Abstract

Imaging applications in the terahertz (THz) frequency range are severely restricted by diffraction. Near-field scanning probe microscopy is commonly employed to enable mapping of the THz electromagnetic fields with sub-wavelength spatial resolution, allowing intriguing scientific phenomena to be explored, such as charge carrier dynamics in nanostructures and THz plasmon-polaritons in novel 2D materials and devices. High-resolution THz imaging, so far, has relied predominantly on THz detection techniques that require either an ultrafast laser or a cryogenically cooled THz detector. Here, we demonstrate coherent near-field imaging in the THz frequency range using a room-temperature nanodetector embedded in the aperture of a near-field probe, and an interferometric optical setup driven by a THz quantum cascade laser. By performing phase-sensitive imaging of strongly confined THz fields created by plasmonic focusing, we demonstrate the potential of our novel architecture for high-sensitivity coherent THz imaging with sub-wavelength spatial resolution.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2017 (8)

M. A. Huber, F. Mooshammer, M. Plankl, L. Viti, F. Sandner, L. Z. Kastner, T. Frank, J. Fabian, M. S. Vitiello, T. L. Cocker, and R. Huber, “Femtosecond photo-switching of interface polaritons in black phosphorus heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12, 207–211 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Vedran, K. Iwaszczuk, P. H. Nguyen, C. Rathje, G. J. Hornig, H. M. Sharum, J. R. Hoffman, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Ultrafast terahertz control of extreme tunnel currents through single atoms on a silicon surface,” Nat. Phys. 13, 591–598 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Low, A. Chaves, J. D. Caldwell, A. Kumar, N. X. Fang, P. Avouris, T. F. Heinz, F. Guinea, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Koppens, “Polaritons in layered two-dimenisonal materials,” Nat. Mater. 16, 182–194 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. Mitrofanov, Z. Han, F. Ding, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. Brener, and J. L. Reno, “Detection of internal fields in double-metal terahertz resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 061109 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. I. Stantchev, D. B. Phillips, P. Hobson, S. M. Hornett, M. J. Padgett, and E. Hendry, “Compressed sensing with near-field THz radiation,” Optica 4, 989–992 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Degl’Innocenti, R. Wallis, B. Wei, L. Xiao, S. J. Kindness, O. Mitrofanov, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, S. Hofmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Terahertz nanoscopy of plasmonic resonances with a quantum cascade laser,” ACS Photon. 4, 2150–2157 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. A. Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D 50, 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. Mitrofanov, L. Viti, E. Dardanis, M. C. Giordano, D. Ercolani, A. Politano, L. Sorba, and M. S. Vitiello, “Near-field terahertz probes with room-temperature nanodetectors for subwavelength resolution imaging,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44240 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

P. Dean, O. Mitrofanov, J. Keeley, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Apertureless near-field terahertz imaging using the self-mixing effect in a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 091113 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Khromova, P. Kužel, I. Brener, J. L. Reno, U.-C. Chung Seu, C. Elissalde, M. Maglione, P. Mounaix, and O. Mitrofanov, “Splitting of magnetic dipole modes in anisotropic TiO2 micro-spheres,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 681–687 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bhattacharya and J. Gómez Rivas, “Full vectorial mapping of the complex electric near-fields of THz resonators,” APL Photon. 1, 086103 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Mitrofanov, I. Khromova, T. Siday, R. Thompson, A. Ponomarev, I. Brener, and J. L. Reno, “Near-field spectroscopy and imaging of subwavelength plasmonic terahertz resonators,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 382–388 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

M. Autore, H. Engelkamp, F. D’Apuzzo, A. Di Gaspare, P. Di Pietro, I. Lo Vecchio, M. Brahlek, N. Koirala, S. Oh, and S. Lupi, “Observation of magnetoplasmons in Bi2Se3 topological insulator,” ACS Photon. 2, 1231–1235 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Tao, E. Cinquanta, D. Chiappe, C. Grazianetti, M. Fanciulli, M. Dubey, A. Molle, and D. Akinwande, “Silicene field-effect transistors operating at room temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 227–231 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Rong, T. Latychevskaia, C. Chen, D. Wang, Z. Yu, X. Zhou, Z. Li, H. Huang, Y. Wang, and Z. Zhou, “Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8445 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, A. Politano, and M. S. Vitiello, “Black phosphorus terahertz photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 27, 5567–5572 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, T. S. Luk, and J. L. Reno, “Photoconductive terahertz near-field detector with a hybrid nanoantenna array cavity,” ACS Photon. 2, 1763–1768 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

M. Schnell, P. S. Carney, and R. Hillenbrand, “Synthetic optical holography for rapid nanoimaging,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3499 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Eisele, T. L. Cocker, M. A. Huber, M. Plankl, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, L. Sorba, M. S. Vitiello, and R. Huber, “Ultrafast multi-terahertz nano-spectroscopy with sub-cycle temporal resolution,” Nat. Photonics 8, 841–845 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

L. V. Titova, A. K. Ayesheshim, A. Golubov, R. Rodriguez-Juarez, R. Woycicki, F. A. Hegmann, and O. Kovalchuk, “Intense THz pulses down-regulate genes associated with skin cancer and psoriasis: a new therapeutic avenue?” Sci. Rep. 3, 2363 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, J. Choi, H.-D. Kim, H. Choi, and B. Min, “Ultrafast refractive index control of a terahertz graphene metamaterial,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2135 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

N. Kumar, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, P. C. M. Planken, and A. J. L. Adam, “THz near-field Faraday imaging in hybrid metamaterials,” Opt. Express 20, 11277–11287 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Jacob, S. Winnerl, M. Fehrenbacher, J. Bhattacharyya, H. Schneider, M. T. Wenzel, H. G. von Ribbeck, L. M. Eng, P. Atkinson, O. G. Schmidt, and M. Helm, “Intersublevel spectroscopy on single InAs-quantum dots by terahertz near-field microscopy,” Nano Lett. 12, 4336–4340 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, K. Ooi, T. Tanaka, A. Doi, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz spectroscopy of the reactive and radiative near-field zones of split ring resonator,” Opt. Express 20, 19395–19403 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Mitrofanov, C. C. Renaud, and A. J. Seeds, “Terahertz probe for spectroscopy of sub-wavelength objects,” Opt. Express 20, 6197–6202 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

M.-A. Brun, F. Formanek, A. Yasuda, M. Sekine, N. Ando, and Y. Eishii, “Terahertz imaging applied to cancer diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 4615–4623 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, “Waveguide mode imaging and dispersion analysis with terahertz near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy through a SiC superlens,” Science 313, 1595 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A 362, 787–805 (2004).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

1972 (1)

E. Ash and G. Nicholls, “Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope,” Nature 237, 510–512 (1972).
[Crossref]

1944 (1)

H. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66, 163–182 (1944).
[Crossref]

Adam, A. J. L.

Akinwande, D.

L. Tao, E. Cinquanta, D. Chiappe, C. Grazianetti, M. Fanciulli, M. Dubey, A. Molle, and D. Akinwande, “Silicene field-effect transistors operating at room temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 227–231 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alonso-Gonzalez, P.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5, 283–287 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ando, N.

M.-A. Brun, F. Formanek, A. Yasuda, M. Sekine, N. Ando, and Y. Eishii, “Terahertz imaging applied to cancer diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 4615–4623 (2010).
[Crossref]

Andreev, G. O.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appleby, R.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. A. Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D 50, 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Arzubiaga, L.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5, 283–287 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ash, E.

E. Ash and G. Nicholls, “Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope,” Nature 237, 510–512 (1972).
[Crossref]

Atkinson, P.

R. Jacob, S. Winnerl, M. Fehrenbacher, J. Bhattacharyya, H. Schneider, M. T. Wenzel, H. G. von Ribbeck, L. M. Eng, P. Atkinson, O. G. Schmidt, and M. Helm, “Intersublevel spectroscopy on single InAs-quantum dots by terahertz near-field microscopy,” Nano Lett. 12, 4336–4340 (2012).
[Crossref]

Autore, M.

M. Autore, H. Engelkamp, F. D’Apuzzo, A. Di Gaspare, P. Di Pietro, I. Lo Vecchio, M. Brahlek, N. Koirala, S. Oh, and S. Lupi, “Observation of magnetoplasmons in Bi2Se3 topological insulator,” ACS Photon. 2, 1231–1235 (2015).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

Avouris, P.

T. Low, A. Chaves, J. D. Caldwell, A. Kumar, N. X. Fang, P. Avouris, T. F. Heinz, F. Guinea, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Koppens, “Polaritons in layered two-dimenisonal materials,” Nat. Mater. 16, 182–194 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ayesheshim, A. K.

L. V. Titova, A. K. Ayesheshim, A. Golubov, R. Rodriguez-Juarez, R. Woycicki, F. A. Hegmann, and O. Kovalchuk, “Intense THz pulses down-regulate genes associated with skin cancer and psoriasis: a new therapeutic avenue?” Sci. Rep. 3, 2363 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bao, W.

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematics of the interferometric THz near-field microscopy setup. The inset shows the near-field probe geometry. (b) (upper left and lower left) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the near-field probe with an embedded FET-based THz nanodetector (view angles of 0° and 70°). A top gate contact (G) defines the aperture; the aperture size is 18  μm×18  μm; the InAs nanowire detector is at the aperture center; and the source (S) and drain (D) contacts are isolated from the gate with a layer of SiO2. (upper right) Schematic diagram of the cross-sectional view of the detector. (c) Spatial distribution of the detected photovoltage Δu1 for the front (I1) and (d) back side (I2) illumination. (e) Interference trace acquired when the front and the reference beams simultaneously illuminate the near-field probe positioned in the focal plane at the center of the 2D scan area, and the relative phase is tuned using the delay stage.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Optical image of two needles employed for focusing the THz beam to a sub-wavelength spot. The needles are placed in front of the NW nanodetector probe. (b), (c) Spatial distribution of the near-field probe photovoltage Δutot, for the in-phase and out-of-phase conditions without the needles.(d) Spatial distribution of Δu1, detected under the front side only (I1) illumination of the near-field probe, and (e) spatial distribution of the coherent photovoltage Δuc=Δutotin-phaseΔutotout-of-phase when the two needles focus the incident beam to a sub-wavelength spot. (f) Vertical line scans of Δu1 and Δuc extracted from maps (d) (red line) and (e) (blue line), respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Graphic representation of the responsivity ratio R*/R2 as a function of ξ for different experimental configurations. (b) Measured responsivity R* as a function of the degree of asymmetry of the illumination ξ. (c) Schematics of the interferometric optical setup with an additional attenuator (A) positioned along the optical path of the front illumination beam (I1). (d) Coherent responsivity (Rc1, blue circles) and non-coherent responsivity (R1, red triangles) plotted as a function of the intensity ratio I1/I2.

Equations (6)

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R(i)=Δu(i)Ptot(i)×Stot(i)Sawith  i=1,2.
Itot=I1+I2+2γI1I2cos(δϕ),
Δutot=R1I1+R2I2+2γR1I1R2I2cos(δϕ).
R*=R1I1+R2I2+2γR1I1R2I2cos(δϕ)I1+I2,
Rc=4γR1I1R2I2I1+I2,
Rc1=ΔucI1=RcI1+I2I1=4γR1R2I2I1.

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