOS-compatible subwavelength color printing,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1696 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jay Guo, L.

K.-T. Lee, S. Seo, J. Yong Lee, and L. Jay Guo, “Ultrathin metal-semiconductor-metal resonator for angle invariant visible band transmission filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 231112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ji, C.

K.-T. Lee, J.-Y. Jang, S. J. Park, C. Ji, S.-M. Yang, L. J. Guo, and H. J. Park, “Angle-insensitive and CMOS-compatible subwavelength color printing,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1696 (2016).
[Crossref]

K.-T. Lee, C. Ji, D. Banerjee, and L. J. Guo, “Angular- and polarization-independent structural colors based on 1D photonic crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 354–362 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ji, D.

H. Song, S. Jiang, D. Ji, X. Zeng, N. Zhang, K. Liu, C. Wang, Y. Xu, and Q. Gan, “Nanocavity absorption enhancement for two-dimensional material monolayer systems,” Opt. Express 23, 7120–7130 (2015).
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C.-S. Park, V. R. Shrestha, S.-S. Lee, and D.-Y. Choi, “Trans-reflective color filters based on a phase compensated etalon enabling adjustable color saturation,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25496 (2016).
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L. M. Cox, Z. Li, N. Sowan, D. Nair, J. Xiao, C. N. Bowman, and Y. Ding, “Reconfigurable surface patterns on covalent adaptive network polymers using nanoimprint lithography,” Polymer 55, 5933–5937 (2014).
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V. Steenhoff, M. Theuring, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Ultrathin resonant-cavity-enhanced solar cells with amorphous germanium absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 182–186 (2015).
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Suh, W.

Sungyong, S.

L. Kyu-Tae, L. Jae Yong, S. Sungyong, and L. J. Guo, “Microcavity-integrated colored semitransparent hybrid photovoltaics with improved efficiency and color purity,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 5, 1654–1658 (2015).
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V. Steenhoff, M. Theuring, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Ultrathin resonant-cavity-enhanced solar cells with amorphous germanium absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 182–186 (2015).
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D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7337 (2015).
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V. Steenhoff, M. Theuring, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Ultrathin resonant-cavity-enhanced solar cells with amorphous germanium absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 182–186 (2015).
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V. Steenhoff, M. Theuring, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Ultrathin resonant-cavity-enhanced solar cells with amorphous germanium absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 182–186 (2015).
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L. Wang, R. J. H. Ng, S. Safari Dinachali, M. Jalali, Y. Yu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Large area plasmonic color palettes with expanded gamut using colloidal self-assembly,” ACS Photon. 3, 627–633 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

B. Y. Zheng, Y. Wang, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Color-selective and CMOS-compatible photodetection based on aluminum plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 26, 6318–6323 (2014).
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Wu, S.-T.

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7337 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.-K.

T. Xu, Y.-K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat. Commun. 1, 59 (2010).

Wu, Y.-K. R.

Y.-K. R. Wu, A. E. Hollowell, C. Zhang, and L. J. Guo, “Angle-insensitive structural colours based on metallic nanocavities and coloured pixels beyond the diffraction limit,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1194 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xianyua, W.

Xiao, J.

L. M. Cox, J. P. Killgore, Z. Li, R. Long, A. W. Sanders, J. Xiao, and Y. Ding, “Influences of substrate adhesion and particle size on the shape memory effect of polystyrene particles,” Langmuir 32, 3691–3698 (2016).
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S. H. Maruf, Z. Li, J. A. Yoshimura, J. Xiao, A. R. Greenberg, and Y. Ding, “Influence of nanoimprint lithography on membrane structure and performance,” Polymer 69, 129–137 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. M. Cox, Z. Li, N. Sowan, D. Nair, J. Xiao, C. N. Bowman, and Y. Ding, “Reconfigurable surface patterns on covalent adaptive network polymers using nanoimprint lithography,” Polymer 55, 5933–5937 (2014).
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L. M. Cox, J. P. Killgore, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. C. Hurley, J. Xiao, and Y. Ding, “Morphing metal-polymer Janus particles,” Adv. Mater. 26, 899–904 (2014).
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M. Xiao, Y. Li, M. C. Allen, D. D. Deheyn, X. Yue, J. Zhao, N. C. Gianneschi, M. D. Shawkey, and A. Dhinojwala, “Bio-inspired structural colors produced via self-assembly of synthetic melanin nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 9, 5454–5460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7337 (2015).
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H. J. Park, T. Xu, J. Y. Lee, A. Ledbetter, and L. J. Guo, “Photonic color filters integrated with organic solar cells for energy harvesting,” ACS Nano 5, 7055–7060 (2011).
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T. Xu, Y.-K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat. Commun. 1, 59 (2010).

Xu, Y.

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K. Mao, W. Shen, C. Yang, X. Fang, W. Yuan, Y. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Angle insensitive color filters in transmission covering the visible region,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19289 (2016).
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C. Yang, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, K. Li, X. Fang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Compact multilayer film structure for angle insensitive color filtering,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9285 (2015).
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L. Wang, R. J. H. Ng, S. Safari Dinachali, M. Jalali, Y. Yu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Large area plasmonic color palettes with expanded gamut using colloidal self-assembly,” ACS Photon. 3, 627–633 (2016).
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Yang, S.-M.

K.-T. Lee, J.-Y. Jang, S. J. Park, C. Ji, S.-M. Yang, L. J. Guo, and H. J. Park, “Angle-insensitive and CMOS-compatible subwavelength color printing,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1696 (2016).
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J. Guo, C. M. Huard, Y. Yang, Y. J. Shin, K.-T. Lee, and L. J. Guo, “ITO-free, compact, color liquid crystal devices using integrated structural color filters and graphene electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 435–441 (2014).
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H. Yun, S.-Y. Lee, K. Hong, J. Yeom, and B. Lee, “Plasmonic cavity-apertures as dynamic pixels for the simultaneous control of colour and intensity,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7133 (2015).
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K.-T. Lee, S. Seo, J. Yong Lee, and L. Jay Guo, “Ultrathin metal-semiconductor-metal resonator for angle invariant visible band transmission filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 231112 (2014).
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Yoon, J. W.

Yoon, Y.-T.

Yoshimura, J. A.

S. H. Maruf, Z. Li, J. A. Yoshimura, J. Xiao, A. R. Greenberg, and Y. Ding, “Influence of nanoimprint lithography on membrane structure and performance,” Polymer 69, 129–137 (2015).
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O. Berger, E. Yoskovitz, L. Adler-Abramovich, and E. Gazit, “Spectral transition in bio-inspired self-assembled peptide nucleic acid photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2195–2200 (2016).
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R. Yu, P. Mazumder, N. F. Borrelli, A. Carrilero, D. S. Ghosh, R. A. Maniyara, D. Baker, F. J. García de Abajo, and V. Pruneri, “Structural coloring of glass using dewetted nanoparticles and ultrathin films of metals,” ACS Photon. 3, 1194–1201 (2016).
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Yu, Y.

L. Wang, R. J. H. Ng, S. Safari Dinachali, M. Jalali, Y. Yu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Large area plasmonic color palettes with expanded gamut using colloidal self-assembly,” ACS Photon. 3, 627–633 (2016).
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B. Ai, Y. Yu, H. Möhwald, and G. Zhang, “Responsive monochromatic color display based on nanovolcano arrays,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 724–731 (2013).
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K. Mao, W. Shen, C. Yang, X. Fang, W. Yuan, Y. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Angle insensitive color filters in transmission covering the visible region,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19289 (2016).
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Yue, X.

M. Xiao, Y. Li, M. C. Allen, D. D. Deheyn, X. Yue, J. Zhao, N. C. Gianneschi, M. D. Shawkey, and A. Dhinojwala, “Bio-inspired structural colors produced via self-assembly of synthetic melanin nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 9, 5454–5460 (2015).
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Yun, H.

H. Yun, S.-Y. Lee, K. Hong, J. Yeom, and B. Lee, “Plasmonic cavity-apertures as dynamic pixels for the simultaneous control of colour and intensity,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7133 (2015).
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H. Song, S. Jiang, D. Ji, X. Zeng, N. Zhang, K. Liu, C. Wang, Y. Xu, and Q. Gan, “Nanocavity absorption enhancement for two-dimensional material monolayer systems,” Opt. Express 23, 7120–7130 (2015).
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H. Song, L. Guo, Z. Liu, K. Liu, X. Zeng, D. Ji, N. Zhang, H. Hu, S. Jiang, and Q. Gan, “Nanocavity enhancement for ultra-thin film optical absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26, 2737–2743 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Y.-K. R. Wu, A. E. Hollowell, C. Zhang, and L. J. Guo, “Angle-insensitive structural colours based on metallic nanocavities and coloured pixels beyond the diffraction limit,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1194 (2013).
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Zhang, G.

B. Ai, Y. Yu, H. Möhwald, and G. Zhang, “Responsive monochromatic color display based on nanovolcano arrays,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 724–731 (2013).
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H. Song, S. Jiang, D. Ji, X. Zeng, N. Zhang, K. Liu, C. Wang, Y. Xu, and Q. Gan, “Nanocavity absorption enhancement for two-dimensional material monolayer systems,” Opt. Express 23, 7120–7130 (2015).
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H. Song, L. Guo, Z. Liu, K. Liu, X. Zeng, D. Ji, N. Zhang, H. Hu, S. Jiang, and Q. Gan, “Nanocavity enhancement for ultra-thin film optical absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26, 2737–2743 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

C. Yang, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, K. Li, X. Fang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Compact multilayer film structure for angle insensitive color filtering,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9285 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

K. Mao, W. Shen, C. Yang, X. Fang, W. Yuan, Y. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Angle insensitive color filters in transmission covering the visible region,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19289 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Yang, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, K. Li, X. Fang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Compact multilayer film structure for angle insensitive color filtering,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9285 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

L. M. Cox, J. P. Killgore, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. C. Hurley, J. Xiao, and Y. Ding, “Morphing metal-polymer Janus particles,” Adv. Mater. 26, 899–904 (2014).
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Zhao, J.

M. Xiao, Y. Li, M. C. Allen, D. D. Deheyn, X. Yue, J. Zhao, N. C. Gianneschi, M. D. Shawkey, and A. Dhinojwala, “Bio-inspired structural colors produced via self-assembly of synthetic melanin nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 9, 5454–5460 (2015).
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J. Olson, A. Manjavacas, T. Basu, D. Huang, A. E. Schlather, B. Zheng, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, and S. Link, “High chromaticity aluminum plasmonic pixels for active liquid crystal displays,” ACS Nano 10, 1108–1117 (2016).
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B. Y. Zheng, Y. Wang, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Color-selective and CMOS-compatible photodetection based on aluminum plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 26, 6318–6323 (2014).
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H. J. Park, T. Xu, J. Y. Lee, A. Ledbetter, and L. J. Guo, “Photonic color filters integrated with organic solar cells for energy harvesting,” ACS Nano 5, 7055–7060 (2011).
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J. Olson, A. Manjavacas, T. Basu, D. Huang, A. E. Schlather, B. Zheng, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, and S. Link, “High chromaticity aluminum plasmonic pixels for active liquid crystal displays,” ACS Nano 10, 1108–1117 (2016).
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ACS Photon. (2)

R. Yu, P. Mazumder, N. F. Borrelli, A. Carrilero, D. S. Ghosh, R. A. Maniyara, D. Baker, F. J. García de Abajo, and V. Pruneri, “Structural coloring of glass using dewetted nanoparticles and ultrathin films of metals,” ACS Photon. 3, 1194–1201 (2016).
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L. Wang, R. J. H. Ng, S. Safari Dinachali, M. Jalali, Y. Yu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Large area plasmonic color palettes with expanded gamut using colloidal self-assembly,” ACS Photon. 3, 627–633 (2016).
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Adv. Mater. (6)

O. Berger, E. Yoskovitz, L. Adler-Abramovich, and E. Gazit, “Spectral transition in bio-inspired self-assembled peptide nucleic acid photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2195–2200 (2016).
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B. Y. Zheng, Y. Wang, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Color-selective and CMOS-compatible photodetection based on aluminum plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 26, 6318–6323 (2014).
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L. M. Cox, J. P. Killgore, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. C. Hurley, J. Xiao, and Y. Ding, “Morphing metal-polymer Janus particles,” Adv. Mater. 26, 899–904 (2014).
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H. Song, L. Guo, Z. Liu, K. Liu, X. Zeng, D. Ji, N. Zhang, H. Hu, S. Jiang, and Q. Gan, “Nanocavity enhancement for ultra-thin film optical absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26, 2737–2743 (2014).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (6)

V. Steenhoff, M. Theuring, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Ultrathin resonant-cavity-enhanced solar cells with amorphous germanium absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 182–186 (2015).
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J. Guo, C. M. Huard, Y. Yang, Y. J. Shin, K.-T. Lee, and L. J. Guo, “ITO-free, compact, color liquid crystal devices using integrated structural color filters and graphene electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 435–441 (2014).
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K.-T. Lee, J.-Y. Jang, S. J. Park, C. Ji, S.-M. Yang, L. J. Guo, and H. J. Park, “Angle-insensitive and CMOS-compatible subwavelength color printing,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1696 (2016).
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K.-T. Lee, S. Seo, J. Yong Lee, and L. Jay Guo, “Ultrathin metal-semiconductor-metal resonator for angle invariant visible band transmission filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 231112 (2014).
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M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221101 (2012).
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L. Kyu-Tae, L. Jae Yong, S. Sungyong, and L. J. Guo, “Microcavity-integrated colored semitransparent hybrid photovoltaics with improved efficiency and color purity,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 5, 1654–1658 (2015).
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Langmuir (1)

L. M. Cox, J. P. Killgore, Z. Li, R. Long, A. W. Sanders, J. Xiao, and Y. Ding, “Influences of substrate adhesion and particle size on the shape memory effect of polystyrene particles,” Langmuir 32, 3691–3698 (2016).
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D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7337 (2015).
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S. H. Maruf, Z. Li, J. A. Yoshimura, J. Xiao, A. R. Greenberg, and Y. Ding, “Influence of nanoimprint lithography on membrane structure and performance,” Polymer 69, 129–137 (2015).
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Sci. Rep. (9)

Y.-K. R. Wu, A. E. Hollowell, C. Zhang, and L. J. Guo, “Angle-insensitive structural colours based on metallic nanocavities and coloured pixels beyond the diffraction limit,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1194 (2013).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic representation of the proposed subwavelength nanocavity-based transmissive structural color filters, composed of a-Si nanogratings on top of SiO 2 (25 nm) and an optically transparent metallic substrate ( Ag = 20    nm ). Top-view SEM images of (b) blue (B), (c) green (G), and (d) red (R) of fabricated structural color filters. Insets show angle-view SEM images and photographs of the fabricated samples where a background monument can be seen through the samples with the RGB colors.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Simulated and (b) measured transmission spectra at normal incidence. The measured profiles show slightly blue-shifted resonances (B: 450 nm, G: 520 nm, R: 630 nm) as compared to those obtained from the simulation (B: 475 nm, G: 560 nm, R: 640 nm), which could be due to the oxidation of ultrathin a-Si nanogratings and dimensional deviations during the fabrication of the structural color filters. For creating individual RGB colors in a pixel unit via a one-step fabrication method, a period ( P = 180    nm ) and a thickness ( t = 10    nm ) are fixed. The transmissive colors are tuned by changing the width ( W ) of the subwavelength gratings: B ( W = 30    nm ), G ( W = 70    nm ), and R ( W = 150    nm ). Distributions of normalized z component of electric field into a device structure at (c) resonances and at (d) off-resonances (800 nm). It is obvious that the electric field intensity is strongly confined in the a-Si subwavelength gratings presenting the fundamental resonance mode at the resonant wavelength, while the electric field is reflected at the off-resonant wavelength. The red and blue colors represent the high and low intensities of the electric field, respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) A peak of the transmission efficiency and (b) a position of the resonance as a function of the radius of curvature. Red-, green-, and blue-colored symbols represent the data from the red, green, and blue color filters. (c) Ratio of change of transmission efficiency and resonance wavelength according to the number of bending tests. (d) A photograph of the fabricated blue color filter on a flexible substrate.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a)–(c) Simulated and (d)–(f) measured angle-resolved transmission spectra of the proposed structural color filters where the resonance (i.e., bright color) in the dispersion curve is insensitive with respect to angles of incidence from 0° to 60°. A net phase change (magenta) that involves propagation (black) and reflection phase shifts (red and blue) as a function of the incident angles at the resonance conditions of (g) B, (h) G, and (i) R colors, calculated by effective medium theory, exhibiting a flat-band characteristic.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Simulated and (b) measured transmission spectra of green color filter at normal incidence with and without a polymer encapsulation layer atop the structure. (c) Normalized z component of electric field distributions of the structure, where the green color ( W = 70    nm ) is created, with a 780-nm-thick top encapsulation layer at the 465, 565, and 715 nm wavelengths, each of which corresponds to the resonance (i.e., peak positions in the transmission) as shown in (a). (d) Measured transmission spectra of the structural color filters without (dotted lines) and with (solid lines) a polymer encapsulation layer (180 nm), the latter of which shows a sharp resonance (i.e., improved Q -factor) leading to high color purity.

Equations (1)

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n TE = ε 1 f + ε 2 ( 1 f ) 1 + π 2 3 ( ε 1 f + ε 2 ( 1 f ) ) ( f ( 1 f ) P λ ) 2 ( ε 1 ε 2 ε 1 f + ε 2 ( 1 f ) ) ,

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