Abstract

Dielectric metasurfaces have achieved great success in realizing high-efficiency wavefront control in the optical and infrared ranges. Here, we experimentally demonstrate several efficient, polarization-independent, all-silicon dielectric metasurfaces in the terahertz regime. The metasurfaces are composed of cylindrical silicon pillars on a silicon substrate, which can be easily fabricated using etching technology for semiconductors. By locally tailoring the diameter of the pillars, full control over abrupt phase changes can be achieved. To show the controlling ability of the metasurfaces, an anomalous deflector, three Bessel beam generators, and three vortex beam generators are fabricated and characterized. We also show that the proposed metasurfaces can be easily combined to form composite devices with extended functionalities. The proposed controlling method has promising applications in developing low-loss, ultra-compact spatial terahertz modulation devices.

© 2017 Chinese Laser Press

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2017 (3)

A. Arbabi and A. Faraon, “Fundamental limits of ultrathin metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7, 43722 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet, F. Capasso, F. Aieta, M. Khorasaninejad, and R. Devlin, “Recent advances in planar optics: from plasmonic to dielectric metasurfaces,” Optica 4, 139–152 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Generation of wavelength-independent subwavelength Bessel beams using metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16259 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (9)

S. Liu, A. Noor, L. Du, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, K. Luan, T. Wang, Z. Tian, W. Tang, J. Han, W. Zhang, X. Zhou, Q. Cheng, and T. Cui, “Anomalous refraction and nondiffractive Bessel-beam generation of terahertz waves through transmission-type coding metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 3, 1968–1977 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, Q. Cheng, Q. Xu, T. Wang, L. Du, K. Luan, Y. Xu, D. Bao, X. Fu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. Cui, “Free-standing metasurfaces for high-efficiency transmitarrays for controlling terahertz waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 384–390 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 23–36 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-insensitive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16, 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q.-T. Li, F. Dong, B. Wang, F. Gan, J. Chen, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Y.-F. Xiao, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Polarization-independent and high-efficiency dielectric metasurfaces for visible light,” Opt. Express 24, 16309–16319 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Headland, E. Carrasco, S. Nirantar, W. Withayachumnankul, P. Gutruf, J. Schwarz, D. Abbott, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, J. Perruisseau-Carrier, and C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator reflectarray as high-efficiency nonuniform terahertz metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1019–1026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Ma, S. M. Hanham, P. Albella, B. H. Ng, H. T. Lu, Y. Gong, S. A. Maier, and M. Hong, “Terahertz all-dielectric magnetic mirror metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 3, 1010–1018 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32867 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, B. Quan, J. He, Z. Xie, X. Wang, J. Li, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Wavelength de-multiplexing metasurface hologram,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35657 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (10)

X. Zhang, Y. Xu, W. Yue, Z. Tian, J. Gu, Y. Li, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Anomalous surface wave launching by handedness phase control,” Adv. Mater. 27, 7123–7129 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, Z. Tian, J. Gu, W. Yue, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A broadband metasurface-based terahertz flat-lens array,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 779–785 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. I. Shalaev, J. B. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15, 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad and F. Capasso, “Broadband multifunctional efficient meta-gratings based on dielectric waveguide phase shifters,” Nano Lett. 15, 6709–6715 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “A subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Yan, P. Gregg, E. Karimi, A. Rubano, L. Marrucci, R. Boyd, and S. Ramachandran, “Q-plate enabled spectrally diverse orbital-angular-momentum conversion for stimulated emission depletion microscopy,” Optica 2, 900–903 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, H. Muhlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (7)

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 26, 1375–1378 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Bouchard, I. De Leon, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 101905 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14, 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26, 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (12)

X. J. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin, planar, Babinet-inverted plasmonic metalenses,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e72 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. J. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25, 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Hu, X. Wang, S. Feng, J. Ye, W. Sun, Q. Kan, P. J. Klar, and Y. Zhang, “Ultrathin terahertz planar elements,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 186–191 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. He, X. Wang, D. Hu, J. Ye, S. Feng, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Generation and evolution of the terahertz vortex beam,” Opt. Express 21, 20230–20239 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alu, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203903 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2155 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197401 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Pastrana, “Bessel beams beyond the limit,” Nat. Methods 10, 102–103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, J. Wang, and H. Huang, “A different angle on light communications,” Science 337, 655–656 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K. Yang, C. Wang, T. Juan, W. Chen, C. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gahurro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Muhlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-Wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
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2006 (1)

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424, 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Arlt and K. Dholakia, “Generation of high-order Bessel beams by use of an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 177, 297–301 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Z. Bouchal, J. Wagner, and M. Chlup, “Self-reconstruction of a distorted nondiffracting beam,” Opt. Commun. 151, 207–211 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112, 321–327 (1994).
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1992 (2)

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, and A. G. White, “Generation of optical phase singularities by computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett. 17, 221–223 (1992).
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L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, “Diffraction-free beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499–1501 (1987).
[Crossref]

Abbott, D.

D. Headland, E. Carrasco, S. Nirantar, W. Withayachumnankul, P. Gutruf, J. Schwarz, D. Abbott, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, J. Perruisseau-Carrier, and C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator reflectarray as high-efficiency nonuniform terahertz metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1019–1026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

P. Genevet, F. Capasso, F. Aieta, M. Khorasaninejad, and R. Devlin, “Recent advances in planar optics: from plasmonic to dielectric metasurfaces,” Optica 4, 139–152 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gahurro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-Wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Albella, P.

Z. Ma, S. M. Hanham, P. Albella, B. H. Ng, H. T. Lu, Y. Gong, S. A. Maier, and M. Hong, “Terahertz all-dielectric magnetic mirror metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 3, 1010–1018 (2016).
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Albrektsen, O.

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2155 (2013).
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Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992).
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Alu, A.

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alu, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, A.

A. Arbabi and A. Faraon, “Fundamental limits of ultrathin metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7, 43722 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “A subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arlt, J.

J. Arlt and K. Dholakia, “Generation of high-order Bessel beams by use of an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 177, 297–301 (2000).
[Crossref]

Azad, A. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “A subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bai, B.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Muhlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ball, A. J.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “A subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, D.

S. Liu, Q. Cheng, Q. Xu, T. Wang, L. Du, K. Luan, Y. Xu, D. Bao, X. Fu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. Cui, “Free-standing metasurfaces for high-efficiency transmitarrays for controlling terahertz waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 384–390 (2016).
[Crossref]

Beausoleil, R. G.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 26, 1375–1378 (2014).
[Crossref]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112, 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bhaskaran, M.

D. Headland, E. Carrasco, S. Nirantar, W. Withayachumnankul, P. Gutruf, J. Schwarz, D. Abbott, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, J. Perruisseau-Carrier, and C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator reflectarray as high-efficiency nonuniform terahertz metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1019–1026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gahurro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14, 2491–2497 (2014).
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A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
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Bouchal, Z.

Z. Bouchal, J. Wagner, and M. Chlup, “Self-reconstruction of a distorted nondiffracting beam,” Opt. Commun. 151, 207–211 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bouchard, F.

F. Bouchard, I. De Leon, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 101905 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R.

Boyd, R. W.

F. Bouchard, I. De Leon, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 101905 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2155 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brener, I.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

W. Chen, M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Generation of wavelength-independent subwavelength Bessel beams using metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16259 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet, F. Capasso, F. Aieta, M. Khorasaninejad, and R. Devlin, “Recent advances in planar optics: from plasmonic to dielectric metasurfaces,” Optica 4, 139–152 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-insensitive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16, 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad and F. Capasso, “Broadband multifunctional efficient meta-gratings based on dielectric waveguide phase shifters,” Nano Lett. 15, 6709–6715 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gahurro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-Wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Carrasco, E.

D. Headland, E. Carrasco, S. Nirantar, W. Withayachumnankul, P. Gutruf, J. Schwarz, D. Abbott, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, J. Perruisseau-Carrier, and C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator reflectarray as high-efficiency nonuniform terahertz metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1019–1026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheah, K. W.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Chen, S.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Generation of wavelength-independent subwavelength Bessel beams using metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16259 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K. Yang, C. Wang, T. Juan, W. Chen, C. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. T.

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-insensitive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16, 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Muhlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Q.

S. Liu, A. Noor, L. Du, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, K. Luan, T. Wang, Z. Tian, W. Tang, J. Han, W. Zhang, X. Zhou, Q. Cheng, and T. Cui, “Anomalous refraction and nondiffractive Bessel-beam generation of terahertz waves through transmission-type coding metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 3, 1968–1977 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, Q. Cheng, Q. Xu, T. Wang, L. Du, K. Luan, Y. Xu, D. Bao, X. Fu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. Cui, “Free-standing metasurfaces for high-efficiency transmitarrays for controlling terahertz waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 384–390 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chlup, M.

Z. Bouchal, J. Wagner, and M. Chlup, “Self-reconstruction of a distorted nondiffracting beam,” Opt. Commun. 151, 207–211 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, D. R.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chu, W.

Coerwinkel, R. P. C.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112, 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

Cui, T.

S. Liu, A. Noor, L. Du, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, K. Luan, T. Wang, Z. Tian, W. Tang, J. Han, W. Zhang, X. Zhou, Q. Cheng, and T. Cui, “Anomalous refraction and nondiffractive Bessel-beam generation of terahertz waves through transmission-type coding metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 3, 1968–1977 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, Q. Cheng, Q. Xu, T. Wang, L. Du, K. Luan, Y. Xu, D. Bao, X. Fu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. Cui, “Free-standing metasurfaces for high-efficiency transmitarrays for controlling terahertz waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 384–390 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dalvit, D. A. R.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

De Leon, I.

F. Bouchard, I. De Leon, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 101905 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Decker, M.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Devlin, R.

Devlin, R. C.

W. Chen, M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Generation of wavelength-independent subwavelength Bessel beams using metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16259 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-insensitive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16, 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dholakia, K.

J. Arlt and K. Dholakia, “Generation of high-order Bessel beams by use of an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 177, 297–301 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dominguez, J.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dong, F.

Du, L.

S. Liu, Q. Cheng, Q. Xu, T. Wang, L. Du, K. Luan, Y. Xu, D. Bao, X. Fu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. Cui, “Free-standing metasurfaces for high-efficiency transmitarrays for controlling terahertz waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 384–390 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, A. Noor, L. Du, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, K. Luan, T. Wang, Z. Tian, W. Tang, J. Han, W. Zhang, X. Zhou, Q. Cheng, and T. Cui, “Anomalous refraction and nondiffractive Bessel-beam generation of terahertz waves through transmission-type coding metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 3, 1968–1977 (2016).
[Crossref]

Durnin, J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, “Diffraction-free beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499–1501 (1987).
[Crossref]

Eberly, J. H.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, “Diffraction-free beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499–1501 (1987).
[Crossref]

Emani, N. K.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14, 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref]

Estakhri, N. M.

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alu, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Falkner, M.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, P.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Faraon, A.

A. Arbabi and A. Faraon, “Fundamental limits of ultrathin metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7, 43722 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “A subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fattal, D.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 26, 1375–1378 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

J. He, X. Wang, D. Hu, J. Ye, S. Feng, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Generation and evolution of the terahertz vortex beam,” Opt. Express 21, 20230–20239 (2013).
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D. Hu, X. Wang, S. Feng, J. Ye, W. Sun, Q. Kan, P. J. Klar, and Y. Zhang, “Ultrathin terahertz planar elements,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 186–191 (2013).
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Fiorentino, M.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 26, 1375–1378 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fu, X.

S. Liu, Q. Cheng, Q. Xu, T. Wang, L. Du, K. Luan, Y. Xu, D. Bao, X. Fu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. Cui, “Free-standing metasurfaces for high-efficiency transmitarrays for controlling terahertz waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 384–390 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fu, Y. H.

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 412–418 (2015).
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Fumeaux, C.

D. Headland, E. Carrasco, S. Nirantar, W. Withayachumnankul, P. Gutruf, J. Schwarz, D. Abbott, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, J. Perruisseau-Carrier, and C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator reflectarray as high-efficiency nonuniform terahertz metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1019–1026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gaburro, Z.

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N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gahurro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 4932–4936 (2012).
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N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-Wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
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Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 412–418 (2015).
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Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, Z. Tian, J. Gu, W. Yue, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A broadband metasurface-based terahertz flat-lens array,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 779–785 (2015).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the silicon pillar structure and the simulated results of the selected eight silicon pillars. (a) Schematic of a silicon pillar in the uniform hexagonal lattice on a silicon substrate. The lattice constant p=100  μm, and the pillar height h=150  μm. (b) Simulated phase shifts and transmission amplitudes of the eight selected silicon pillars with different diameters d at 1.0 THz. The diameters corresponding to the pillars in the upper row from number 1–8 are d=20, 44.5, 53.5, 60, 66.5, 73, 79.5, and 88.5 μm, respectively. (c) Simulated side views (xz planes) of the magnetic energy density distributions in four silicon pillars among the eight selections with d=44.5, 60, 73, and 88.5 μm, respectively, at 1.0 THz. An x-polarized plane wave with magnetic energy density of 1 is normally incident on the silicon pillars from the bottom (substrate side).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. SEM image and experimental results of the anomalous deflector. (a) SEM image of part of the anomalous deflector. Scale bar: 200 μm, same hereinafter. (b) Schematic of FAT TDS. (c) Measured normalized far-field intensity distribution as a function of the deflection angle θ and the frequency under normal incidence. (d) Corresponding far-field intensity profile at 1.0 THz extracted from (c).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. SEM image of the B0 generator and experimental results of the B0, B1, and B2 generators. (a) SEM image of part of the fabricated B0 generator. (b) Schematic of FNSTM. (c, f, i) Measured normalized intensity distributions of the B0, B1, and B2 generators in the xz planes, respectively, at 1.0 THz. (d, g, j) The corresponding measured normalized intensity distributions in the xy planes. (e, h, k) The corresponding measured phase distributions in the xy planes. The intensity and phase distributions in the xy planes of the B0, B1, and B2 generators are detected at 5, 5, and 6 mm away from the generators, respectively. The scanning step is 0.25 mm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. SEM images and experimental results of the V1, V2, and V4 generators. (a, d, g) SEM images of part of the fabricated V1, V2, and V4 generators, respectively. The different color shades represent different phase sections schematically, as indicated by (a). (b, e, h) Measured phase distributions of the output electric fields of the V1, V2, and V4 generators, respectively, at 1.0 THz. (c, f, i) The corresponding measured normalized intensity distributions. All of the distributions are detected at a distance of 10 mm from the generators. The scanning step is 0.4 mm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Schematic of the CB1 generator and the corresponding experimental results. (a) Schematic of the CB1 composite beam generator composed of the V1 and B0 generators. The terahertz beam is incident from the V1 generator. (b) Measured normalized intensity distributions of the CB1 generator in the xz plane at 1.0 THz. (c, d) The corresponding measured normalized intensity and phase distributions in the xy plane, respectively. The intensity and phase distributions in the xy plane are detected at 5 mm away from the generator. The scanning step is 0.25 mm.

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