Abstract

We present an experimental demonstration of ghost imaging of reflective objects with different surface roughness. The influence of the surface roughness, the transverse size of the test detector, and the reflective angle on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is analyzed by measuring the second-order correlation of the light field based on classical statistical optics. It is shown that the SNR decreases with an increment of the surface roughness and the detector’s transverse size or a decrease of the reflective angle. Additionally, the comparative studies between the rough object and the smooth one under the same conditions are also discussed.

© 2017 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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  1. T. Pittman, Y. Shih, D. Strekalov, and A. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429–R3432 (1995).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  4. J. Cheng and S. S. Han, “Incoherent coincidence imaging and its applicability in X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. Zhang, S. X. Guo, J. S. Cao, J. Guan, and F. L. Gao, “Object reconstitution using pseudo-inverse for ghost imaging,” Opt. Express 22, 30063–30073 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. L. Gong, “High-resolution pseudo-inverse ghost imaging,” Photon. Res. 3, 234–237 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. W. Yu, M. Li, and X. Yao, “Adaptive compressive ghost imaging based on wavelet trees and sparse representation,” Opt. Express 22, 7133–7144 (2014).
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    [Crossref]
  14. W. Chen and X. D. Chen, “Ghost imaging for three-dimensional optical security,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 221106 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. Yu, E. R. Li, W. L. Gong, and S. S. Han, “Structured image reconstruction for three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar,” Opt. Express 23, 14541–14551 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. X. Zeng, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Y. Gao, and X. Q. Fu, “The influence of the positive and negative defocusing on lensless ghost imaging,” Opt. Commun. 382, 415–420 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. C. Yang, C. L. Wang, J. Guan, C. Zhang, S. X. Guo, W. L. Gong, and F. L. Gao, “Scalar-matrix-structured ghost imaging,” Photon. Res. 4, 281–285 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. L. Wang and S. M. Zhao, “Fast reconstructed and high-quality ghost imaging with fast Walsh–Hadamard transform,” Photon. Res. 4, 240–244 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  21. L. Basano and P. Ottonello, “Diffuse-reflection ghost imaging from a double-strip illuminated by pseudo-thermal light,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2657–2661 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  22. N. S. Bisht, E. K. Sharma, and H. C. Kandpal, “Experimental observation of lensless ghost imaging by measuring reflected photons,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 671–675 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  23. N. D. Hardy and J. H. Shapiro, “Ghost imaging in reflection: resolution, contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio,” Proc. SPIE 7815, 78150L (2010).
    [Crossref]
  24. N. D. Hardy and J. H. Shapiro, “Reflective ghost imaging through turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063824 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  25. C. F. Wang, D. W. Zhang, Y. F. Bai, and B. Chen, “Ghost imaging for a reflected object with a rough surface,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 063814 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  26. C. Luo and J. Cheng, “Reflective ghost diffraction for objects with rough surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30, 1166–1171 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  27. D.-F. Shi, F. Wang, H. Jian, C. Kai-Fa, K. Yuan, H. Shun-Xing, and W. Ying-Jian, “Compressed polarimetric ghost imaging of different material’s reflective objects,” Opt. Rev. 22, 882–887 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  28. W. L. Gong, “Correlated imaging for a reflective target with a smooth or rough surface,” J. Opt. 18, 085702 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  29. Y. Gao, Y. Bai, and X. Fu, “Point-spread function in ghost imaging system with thermal light,” Opt. Express 24, 25856–25866 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. Cheng, S.-S. Han, and Y.-J. Yan, “Resolution and noise in ghost imaging with classical thermal light,” Chin. Phys. 15, 2002–2006 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2016 (7)

Y. R. Huo, H. J. He, and F. Chen, “Compressive adaptive ghost imaging via sharing mechanism and fellow relationship,” Appl. Opt. 55, 3356–3367 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. L. Gong, C. Q. Zhao, H. Yu, M. L. Chen, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zeng, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Y. Gao, and X. Q. Fu, “The influence of the positive and negative defocusing on lensless ghost imaging,” Opt. Commun. 382, 415–420 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Yang, C. L. Wang, J. Guan, C. Zhang, S. X. Guo, W. L. Gong, and F. L. Gao, “Scalar-matrix-structured ghost imaging,” Photon. Res. 4, 281–285 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Wang and S. M. Zhao, “Fast reconstructed and high-quality ghost imaging with fast Walsh–Hadamard transform,” Photon. Res. 4, 240–244 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. L. Gong, “Correlated imaging for a reflective target with a smooth or rough surface,” J. Opt. 18, 085702 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, Y. Bai, and X. Fu, “Point-spread function in ghost imaging system with thermal light,” Opt. Express 24, 25856–25866 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

W. Chen and X. D. Chen, “Ghost imaging for three-dimensional optical security,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 221106 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Luo and J. Cheng, “Reflective ghost diffraction for objects with rough surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30, 1166–1171 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

N. D. Hardy and J. H. Shapiro, “Reflective ghost imaging through turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063824 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

C. F. Wang, D. W. Zhang, Y. F. Bai, and B. Chen, “Ghost imaging for a reflected object with a rough surface,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 063814 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Basano and P. Ottonello, “Diffuse-reflection ghost imaging from a double-strip illuminated by pseudo-thermal light,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2657–2661 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. S. Bisht, E. K. Sharma, and H. C. Kandpal, “Experimental observation of lensless ghost imaging by measuring reflected photons,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 671–675 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. D. Hardy and J. H. Shapiro, “Ghost imaging in reflection: resolution, contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio,” Proc. SPIE 7815, 78150L (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

R. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, “Ghost-imaging experiment by measuring reflected photons,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 041801 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. Cheng, S.-S. Han, and Y.-J. Yan, “Resolution and noise in ghost imaging with classical thermal light,” Chin. Phys. 15, 2002–2006 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Cheng and S. S. Han, “Incoherent coincidence imaging and its applicability in X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, “‘Two-photon’ coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

T. Pittman, Y. Shih, D. Strekalov, and A. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429–R3432 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. Strekalov, A. Sergienko, D. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ghost interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bache, M.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y.

Bai, Y. F.

X. Zeng, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Y. Gao, and X. Q. Fu, “The influence of the positive and negative defocusing on lensless ghost imaging,” Opt. Commun. 382, 415–420 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. F. Wang, D. W. Zhang, Y. F. Bai, and B. Chen, “Ghost imaging for a reflected object with a rough surface,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 063814 (2010).
[Crossref]

Basano, L.

L. Basano and P. Ottonello, “Diffuse-reflection ghost imaging from a double-strip illuminated by pseudo-thermal light,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2657–2661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bennink, R. S.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, “‘Two-photon’ coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bentley, S. J.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, “‘Two-photon’ coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bina, M.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bisht, N. S.

N. S. Bisht, E. K. Sharma, and H. C. Kandpal, “Experimental observation of lensless ghost imaging by measuring reflected photons,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 671–675 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, “‘Two-photon’ coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brambilla, E.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cao, J. S.

Chen, B.

C. F. Wang, D. W. Zhang, Y. F. Bai, and B. Chen, “Ghost imaging for a reflected object with a rough surface,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 063814 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

Chen, M. L.

W. L. Gong, C. Q. Zhao, H. Yu, M. L. Chen, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

W. Chen and X. D. Chen, “Ghost imaging for three-dimensional optical security,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 221106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. D.

W. Chen and X. D. Chen, “Ghost imaging for three-dimensional optical security,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 221106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.

C. Luo and J. Cheng, “Reflective ghost diffraction for objects with rough surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30, 1166–1171 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Cheng, S.-S. Han, and Y.-J. Yan, “Resolution and noise in ghost imaging with classical thermal light,” Chin. Phys. 15, 2002–2006 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Cheng and S. S. Han, “Incoherent coincidence imaging and its applicability in X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
[Crossref]

D’Angelo, M.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[Crossref]

Deacon, K. S.

R. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, “Ghost-imaging experiment by measuring reflected photons,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 041801 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ferri, F.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fu, X.

Fu, X. Q.

X. Zeng, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Y. Gao, and X. Q. Fu, “The influence of the positive and negative defocusing on lensless ghost imaging,” Opt. Commun. 382, 415–420 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gao, F. L.

Gao, Y.

X. Zeng, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Y. Gao, and X. Q. Fu, “The influence of the positive and negative defocusing on lensless ghost imaging,” Opt. Commun. 382, 415–420 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, Y. Bai, and X. Fu, “Point-spread function in ghost imaging system with thermal light,” Opt. Express 24, 25856–25866 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gatti, A.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gong, W. L.

W. L. Gong, C. Q. Zhao, H. Yu, M. L. Chen, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Yang, C. L. Wang, J. Guan, C. Zhang, S. X. Guo, W. L. Gong, and F. L. Gao, “Scalar-matrix-structured ghost imaging,” Photon. Res. 4, 281–285 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. L. Gong, “Correlated imaging for a reflective target with a smooth or rough surface,” J. Opt. 18, 085702 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, E. R. Li, W. L. Gong, and S. S. Han, “Structured image reconstruction for three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar,” Opt. Express 23, 14541–14551 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. L. Gong, “High-resolution pseudo-inverse ghost imaging,” Photon. Res. 3, 234–237 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guan, J.

Guo, S. X.

Han, S. S.

W. L. Gong, C. Q. Zhao, H. Yu, M. L. Chen, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, E. R. Li, W. L. Gong, and S. S. Han, “Structured image reconstruction for three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar,” Opt. Express 23, 14541–14551 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Cheng and S. S. Han, “Incoherent coincidence imaging and its applicability in X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
[Crossref]

Han, S.-S.

J. Cheng, S.-S. Han, and Y.-J. Yan, “Resolution and noise in ghost imaging with classical thermal light,” Chin. Phys. 15, 2002–2006 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hardy, N. D.

N. D. Hardy and J. H. Shapiro, “Reflective ghost imaging through turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063824 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. D. Hardy and J. H. Shapiro, “Ghost imaging in reflection: resolution, contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio,” Proc. SPIE 7815, 78150L (2010).
[Crossref]

He, H. J.

Huo, Y. R.

Jian, H.

D.-F. Shi, F. Wang, H. Jian, C. Kai-Fa, K. Yuan, H. Shun-Xing, and W. Ying-Jian, “Compressed polarimetric ghost imaging of different material’s reflective objects,” Opt. Rev. 22, 882–887 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kai-Fa, C.

D.-F. Shi, F. Wang, H. Jian, C. Kai-Fa, K. Yuan, H. Shun-Xing, and W. Ying-Jian, “Compressed polarimetric ghost imaging of different material’s reflective objects,” Opt. Rev. 22, 882–887 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kandpal, H. C.

N. S. Bisht, E. K. Sharma, and H. C. Kandpal, “Experimental observation of lensless ghost imaging by measuring reflected photons,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 671–675 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kang, Y.

Kang, Z. H.

Klyshko, D.

D. Strekalov, A. Sergienko, D. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ghost interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[Crossref]

Li, E. R.

H. Yu, E. R. Li, W. L. Gong, and S. S. Han, “Structured image reconstruction for three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar,” Opt. Express 23, 14541–14551 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

Lugiato, L. A.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

Luo, C.

Ma, L.

Magatti, D.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

Meyers, R.

R. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, “Ghost-imaging experiment by measuring reflected photons,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 041801 (2008).
[Crossref]

Molteni, M.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ottonello, P.

L. Basano and P. Ottonello, “Diffuse-reflection ghost imaging from a double-strip illuminated by pseudo-thermal light,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2657–2661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pittman, T.

T. Pittman, Y. Shih, D. Strekalov, and A. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429–R3432 (1995).
[Crossref]

Scarcelli, G.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sergienko, A.

D. Strekalov, A. Sergienko, D. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ghost interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Pittman, Y. Shih, D. Strekalov, and A. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429–R3432 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, J. H.

N. D. Hardy and J. H. Shapiro, “Reflective ghost imaging through turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063824 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. D. Hardy and J. H. Shapiro, “Ghost imaging in reflection: resolution, contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio,” Proc. SPIE 7815, 78150L (2010).
[Crossref]

Sharma, E. K.

N. S. Bisht, E. K. Sharma, and H. C. Kandpal, “Experimental observation of lensless ghost imaging by measuring reflected photons,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 671–675 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shi, D.-F.

D.-F. Shi, F. Wang, H. Jian, C. Kai-Fa, K. Yuan, H. Shun-Xing, and W. Ying-Jian, “Compressed polarimetric ghost imaging of different material’s reflective objects,” Opt. Rev. 22, 882–887 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shi, X. H.

X. Zeng, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Y. Gao, and X. Q. Fu, “The influence of the positive and negative defocusing on lensless ghost imaging,” Opt. Commun. 382, 415–420 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shih, Y.

R. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, “Ghost-imaging experiment by measuring reflected photons,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 041801 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Pittman, Y. Shih, D. Strekalov, and A. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429–R3432 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shih, Y. H.

D. Strekalov, A. Sergienko, D. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ghost interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shun-Xing, H.

D.-F. Shi, F. Wang, H. Jian, C. Kai-Fa, K. Yuan, H. Shun-Xing, and W. Ying-Jian, “Compressed polarimetric ghost imaging of different material’s reflective objects,” Opt. Rev. 22, 882–887 (2015).
[Crossref]

Strekalov, D.

T. Pittman, Y. Shih, D. Strekalov, and A. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429–R3432 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. Strekalov, A. Sergienko, D. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ghost interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[Crossref]

Valencia, A.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. F.

C. F. Wang, D. W. Zhang, Y. F. Bai, and B. Chen, “Ghost imaging for a reflected object with a rough surface,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 063814 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. L.

Wang, F.

D.-F. Shi, F. Wang, H. Jian, C. Kai-Fa, K. Yuan, H. Shun-Xing, and W. Ying-Jian, “Compressed polarimetric ghost imaging of different material’s reflective objects,” Opt. Rev. 22, 882–887 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Xu, W. D.

W. L. Gong, C. Q. Zhao, H. Yu, M. L. Chen, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.-J.

J. Cheng, S.-S. Han, and Y.-J. Yan, “Resolution and noise in ghost imaging with classical thermal light,” Chin. Phys. 15, 2002–2006 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

Yao, X.

Yao, Y. P.

Ying-Jian, W.

D.-F. Shi, F. Wang, H. Jian, C. Kai-Fa, K. Yuan, H. Shun-Xing, and W. Ying-Jian, “Compressed polarimetric ghost imaging of different material’s reflective objects,” Opt. Rev. 22, 882–887 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

W. L. Gong, C. Q. Zhao, H. Yu, M. L. Chen, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, E. R. Li, W. L. Gong, and S. S. Han, “Structured image reconstruction for three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar,” Opt. Express 23, 14541–14551 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, W.

Yuan, K.

D.-F. Shi, F. Wang, H. Jian, C. Kai-Fa, K. Yuan, H. Shun-Xing, and W. Ying-Jian, “Compressed polarimetric ghost imaging of different material’s reflective objects,” Opt. Rev. 22, 882–887 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zeng, X.

X. Zeng, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Y. Gao, and X. Q. Fu, “The influence of the positive and negative defocusing on lensless ghost imaging,” Opt. Commun. 382, 415–420 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, D. W.

C. F. Wang, D. W. Zhang, Y. F. Bai, and B. Chen, “Ghost imaging for a reflected object with a rough surface,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 063814 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T. Y.

Zhao, C. Q.

W. L. Gong, C. Q. Zhao, H. Yu, M. L. Chen, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S. M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Chen and X. D. Chen, “Ghost imaging for three-dimensional optical security,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 221106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. (1)

J. Cheng, S.-S. Han, and Y.-J. Yan, “Resolution and noise in ghost imaging with classical thermal light,” Chin. Phys. 15, 2002–2006 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

W. L. Gong, “Correlated imaging for a reflective target with a smooth or rough surface,” J. Opt. 18, 085702 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Commun. (2)

L. Basano and P. Ottonello, “Diffuse-reflection ghost imaging from a double-strip illuminated by pseudo-thermal light,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2657–2661 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Zeng, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Y. Gao, and X. Q. Fu, “The influence of the positive and negative defocusing on lensless ghost imaging,” Opt. Commun. 382, 415–420 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

N. S. Bisht, E. K. Sharma, and H. C. Kandpal, “Experimental observation of lensless ghost imaging by measuring reflected photons,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 671–675 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Rev. (1)

D.-F. Shi, F. Wang, H. Jian, C. Kai-Fa, K. Yuan, H. Shun-Xing, and W. Ying-Jian, “Compressed polarimetric ghost imaging of different material’s reflective objects,” Opt. Rev. 22, 882–887 (2015).
[Crossref]

Photon. Res. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

R. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, “Ghost-imaging experiment by measuring reflected photons,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 041801 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. D. Hardy and J. H. Shapiro, “Reflective ghost imaging through turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063824 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. F. Wang, D. W. Zhang, Y. F. Bai, and B. Chen, “Ghost imaging for a reflected object with a rough surface,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 063814 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Pittman, Y. Shih, D. Strekalov, and A. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429–R3432 (1995).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

D. Strekalov, A. Sergienko, D. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ghost interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[Crossref]

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, “‘Two-photon’ coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Cheng and S. S. Han, “Incoherent coincidence imaging and its applicability in X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

N. D. Hardy and J. H. Shapiro, “Ghost imaging in reflection: resolution, contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio,” Proc. SPIE 7815, 78150L (2010).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

W. L. Gong, C. Q. Zhao, H. Yu, M. L. Chen, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Setup of reflective GI with the rough object. n denotes a unit vector pointing in the direction perpendicular to the object plane, and xr,xt represent the coordinate at the reference detector plane and test detector plane, respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Retrieved ghost images of the rough object with 10,000 measurements under different degrees of surface roughness. From (a) to (c), the value of mesh number N is 240, 360, and 600, respectively. Black solid curves in the lower area show the normalized horizontal sections of the images. (d) Dependence of the corresponding SNR on the mesh number N. The incident angle is θi=π/4, and the reflective angle is θo=0.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Acquired images of the reflective target with a rough surface under different test detectors’ transverse sizes D. In (a)–(c), the transverse sizes are 2070, 690, and 172.5 μm, respectively. (d) The corresponding SNR versus D. Other parameters are chosen as N=240, and θi=θo=π/4.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental results of GI for a rough object and a smooth target under different reflective angles θo. (a) and (b) are ghost images of a rough object with N=240, θi=π/4, θo=π/4, and 5π/12, respectively. (c) and (d) are the results of a smooth target under θi=θo=π/4 and 5π/12, respectively.

Equations (7)

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G(xr,xt)=|E*(u1)E(u2)hr(u1,xr)ht*(u2,xt)du1du2|2,
E*(u1)E(u2)=exp(u12+u222a2)δ(u1u2),
hr(u1,xr)exp[jπλz0(xru1)2].
ht(u2,xt)dξR(ξ)exp[jϕ(ξ)]×exp[jπλz1(ξcos  θiu2)2]×exp[jπλf(1z3z2)ξ2cos2θo2jπλfξxtcos  θo],
G(xr,xt)dξ|R(ξ)|2×exp[2α(β0xrβ1ξcos  θi)2α2+(β0β1)2],
SNR=G(xr,xt)ΔG¯(xr,xt)=n[a4π2A2/G2(xr)+4πa2A/G(xr)+3]1/2,
G(xr)dξdξR(ξ)R*(ξ)exp{σϕ2[1e(ξξ)2/lc2]}×exp{jπ[z1cos2θo+(z2+z3)cos2θi](ξ2ξ2)λz1(z2+z3)}×sinc[a(ξcos  θixr)λz1]sinc[a(ξcos  θixr)λz1]×sinc[Dcos  θo(ξξ)λ(z2+z3)],

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