Abstract

The finite-difference time-domain method was employed to calculate light extraction efficiency of thin-film flip-chip InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with TiO2 microsphere arrays. The extraction efficiency for LEDs with microsphere arrays was investigated by focusing on the effect of the packing density, packing configuration, and diameter-to-period ratio. The comparison studies revealed the importance of having a hexagonal and close-packed monolayer microsphere array configuration for achieving optimum extraction efficiency, which translated into a 3.6-fold enhancement in light extraction compared to that for a planar LED. This improvement is attributed to the reduced Fresnel reflection and enlarged light escape cone. The engineering of the far-field radiation patterns was also demonstrated by tuning the packing density and packing configuration of the microsphere arrays.

© 2015 Chinese Laser Press

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Aspect ratio engineering of microlens arrays in thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes

Peifen Zhu, Chee-Keong Tan, Wei Sun, and Nelson Tansu
Appl. Opt. 54(34) 10299-10303 (2015)

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2015 (1)

C. K. Tan and N. Tansu, “Nanostructured lasers: electrons and holes get closer,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 107–109 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (12)

G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, C. K. Tan, and N. Tansu, “Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2201011 (2013).

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 177406 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. K. Tan, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. Y. Liu, B. O. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Display Technol. 9, 272–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 9, 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. H. Li, K. Y. Zang, S. J. Chua, and H. W. Choi, “III-nitride light-emitting diode with embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181117 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Han, T. A. Piedimonte, and H. Zhao, “Experimental exploration of the fabrication of GaN microdome arrays based on a self-assembled approach,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 1093–1100 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Sun, L. X. Zhao, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, Z. Q. Liu, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Shape designing for light extraction enhancement bulk-GaN light-emitting diodes,” J Appl. Phys. 113, 243104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Sheng, C. Xia, Z. M. Simon Li, and L. Cheng, “Simulation of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with patterned sapphire substrate,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 45, 605–610 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. W. Pan, P. J. Tsai, K. D. Chang, and Y. Y. Chang, “Light extraction efficiency analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Opt. 52, 1358–1367 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Qingyang, L. Kang, K. Fanmin, Z. Jia, and L. Wei, “Analysis on the light extraction efficiency of GaN-based nanowires light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 697–704 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. F. Zhu, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technol. 9, 317–323 (2013).
[Crossref]

X.-H. Li, P. F. Zhu, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, R. B. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technol. 9, 324–332 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

P. Zhao and H. Zhao, “Analysis of light extraction efficiency enhancement for thin-film-flip-chip InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with GaN micro-domes,” Opt. Express 20, A765–A776 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. F. Zhu, X. H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes using defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 3454–3459 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Ma, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, Y. Park, G. B. Kim, and C. Sone, “Strong light-extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes patterned with TiO2 micro-pillars with tapered sidewalls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141105 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 171105 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071102 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19, A991–A1007 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. N. Pantha, I. Feng, K. Aryal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Erbium-doped AlInGaN alloys as high-temperature thermoelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 051001 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, H. Tong, G. Liu, J. A. Herbsommer, G. S. Huang, and N. Tansu, “Characterizations of Seebeck coefficients and thermoelectric figures of merit for AlInN alloys with various in-contents,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053706 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Chao, P. Yu, and W. Y. Yeh, “Structural effects on highly directional far-field emission patterns of GaN-based micro-cavity light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2881–2889 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Tansu, H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Matioli and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of photonic crystals on LED light extraction efficiency: approaches and limits to vertical structure designs,” J. Phys. D 43, 354005 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181101 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (7)

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1028–1040 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1080–1091 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 063505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17, 13747–13757 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1218–1225 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3, 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

P. Kumnorkaew, Y. K. Ee, N. Tansu, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Investigation of the deposition of microsphere monolayers for fabrication of microlens arrays,” Langmuir 24, 12150–12157 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221107 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. F. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, K. F. Yeh, J. T. Chu, W. L. Peng, H. W. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Light-output enhancement of nano-roughened GaN laser lift-off light-emitting diodes formed by ICP dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 849–851 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091110 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. S. Lee, J. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Jeon, “Fabrication of reflective GaN mesa sidewalls for the application to high extraction efficiency LEDs,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 4, 2625–2628 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2347–2349 (2006).
[Crossref]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. H. Brown, P. Blood, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, S. M. Olaizola, A. M. Fox, P. J. Parbrook, and W. W. Chow, “Time evolution of the screening of piezoelectric fields in InGaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1202–1208 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. T. Lee, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride-based flip-chip ITO LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 273–277 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hseuh, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16, 1844–1848 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

B. G. Prevo and O. D. Velev, “Controlled, rapid deposition of structured coatings from micro- and nanoparticle suspensions,” Langmuir 20, 2099–2107 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plossl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaN technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

2003 (2)

M. Kneissl, D. W. Treat, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, and N. M. Johnson, “Continuous-wave operation of ultraviolet InGaN/InAlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2386–2388 (2003).
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C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based, light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J Appl. Phys. 93, 9383–9385 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y. C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

X. Li, S. Kim, E. E. Reuter, S. G. Bishop, and J. J. Coleman, “The incorporation of arsenic in GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1990–1992 (1998).
[Crossref]

Arif, R. A.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1218–1225 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17, 13747–13757 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221107 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aryal, K.

B. N. Pantha, I. Feng, K. Aryal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Erbium-doped AlInGaN alloys as high-temperature thermoelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 051001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bader, S.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plossl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaN technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Biser, J. M.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bishop, S. G.

X. Li, S. Kim, E. E. Reuter, S. G. Bishop, and J. J. Coleman, “The incorporation of arsenic in GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1990–1992 (1998).
[Crossref]

Blood, P.

I. H. Brown, P. Blood, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, S. M. Olaizola, A. M. Fox, P. J. Parbrook, and W. W. Chow, “Time evolution of the screening of piezoelectric fields in InGaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1202–1208 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brown, I. H.

I. H. Brown, P. Blood, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, S. M. Olaizola, A. M. Fox, P. J. Parbrook, and W. W. Chow, “Time evolution of the screening of piezoelectric fields in InGaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1202–1208 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cao, W. J.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chan, H. M.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. S.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. T. Lee, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride-based flip-chip ITO LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 273–277 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chang, K. D.

Chang, S. J.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. T. Lee, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride-based flip-chip ITO LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 273–277 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. P.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, W. T.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. Y.

Chao, C. H.

Chen, M. F.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. F. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Chen, W. S.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. T. Lee, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride-based flip-chip ITO LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 273–277 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cheng, L.

Y. Sheng, C. Xia, Z. M. Simon Li, and L. Cheng, “Simulation of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with patterned sapphire substrate,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 45, 605–610 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chhajed, S.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cho, J.

M. Ma, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, Y. Park, G. B. Kim, and C. Sone, “Strong light-extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes patterned with TiO2 micro-pillars with tapered sidewalls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141105 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. W.

K. H. Li, K. Y. Zang, S. J. Chua, and H. W. Choi, “III-nitride light-emitting diode with embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1080–1091 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chow, W. W.

I. H. Brown, P. Blood, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, S. M. Olaizola, A. M. Fox, P. J. Parbrook, and W. W. Chow, “Time evolution of the screening of piezoelectric fields in InGaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1202–1208 (2006).
[Crossref]

Christenson, G.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y. C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chu, J. T.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, K. F. Yeh, J. T. Chu, W. L. Peng, H. W. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Light-output enhancement of nano-roughened GaN laser lift-off light-emitting diodes formed by ICP dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 849–851 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hseuh, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16, 1844–1848 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chua, S. J.

K. H. Li, K. Y. Zang, S. J. Chua, and H. W. Choi, “III-nitride light-emitting diode with embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. J.

X. Li, S. Kim, E. E. Reuter, S. G. Bishop, and J. J. Coleman, “The incorporation of arsenic in GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1990–1992 (1998).
[Crossref]

Coltrin, M. E.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M. H.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1028–1040 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dahal, R.

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 063505 (2009).
[Crossref]

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3, 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 9, 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dierolf, V.

Dupuis, R. D.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1080–1091 (2009).
[Crossref]

Eberhard, F.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plossl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaN technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Ee, Y. K.

X.-H. Li, P. F. Zhu, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, R. B. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technol. 9, 324–332 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Tansu, H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17, 13747–13757 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1218–1225 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Kumnorkaew, Y. K. Ee, N. Tansu, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Investigation of the deposition of microsphere monolayers for fabrication of microlens arrays,” Langmuir 24, 12150–12157 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Eisert, D.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plossl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaN technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Epler, J. E.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fanmin, K.

Y. Qingyang, L. Kang, K. Fanmin, Z. Jia, and L. Wei, “Analysis on the light extraction efficiency of GaN-based nanowires light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 697–704 (2013).
[Crossref]

Feezell, D. F.

Feng, I.

B. N. Pantha, I. Feng, K. Aryal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Erbium-doped AlInGaN alloys as high-temperature thermoelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 051001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A. J.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fox, A. M.

I. H. Brown, P. Blood, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, S. M. Olaizola, A. M. Fox, P. J. Parbrook, and W. W. Chow, “Time evolution of the screening of piezoelectric fields in InGaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1202–1208 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gardner, N. F.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y. C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gilchrist, J. F.

X.-H. Li, P. F. Zhu, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, R. B. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technol. 9, 324–332 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1218–1225 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17, 13747–13757 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Kumnorkaew, Y. K. Ee, N. Tansu, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Investigation of the deposition of microsphere monolayers for fabrication of microlens arrays,” Langmuir 24, 12150–12157 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Götz, W.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y. C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Haerle, V.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plossl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaN technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Hahn, B.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plossl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaN technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Han, L.

Herbsommer, J. A.

J. Zhang, H. Tong, G. Liu, J. A. Herbsommer, G. S. Huang, and N. Tansu, “Characterizations of Seebeck coefficients and thermoelectric figures of merit for AlInN alloys with various in-contents,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053706 (2011).
[Crossref]

Holcomb, M. O.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hseuh, T. H.

H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hseuh, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16, 1844–1848 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hsu, Y. P.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. T. Lee, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride-based flip-chip ITO LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 273–277 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.-L.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 171105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, G. S.

J. Zhang, H. Tong, G. Liu, J. A. Herbsommer, G. S. Huang, and N. Tansu, “Characterizations of Seebeck coefficients and thermoelectric figures of merit for AlInN alloys with various in-contents,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053706 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, H. W.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, K. F. Yeh, J. T. Chu, W. L. Peng, H. W. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Light-output enhancement of nano-roughened GaN laser lift-off light-emitting diodes formed by ICP dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 849–851 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hseuh, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16, 1844–1848 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.-C.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 171105 (2012).
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C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based, light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J Appl. Phys. 93, 9383–9385 (2003).
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J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 177406 (2013).
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J. S. Lee, J. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Jeon, “Fabrication of reflective GaN mesa sidewalls for the application to high extraction efficiency LEDs,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 4, 2625–2628 (2007).
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Jewell, J.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 171105 (2012).
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Y. Qingyang, L. Kang, K. Fanmin, Z. Jia, and L. Wei, “Analysis on the light extraction efficiency of GaN-based nanowires light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 697–704 (2013).
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Jiang, H. X.

B. N. Pantha, I. Feng, K. Aryal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Erbium-doped AlInGaN alloys as high-temperature thermoelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 051001 (2011).
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R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 063505 (2009).
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Johnson, N. M.

M. Kneissl, D. W. Treat, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, and N. M. Johnson, “Continuous-wave operation of ultraviolet InGaN/InAlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2386–2388 (2003).
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Kang, E. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based, light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J Appl. Phys. 93, 9383–9385 (2003).
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Kang, L.

Y. Qingyang, L. Kang, K. Fanmin, Z. Jia, and L. Wei, “Analysis on the light extraction efficiency of GaN-based nanowires light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 697–704 (2013).
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C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, K. F. Yeh, J. T. Chu, W. L. Peng, H. W. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Light-output enhancement of nano-roughened GaN laser lift-off light-emitting diodes formed by ICP dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 849–851 (2007).
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H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hseuh, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16, 1844–1848 (2005).
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Karlicek, R. F.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 809–836 (2014).
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J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y. C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
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M. Ma, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, Y. Park, G. B. Kim, and C. Sone, “Strong light-extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes patterned with TiO2 micro-pillars with tapered sidewalls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141105 (2012).
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Kim, H.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1080–1091 (2009).
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Kim, H. J.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1080–1091 (2009).
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Kim, J. K.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071102 (2011).
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J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. F. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2347–2349 (2006).
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Kim, S.

J. S. Lee, J. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Jeon, “Fabrication of reflective GaN mesa sidewalls for the application to high extraction efficiency LEDs,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 4, 2625–2628 (2007).
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X. Li, S. Kim, E. E. Reuter, S. G. Bishop, and J. J. Coleman, “The incorporation of arsenic in GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1990–1992 (1998).
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M. Kneissl, D. W. Treat, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, and N. M. Johnson, “Continuous-wave operation of ultraviolet InGaN/InAlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2386–2388 (2003).
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Koleske, D. D.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 809–836 (2014).
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W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. F. Zhu, X. H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes using defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 3454–3459 (2012).
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O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y. C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
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X.-H. Li, P. F. Zhu, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, R. B. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technol. 9, 324–332 (2013).
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X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
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Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1218–1225 (2009).
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Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17, 13747–13757 (2009).
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P. Kumnorkaew, Y. K. Ee, N. Tansu, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Investigation of the deposition of microsphere monolayers for fabrication of microlens arrays,” Langmuir 24, 12150–12157 (2008).
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Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221107 (2007).
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C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Chao, P. Yu, and W. Y. Yeh, “Structural effects on highly directional far-field emission patterns of GaN-based micro-cavity light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2881–2889 (2010).
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C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181101 (2010).
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C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, K. F. Yeh, J. T. Chu, W. L. Peng, H. W. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Light-output enhancement of nano-roughened GaN laser lift-off light-emitting diodes formed by ICP dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 849–851 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hseuh, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16, 1844–1848 (2005).
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Lai, C. F.

Lee, C. T.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. T. Lee, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride-based flip-chip ITO LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 273–277 (2005).
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Lee, J.

J. S. Lee, J. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Jeon, “Fabrication of reflective GaN mesa sidewalls for the application to high extraction efficiency LEDs,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 4, 2625–2628 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. S.

J. S. Lee, J. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Jeon, “Fabrication of reflective GaN mesa sidewalls for the application to high extraction efficiency LEDs,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 4, 2625–2628 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. S.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based, light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J Appl. Phys. 93, 9383–9385 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

B. N. Pantha, I. Feng, K. Aryal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Erbium-doped AlInGaN alloys as high-temperature thermoelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 051001 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 063505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, J. C.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181101 (2010).
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Li, J. M.

B. Sun, L. X. Zhao, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, Z. Q. Liu, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Shape designing for light extraction enhancement bulk-GaN light-emitting diodes,” J Appl. Phys. 113, 243104 (2013).
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Li, K. H.

K. H. Li, K. Y. Zang, S. J. Chua, and H. W. Choi, “III-nitride light-emitting diode with embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181117 (2013).
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Li, X.

X. Li, S. Kim, E. E. Reuter, S. G. Bishop, and J. J. Coleman, “The incorporation of arsenic in GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1990–1992 (1998).
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Li, X. H.

C. K. Tan, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. Y. Liu, B. O. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Display Technol. 9, 272–279 (2013).
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W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. F. Zhu, X. H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes using defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 3454–3459 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Tansu, H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 241–248 (2010).
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Li, X.-H.

Li, Z. Y.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. Y.

B. N. Pantha, I. Feng, K. Aryal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Erbium-doped AlInGaN alloys as high-temperature thermoelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 051001 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 063505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, S. Y.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. F. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Liu, G.

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115 (2011).
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J. Zhang, H. Tong, G. Liu, J. A. Herbsommer, G. S. Huang, and N. Tansu, “Characterizations of Seebeck coefficients and thermoelectric figures of merit for AlInN alloys with various in-contents,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053706 (2011).
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Liu, G. Y.

Liu, J.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1080–1091 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. F. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Liu, Z. Q.

B. Sun, L. X. Zhao, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, Z. Q. Liu, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Shape designing for light extraction enhancement bulk-GaN light-emitting diodes,” J Appl. Phys. 113, 243104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lo, H. M.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. T. Lee, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride-based flip-chip ITO LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 273–277 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lochner, Z.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1080–1091 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lowery, C.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y. C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lu, T. C.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181101 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, K. F. Yeh, J. T. Chu, W. L. Peng, H. W. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Light-output enhancement of nano-roughened GaN laser lift-off light-emitting diodes formed by ICP dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 849–851 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hseuh, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16, 1844–1848 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. S.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ludowise, M. J.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y. C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Luo, H.

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2347–2349 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ma, M.

M. Ma, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, Y. Park, G. B. Kim, and C. Sone, “Strong light-extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes patterned with TiO2 micro-pillars with tapered sidewalls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Margalith, T.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Martin, P. S.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y. C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Martinelli, L.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 177406 (2013).
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E. Matioli and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of photonic crystals on LED light extraction efficiency: approaches and limits to vertical structure designs,” J. Phys. D 43, 354005 (2010).
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J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3, 163–169 (2009).
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Miyashita, N.

M. Kneissl, D. W. Treat, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, and N. M. Johnson, “Continuous-wave operation of ultraviolet InGaN/InAlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2386–2388 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 9, 190–198 (2013).
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J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 171105 (2012).
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T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
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O’Shea, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y. C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
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Olaizola, S. M.

I. H. Brown, P. Blood, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, S. M. Olaizola, A. M. Fox, P. J. Parbrook, and W. W. Chow, “Time evolution of the screening of piezoelectric fields in InGaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1202–1208 (2006).
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Pan, J. W.

Pantha, B.

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 063505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pantha, B. N.

B. N. Pantha, I. Feng, K. Aryal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Erbium-doped AlInGaN alloys as high-temperature thermoelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 051001 (2011).
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J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2347–2349 (2006).
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Poplawsky, J. D.

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B. G. Prevo and O. D. Velev, “Controlled, rapid deposition of structured coatings from micro- and nanoparticle suspensions,” Langmuir 20, 2099–2107 (2004).
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Y. Qingyang, L. Kang, K. Fanmin, Z. Jia, and L. Wei, “Analysis on the light extraction efficiency of GaN-based nanowires light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 697–704 (2013).
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J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2347–2349 (2006).
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Y. Sheng, C. Xia, Z. M. Simon Li, and L. Cheng, “Simulation of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with patterned sapphire substrate,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 45, 605–610 (2013).
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Y. Sheng, C. Xia, Z. M. Simon Li, and L. Cheng, “Simulation of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with patterned sapphire substrate,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 45, 605–610 (2013).
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J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. F. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

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I. H. Brown, P. Blood, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, S. M. Olaizola, A. M. Fox, P. J. Parbrook, and W. W. Chow, “Time evolution of the screening of piezoelectric fields in InGaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1202–1208 (2006).
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W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. F. Zhu, X. H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes using defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 3454–3459 (2012).
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M. Ma, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, Y. Park, G. B. Kim, and C. Sone, “Strong light-extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes patterned with TiO2 micro-pillars with tapered sidewalls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141105 (2012).
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X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
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Song, R. B.

Speck, J.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 171105 (2012).
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J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y. C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
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J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y. C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
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J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 809–836 (2014).
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J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y. C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
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C. K. Tan, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. Y. Liu, B. O. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Display Technol. 9, 272–279 (2013).
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C. K. Tan and N. Tansu, “Nanostructured lasers: electrons and holes get closer,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 107–109 (2015).
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G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, C. K. Tan, and N. Tansu, “Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2201011 (2013).

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X.-H. Li, P. F. Zhu, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, R. B. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technol. 9, 324–332 (2013).
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C. K. Tan, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. Y. Liu, B. O. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Display Technol. 9, 272–279 (2013).
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W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. F. Zhu, X. H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes using defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 3454–3459 (2012).
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J. Zhang, H. Tong, G. Liu, J. A. Herbsommer, G. S. Huang, and N. Tansu, “Characterizations of Seebeck coefficients and thermoelectric figures of merit for AlInN alloys with various in-contents,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053706 (2011).
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H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115 (2011).
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N. Tansu, H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 241–248 (2010).
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Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17, 13747–13757 (2009).
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Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1218–1225 (2009).
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Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1066–1072 (2009).
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P. Kumnorkaew, Y. K. Ee, N. Tansu, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Investigation of the deposition of microsphere monolayers for fabrication of microlens arrays,” Langmuir 24, 12150–12157 (2008).
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Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221107 (2007).
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J. Zhang, H. Tong, G. Liu, J. A. Herbsommer, G. S. Huang, and N. Tansu, “Characterizations of Seebeck coefficients and thermoelectric figures of merit for AlInN alloys with various in-contents,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053706 (2011).
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N. Tansu, H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17, 13747–13757 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1218–1225 (2009).
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M. Kneissl, D. W. Treat, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, and N. M. Johnson, “Continuous-wave operation of ultraviolet InGaN/InAlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2386–2388 (2003).
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O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).
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Tsao, J. Y.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 809–836 (2014).
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B. G. Prevo and O. D. Velev, “Controlled, rapid deposition of structured coatings from micro- and nanoparticle suspensions,” Langmuir 20, 2099–2107 (2004).
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Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1066–1072 (2009).
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Wang, C. H.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181101 (2010).
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Wang, G. H.

B. Sun, L. X. Zhao, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, Z. Q. Liu, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Shape designing for light extraction enhancement bulk-GaN light-emitting diodes,” J Appl. Phys. 113, 243104 (2013).
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Wang, G. T.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 809–836 (2014).
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Wang, S. C.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181101 (2010).
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C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, K. F. Yeh, J. T. Chu, W. L. Peng, H. W. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Light-output enhancement of nano-roughened GaN laser lift-off light-emitting diodes formed by ICP dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 849–851 (2007).
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Y. Qingyang, L. Kang, K. Fanmin, Z. Jia, and L. Wei, “Analysis on the light extraction efficiency of GaN-based nanowires light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 697–704 (2013).
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Wei, T. B.

B. Sun, L. X. Zhao, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, Z. Q. Liu, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Shape designing for light extraction enhancement bulk-GaN light-emitting diodes,” J Appl. Phys. 113, 243104 (2013).
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Weimar, A.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plossl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaN technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Weisbuch, C.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 177406 (2013).
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J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 171105 (2012).
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J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 809–836 (2014).
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J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3, 163–169 (2009).
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J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y. C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
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J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. F. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2347–2349 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xia, C.

Y. Sheng, C. Xia, Z. M. Simon Li, and L. Cheng, “Simulation of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with patterned sapphire substrate,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 45, 605–610 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, H. C.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yeh, K. F.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, K. F. Yeh, J. T. Chu, W. L. Peng, H. W. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Light-output enhancement of nano-roughened GaN laser lift-off light-emitting diodes formed by ICP dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 849–851 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yeh, W. Y.

Yi, X. Y.

B. Sun, L. X. Zhao, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, Z. Q. Liu, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Shape designing for light extraction enhancement bulk-GaN light-emitting diodes,” J Appl. Phys. 113, 243104 (2013).
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J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1080–1091 (2009).
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Youn, W.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. F. Zhu, X. H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes using defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 3454–3459 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, C. C.

H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hseuh, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16, 1844–1848 (2005).
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Yu, P.

Zang, K. Y.

K. H. Li, K. Y. Zang, S. J. Chua, and H. W. Choi, “III-nitride light-emitting diode with embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181117 (2013).
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Zhang, J.

C. K. Tan, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. Y. Liu, B. O. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Display Technol. 9, 272–279 (2013).
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P. F. Zhu, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technol. 9, 317–323 (2013).
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X.-H. Li, P. F. Zhu, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, R. B. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technol. 9, 324–332 (2013).
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J. Zhang, H. Tong, G. Liu, J. A. Herbsommer, G. S. Huang, and N. Tansu, “Characterizations of Seebeck coefficients and thermoelectric figures of merit for AlInN alloys with various in-contents,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053706 (2011).
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H. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19, A991–A1007 (2011).
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H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115 (2011).
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Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1218–1225 (2009).
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N. Tansu, H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. X.

B. Sun, L. X. Zhao, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, Z. Q. Liu, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Shape designing for light extraction enhancement bulk-GaN light-emitting diodes,” J Appl. Phys. 113, 243104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, P.

Zhu, P. F.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

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Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221107 (2007).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (4)

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[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1218–1225 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (3)

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Tansu, H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, C. K. Tan, and N. Tansu, “Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2201011 (2013).

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C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, K. F. Yeh, J. T. Chu, W. L. Peng, H. W. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Light-output enhancement of nano-roughened GaN laser lift-off light-emitting diodes formed by ICP dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 849–851 (2007).
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IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. (1)

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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

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Nanotechnology (1)

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http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2014/ .

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Cross sectional schematic of the simulated LED device structure employing microsphere arrays.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic of the microsphere LEDs (a) with hexagonal close-packed sphere array, (b) with square close-packed sphere array, (c) with submonolayer sphere array, and (d) with multilayer microsphere arrays.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Ratio of light extraction efficiency of microsphere LEDs with various sphere packing densities to that of the planar LED, (b) comparison of far-field intensity of microsphere LEDs with various packing densities at ϕ=0, (c) angle-dependent power distribution.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Contour plots of far-field intensity of microsphere LED (b) with a submonolayer sphere array (dsphere/period=0.5), (c) with a monolayer sphere array (dsphere/period=1), and (d) with a multilayer sphere array (dsphere/period=2). The contour plot of the far-field radiation pattern of (a) the planar LED is included for reference.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Far-field radiation patterns of LEDs with (a) hexagonal close-packed anatase-TiO2 sphere array and (b) square close-packed anatase-TiO2 sphere array; (c) schematic of hexagonal close-packed sphere array and (d) schematic of square close-packed sphere array.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Contour plots of the far-field intensity of microsphere LEDs with microsphere arrays: (a) flat LED, (b) hexagonal close-packed sphere array with 7 spheres, (c) hexagonal close-packed sphere array with 19 spheres, (d) hexagonal close-packed sphere array with 37 spheres, (a) one sphere in the center of the device, (b) square close-packed sphere array with 9 spheres, (c) square close-packed sphere array with 25 spheres, (d) square close-packed sphere array with 36 spheres. The corresponding schematics of the sphere arrays are shown in the top and bottom rows.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Ratio of the extraction efficiency for microsphere array LEDs with both hexagonal and square close-packed monolayer configurations with a varying number of spheres, similar to the ones presented in Fig. 6. The results are normalized to the extraction of planar LEDs.

Equations (1)

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vc=Kϕh(1ε)(1ϕ),

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