Abstract

Tungsten disulfide (WS2), as a representative layered transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) material, possesses important potential for applications in highly sensitive sensors. Here, a sensitivity-enhanced surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor with a metal film modified by an overlayer of WS2 nanosheets is proposed and demonstrated. The SPR sensitivity is related to the thickness of the WS2 overlayer, which can be tailored by coating a WS2 ethanol suspension with different concentrations or by the number of times of repeated post-coating. Benefitting from its large surface area, high refractive index, and unique optoelectronic properties, the WS2 nanosheet overlayer coated on the gold film significantly improves the sensing sensitivity. The highest sensitivity (up to 2459.3  nm/RIU) in the experiment is achieved by coating the WS2 suspension once. Compared to the case without a WS2 overlayer, this result shows a sensitivity enhancement of 26.6%. The influence of the WS2 nanosheet overlayer on the sensing performance improvement is analyzed and discussed. Moreover, the proposed WS2 SPR sensor has a linear correlation coefficient of 99.76% in refractive index range of 1.333 to 1.360. Besides sensitivity enhancement, the WS2 nanosheet overlayer is able to show additional advantages, such as protection of metal film from oxidation, tunability of the resonance wavelength region, biocompatibility, capability of vapor, and gas sensing.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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2018 (1)

W. Wei, P. Jin, N. Y. Zhu, W. Gui, N. Zhang, S. Q. Wang, N. Luo, G. L. Chen, C. J. Lan, and Y. C. Huang, “Graphene/Au-enhanced plastic clad silica fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Plasmonics 13, 483–491 (2018).

2017 (5)

A. Zavabeti, J. Z. Ou, B. J. Carey, N. Syed, R. Orrell-Trigg, E. L. H. Mayes, C. L. Xu, O. Kavehei, A. P. O’Mullane, R. B. Kaner, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “A liquid metal reaction environment for the room-temperature synthesis of atomically thin metal oxides,” Science 358, 332–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. J. Carey, J. Z. Ou, R. M. Clark, K. J. Berean, A. Zavabeti, A. S. R. Chesman, S. P. Russo, D. W. M. Lau, Z. Q. Xu, Q. L. Bao, O. Kevehei, B. C. Gibson, M. D. Dickey, R. B. Kaner, T. Daeneke, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14482 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Zou, B. P. Wu, X. X. Wang, Y. Y. Chen, K. Koh, K. M. Wang, and H. X. Chen, “Signal amplification and dual recognition strategy for small-molecule detection by surface plasmon resonance based on calixarene crown ether-modified gold nanoparticles,” Sens. Actuators B 241, 160–167 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Li, J. Zhang, J. C. Qiu, Z. H. Zhao, C. Wang, C. J. Zhao, and L. Hong, “A novel aptameric biosensor based on the self-assembled DNA-WS2 nanosheet architecture,” Talanta 163, 78–84 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Guan, K. Xia, C. Y. Chen, Y. H. Luo, J. Y. Tang, H. H. Lu, J. H. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. C. Zhong, and Z. Chen, “Tungsten disulfide wrapped on micro fiber for enhanced humidity sensing,” Opt. Mater. Express 7, 1686–1696 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

A. S. Pawbake, R. Waykar, D. J. Late, and S. R. Jadkar, “Highly transparent wafer scale synthesis of crystalline WS2 nanoparticle thin film for photodetector and humidity sensing applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8, 3359–3365 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, C. J. Gao, A. K. Mallik, and H. D. Qiu, “A WS2 nanosheet-based nanosensor for the ultrasensitive detection of small molecule–protein interaction via terminal protection of small molecule-linked DNA and Nt. BstNBI-assisted recycling amplification,” J. Mater. Chem. B 4, 5161–5166 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. J. Cai, W. Gao, L. L. Zhang, M. Ma, T. Z. Liu, W. X. Du, Y. Y. Zheng, H. R. Chen, and J. L. Shi, “Enabling prussian blue with tunable localized surface plasmon resonances: simultaneously enhanced dual-mode imaging and tumor photothermal therapy,” ACS Nano 10, 11115–11126 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Tabassum and B. D. Gupta, “Influence of oxide overlayer on the performance of a fiber optic SPR sensor with Al/Cu layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1–8 (2016).

Q. L. Ouyang, S. W. Zeng, L. Jiang, L. Y. Hong, G. X. Xu, X. Q. Dinh, J. Qian, S. He, J. L. Qu, C. Philippe, and K. T. Yong, “Sensitivity enhancement of transition metal dichalcogenides/silicon nanostructure-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28190 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

X. Cui, Y. Huang, J. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Rong, W. Lai, and T. Chen, “A remarkable sensitivity enhancement in a gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7,” RSC Adv. 5, 45092–45097 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Guo, J. A. Jackman, H. H. Yang, P. Chen, N. J. Cho, and D. H. Kim, “Strategies for enhancing the sensitivity of plasmonic nanosensors,” Nano Today 10, 213–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Q. Bui, T. T. Pham, D. A. Le, C. M. Thi, and H. M. Le, “A first-principles investigation of various gas (CO, H2O, NO, and O2) absorptions on a WS2 monolayer: stability and electronic properties,” J. Phys. 27, 305005 (2015).

B. J. Carey, T. Daeneke, E. P. Nguyen, Y. C. Wang, J. Z. Ou, S. Zhuiykov, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Two solvent grinding sonication method for the synthesis of two-dimensional tungsten disulphide flakes,” Chem. Commun. 51, 3770–3773 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Wang, J. Z. Ou, A. Chrimes, B. Carey, T. Daeneke, M. M. Alsaif, M. Mortazavi, S. Zhuiykov, N. Medhekar, M. Bhaskaran, J. R. Friend, M. S. Strano, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Plasmon resonances of highly doped two-dimensional MoS2,” Nano Lett. 15, 883–890 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

M. O’Brien, K. Lee, R. Morrish, N. C. Berner, N. Mcevoy, C. A. Wolden, and G. S. Duesberg, “Plasma assisted synthesis of WS2 for gas sensing applications,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 615, 6–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8, 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. F. Chiu and T. Y. Huang, “Sensitivity and kinetic analysis of graphene oxide-based surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B 197, 35–42 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Subramanian, F. Barkabouaifel, J. Bouckaert, N. Yamakawa, R. Boukherroub, and S. Szunerits, “Graphene-coated surface plasmon resonance interfaces for studying the interactions between bacteria and surfaces,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 5422–5431 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botelloméndez, N. Perealópez, A. L. Elías, C. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J. C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Chhowalla, H. S. Shin, G. Eda, L. J. Li, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhang, “The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Nat. Chem. 5, 263–275 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. S. Tsai, K. K. Liu, D. H. Lien, M. L. Tsai, C. F. Kang, C. A. Lin, C. Lin, L. J. Li, and J. H. He, “Few-layer MoS2 with high broadband photogain and fast optical switching for use in harsh environments,” ACS Nano 7, 3905–3911 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. W. Zeng, X. Yu, W. C. Law, Y. Zhang, R. Hu, X. Q. Dinh, H. P. Ho, and K. T. Yong, “Size dependence of Au NP-enhanced surface plasmon resonance based on differential phase measurement,” Sens. Actuators B 176, 1128–1133 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Luo, T. Qiu, W. Lu, and Z. Ni, “Plasmons in graphene: recent progress and applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R 74, 351–376 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Ratha and C. S. Rout, “Supercapacitor electrodes based on layered tungsten disulfide-reduced graphene oxide hybrids synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 11427–11433 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

E. E. Bedford, J. Spadavecchia, C. M. Pradier, and F. X. Gu, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensors incorporating gold nanoparticles,” Macromol. Biosci. 12, 724–739 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

A. Shalabney and I. Abdulhalim, “Sensitivity‐enhancement methods for surface plasmon sensors,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 571–606 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. S. Lee, M. Lee, K. M. Byun, and I. S. Lee, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensing based on target-responsive mobility switch of magnetic nanoparticles under magnetic fields,” J. Mater. Chem. 21, 5156–5162 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

S. Singh and B. D. Gupta, “Simulation of a surface plasmon resonance-based fiber-optic sensor for gas sensing in visible range using films of nanocomposites,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 115202 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Touahir, J. Niedziółka-Jönsson, E. Galopin, R. Boukherroub, A. C. Gouget-Laemmel, L. Solomon, M. Petukhov, J. N. Chazalviel, F. Ozanam, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon resonance on gold and silver films coated with thin layers of amorphous silicon–carbon alloys,” Langmuir 26, 6058–6065 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. Shalabaney and I. S. Abdulhalim, “Surface plasmon sensor with enhanced sensitivity using top nano dielectric layer,” J. Nanophoton. 3, 231–249 (2009).

1987 (1)

W. J. Schutte, J. L. de Boer, and F. Jellinek, “Crystal structures of tungsten disulfide and diselenide,” J. Solid State Chem. 70, 207–209 (1987).
[Crossref]

Abdulhalim, I.

A. Shalabney and I. Abdulhalim, “Sensitivity‐enhancement methods for surface plasmon sensors,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 571–606 (2011).
[Crossref]

Abdulhalim, I. S.

A. Shalabaney and I. S. Abdulhalim, “Surface plasmon sensor with enhanced sensitivity using top nano dielectric layer,” J. Nanophoton. 3, 231–249 (2009).

Alsaif, M. M.

Y. C. Wang, J. Z. Ou, A. Chrimes, B. Carey, T. Daeneke, M. M. Alsaif, M. Mortazavi, S. Zhuiykov, N. Medhekar, M. Bhaskaran, J. R. Friend, M. S. Strano, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Plasmon resonances of highly doped two-dimensional MoS2,” Nano Lett. 15, 883–890 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q. L.

B. J. Carey, J. Z. Ou, R. M. Clark, K. J. Berean, A. Zavabeti, A. S. R. Chesman, S. P. Russo, D. W. M. Lau, Z. Q. Xu, Q. L. Bao, O. Kevehei, B. C. Gibson, M. D. Dickey, R. B. Kaner, T. Daeneke, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14482 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barkabouaifel, F.

P. Subramanian, F. Barkabouaifel, J. Bouckaert, N. Yamakawa, R. Boukherroub, and S. Szunerits, “Graphene-coated surface plasmon resonance interfaces for studying the interactions between bacteria and surfaces,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 5422–5431 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bedford, E. E.

E. E. Bedford, J. Spadavecchia, C. M. Pradier, and F. X. Gu, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensors incorporating gold nanoparticles,” Macromol. Biosci. 12, 724–739 (2012).
[Crossref]

Berean, K. J.

B. J. Carey, J. Z. Ou, R. M. Clark, K. J. Berean, A. Zavabeti, A. S. R. Chesman, S. P. Russo, D. W. M. Lau, Z. Q. Xu, Q. L. Bao, O. Kevehei, B. C. Gibson, M. D. Dickey, R. B. Kaner, T. Daeneke, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14482 (2017).
[Crossref]

Berkdemir, A.

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botelloméndez, N. Perealópez, A. L. Elías, C. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J. C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berner, N. C.

M. O’Brien, K. Lee, R. Morrish, N. C. Berner, N. Mcevoy, C. A. Wolden, and G. S. Duesberg, “Plasma assisted synthesis of WS2 for gas sensing applications,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 615, 6–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bhaskaran, M.

Y. C. Wang, J. Z. Ou, A. Chrimes, B. Carey, T. Daeneke, M. M. Alsaif, M. Mortazavi, S. Zhuiykov, N. Medhekar, M. Bhaskaran, J. R. Friend, M. S. Strano, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Plasmon resonances of highly doped two-dimensional MoS2,” Nano Lett. 15, 883–890 (2015).
[Crossref]

Botelloméndez, A. R.

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botelloméndez, N. Perealópez, A. L. Elías, C. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J. C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bouckaert, J.

P. Subramanian, F. Barkabouaifel, J. Bouckaert, N. Yamakawa, R. Boukherroub, and S. Szunerits, “Graphene-coated surface plasmon resonance interfaces for studying the interactions between bacteria and surfaces,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 5422–5431 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boukherroub, R.

P. Subramanian, F. Barkabouaifel, J. Bouckaert, N. Yamakawa, R. Boukherroub, and S. Szunerits, “Graphene-coated surface plasmon resonance interfaces for studying the interactions between bacteria and surfaces,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 5422–5431 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Touahir, J. Niedziółka-Jönsson, E. Galopin, R. Boukherroub, A. C. Gouget-Laemmel, L. Solomon, M. Petukhov, J. N. Chazalviel, F. Ozanam, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon resonance on gold and silver films coated with thin layers of amorphous silicon–carbon alloys,” Langmuir 26, 6058–6065 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bui, V. Q.

V. Q. Bui, T. T. Pham, D. A. Le, C. M. Thi, and H. M. Le, “A first-principles investigation of various gas (CO, H2O, NO, and O2) absorptions on a WS2 monolayer: stability and electronic properties,” J. Phys. 27, 305005 (2015).

Byun, K. M.

K. S. Lee, M. Lee, K. M. Byun, and I. S. Lee, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensing based on target-responsive mobility switch of magnetic nanoparticles under magnetic fields,” J. Mater. Chem. 21, 5156–5162 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cai, X. J.

X. J. Cai, W. Gao, L. L. Zhang, M. Ma, T. Z. Liu, W. X. Du, Y. Y. Zheng, H. R. Chen, and J. L. Shi, “Enabling prussian blue with tunable localized surface plasmon resonances: simultaneously enhanced dual-mode imaging and tumor photothermal therapy,” ACS Nano 10, 11115–11126 (2016).
[Crossref]

Carey, B.

Y. C. Wang, J. Z. Ou, A. Chrimes, B. Carey, T. Daeneke, M. M. Alsaif, M. Mortazavi, S. Zhuiykov, N. Medhekar, M. Bhaskaran, J. R. Friend, M. S. Strano, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Plasmon resonances of highly doped two-dimensional MoS2,” Nano Lett. 15, 883–890 (2015).
[Crossref]

Carey, B. J.

A. Zavabeti, J. Z. Ou, B. J. Carey, N. Syed, R. Orrell-Trigg, E. L. H. Mayes, C. L. Xu, O. Kavehei, A. P. O’Mullane, R. B. Kaner, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “A liquid metal reaction environment for the room-temperature synthesis of atomically thin metal oxides,” Science 358, 332–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. J. Carey, J. Z. Ou, R. M. Clark, K. J. Berean, A. Zavabeti, A. S. R. Chesman, S. P. Russo, D. W. M. Lau, Z. Q. Xu, Q. L. Bao, O. Kevehei, B. C. Gibson, M. D. Dickey, R. B. Kaner, T. Daeneke, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14482 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. J. Carey, T. Daeneke, E. P. Nguyen, Y. C. Wang, J. Z. Ou, S. Zhuiykov, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Two solvent grinding sonication method for the synthesis of two-dimensional tungsten disulphide flakes,” Chem. Commun. 51, 3770–3773 (2015).
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Charlier, J. C.

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botelloméndez, N. Perealópez, A. L. Elías, C. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J. C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
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Chazalviel, J. N.

L. Touahir, J. Niedziółka-Jönsson, E. Galopin, R. Boukherroub, A. C. Gouget-Laemmel, L. Solomon, M. Petukhov, J. N. Chazalviel, F. Ozanam, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon resonance on gold and silver films coated with thin layers of amorphous silicon–carbon alloys,” Langmuir 26, 6058–6065 (2010).
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Chen, C. Y.

Chen, G. L.

W. Wei, P. Jin, N. Y. Zhu, W. Gui, N. Zhang, S. Q. Wang, N. Luo, G. L. Chen, C. J. Lan, and Y. C. Huang, “Graphene/Au-enhanced plastic clad silica fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Plasmonics 13, 483–491 (2018).

Chen, H. R.

X. J. Cai, W. Gao, L. L. Zhang, M. Ma, T. Z. Liu, W. X. Du, Y. Y. Zheng, H. R. Chen, and J. L. Shi, “Enabling prussian blue with tunable localized surface plasmon resonances: simultaneously enhanced dual-mode imaging and tumor photothermal therapy,” ACS Nano 10, 11115–11126 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. X.

F. Zou, B. P. Wu, X. X. Wang, Y. Y. Chen, K. Koh, K. M. Wang, and H. X. Chen, “Signal amplification and dual recognition strategy for small-molecule detection by surface plasmon resonance based on calixarene crown ether-modified gold nanoparticles,” Sens. Actuators B 241, 160–167 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, C. J. Gao, A. K. Mallik, and H. D. Qiu, “A WS2 nanosheet-based nanosensor for the ultrasensitive detection of small molecule–protein interaction via terminal protection of small molecule-linked DNA and Nt. BstNBI-assisted recycling amplification,” J. Mater. Chem. B 4, 5161–5166 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

L. Guo, J. A. Jackman, H. H. Yang, P. Chen, N. J. Cho, and D. H. Kim, “Strategies for enhancing the sensitivity of plasmonic nanosensors,” Nano Today 10, 213–239 (2015).
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Chen, T.

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Chen, Y. Y.

F. Zou, B. P. Wu, X. X. Wang, Y. Y. Chen, K. Koh, K. M. Wang, and H. X. Chen, “Signal amplification and dual recognition strategy for small-molecule detection by surface plasmon resonance based on calixarene crown ether-modified gold nanoparticles,” Sens. Actuators B 241, 160–167 (2017).
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Chen, Z.

Chesman, A. S. R.

B. J. Carey, J. Z. Ou, R. M. Clark, K. J. Berean, A. Zavabeti, A. S. R. Chesman, S. P. Russo, D. W. M. Lau, Z. Q. Xu, Q. L. Bao, O. Kevehei, B. C. Gibson, M. D. Dickey, R. B. Kaner, T. Daeneke, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14482 (2017).
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M. Chhowalla, H. S. Shin, G. Eda, L. J. Li, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhang, “The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Nat. Chem. 5, 263–275 (2013).
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A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botelloméndez, N. Perealópez, A. L. Elías, C. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J. C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
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N. F. Chiu and T. Y. Huang, “Sensitivity and kinetic analysis of graphene oxide-based surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B 197, 35–42 (2014).
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L. Guo, J. A. Jackman, H. H. Yang, P. Chen, N. J. Cho, and D. H. Kim, “Strategies for enhancing the sensitivity of plasmonic nanosensors,” Nano Today 10, 213–239 (2015).
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Y. C. Wang, J. Z. Ou, A. Chrimes, B. Carey, T. Daeneke, M. M. Alsaif, M. Mortazavi, S. Zhuiykov, N. Medhekar, M. Bhaskaran, J. R. Friend, M. S. Strano, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Plasmon resonances of highly doped two-dimensional MoS2,” Nano Lett. 15, 883–890 (2015).
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B. J. Carey, J. Z. Ou, R. M. Clark, K. J. Berean, A. Zavabeti, A. S. R. Chesman, S. P. Russo, D. W. M. Lau, Z. Q. Xu, Q. L. Bao, O. Kevehei, B. C. Gibson, M. D. Dickey, R. B. Kaner, T. Daeneke, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14482 (2017).
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A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botelloméndez, N. Perealópez, A. L. Elías, C. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J. C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
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X. Cui, Y. Huang, J. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Rong, W. Lai, and T. Chen, “A remarkable sensitivity enhancement in a gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7,” RSC Adv. 5, 45092–45097 (2015).
[Crossref]

Daeneke, T.

B. J. Carey, J. Z. Ou, R. M. Clark, K. J. Berean, A. Zavabeti, A. S. R. Chesman, S. P. Russo, D. W. M. Lau, Z. Q. Xu, Q. L. Bao, O. Kevehei, B. C. Gibson, M. D. Dickey, R. B. Kaner, T. Daeneke, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14482 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Wang, J. Z. Ou, A. Chrimes, B. Carey, T. Daeneke, M. M. Alsaif, M. Mortazavi, S. Zhuiykov, N. Medhekar, M. Bhaskaran, J. R. Friend, M. S. Strano, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Plasmon resonances of highly doped two-dimensional MoS2,” Nano Lett. 15, 883–890 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. J. Carey, T. Daeneke, E. P. Nguyen, Y. C. Wang, J. Z. Ou, S. Zhuiykov, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Two solvent grinding sonication method for the synthesis of two-dimensional tungsten disulphide flakes,” Chem. Commun. 51, 3770–3773 (2015).
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de Boer, J. L.

W. J. Schutte, J. L. de Boer, and F. Jellinek, “Crystal structures of tungsten disulfide and diselenide,” J. Solid State Chem. 70, 207–209 (1987).
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Dickey, M. D.

B. J. Carey, J. Z. Ou, R. M. Clark, K. J. Berean, A. Zavabeti, A. S. R. Chesman, S. P. Russo, D. W. M. Lau, Z. Q. Xu, Q. L. Bao, O. Kevehei, B. C. Gibson, M. D. Dickey, R. B. Kaner, T. Daeneke, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14482 (2017).
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Q. L. Ouyang, S. W. Zeng, L. Jiang, L. Y. Hong, G. X. Xu, X. Q. Dinh, J. Qian, S. He, J. L. Qu, C. Philippe, and K. T. Yong, “Sensitivity enhancement of transition metal dichalcogenides/silicon nanostructure-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28190 (2016).
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S. W. Zeng, X. Yu, W. C. Law, Y. Zhang, R. Hu, X. Q. Dinh, H. P. Ho, and K. T. Yong, “Size dependence of Au NP-enhanced surface plasmon resonance based on differential phase measurement,” Sens. Actuators B 176, 1128–1133 (2013).
[Crossref]

Du, W. X.

X. J. Cai, W. Gao, L. L. Zhang, M. Ma, T. Z. Liu, W. X. Du, Y. Y. Zheng, H. R. Chen, and J. L. Shi, “Enabling prussian blue with tunable localized surface plasmon resonances: simultaneously enhanced dual-mode imaging and tumor photothermal therapy,” ACS Nano 10, 11115–11126 (2016).
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M. Chhowalla, H. S. Shin, G. Eda, L. J. Li, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhang, “The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Nat. Chem. 5, 263–275 (2013).
[Crossref]

Elías, A. L.

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botelloméndez, N. Perealópez, A. L. Elías, C. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J. C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
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Friend, J. R.

Y. C. Wang, J. Z. Ou, A. Chrimes, B. Carey, T. Daeneke, M. M. Alsaif, M. Mortazavi, S. Zhuiykov, N. Medhekar, M. Bhaskaran, J. R. Friend, M. S. Strano, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Plasmon resonances of highly doped two-dimensional MoS2,” Nano Lett. 15, 883–890 (2015).
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L. Touahir, J. Niedziółka-Jönsson, E. Galopin, R. Boukherroub, A. C. Gouget-Laemmel, L. Solomon, M. Petukhov, J. N. Chazalviel, F. Ozanam, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon resonance on gold and silver films coated with thin layers of amorphous silicon–carbon alloys,” Langmuir 26, 6058–6065 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gao, C. J.

J. Chen, C. J. Gao, A. K. Mallik, and H. D. Qiu, “A WS2 nanosheet-based nanosensor for the ultrasensitive detection of small molecule–protein interaction via terminal protection of small molecule-linked DNA and Nt. BstNBI-assisted recycling amplification,” J. Mater. Chem. B 4, 5161–5166 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gao, W.

X. J. Cai, W. Gao, L. L. Zhang, M. Ma, T. Z. Liu, W. X. Du, Y. Y. Zheng, H. R. Chen, and J. L. Shi, “Enabling prussian blue with tunable localized surface plasmon resonances: simultaneously enhanced dual-mode imaging and tumor photothermal therapy,” ACS Nano 10, 11115–11126 (2016).
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Gibson, B. C.

B. J. Carey, J. Z. Ou, R. M. Clark, K. J. Berean, A. Zavabeti, A. S. R. Chesman, S. P. Russo, D. W. M. Lau, Z. Q. Xu, Q. L. Bao, O. Kevehei, B. C. Gibson, M. D. Dickey, R. B. Kaner, T. Daeneke, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14482 (2017).
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L. Touahir, J. Niedziółka-Jönsson, E. Galopin, R. Boukherroub, A. C. Gouget-Laemmel, L. Solomon, M. Petukhov, J. N. Chazalviel, F. Ozanam, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon resonance on gold and silver films coated with thin layers of amorphous silicon–carbon alloys,” Langmuir 26, 6058–6065 (2010).
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Guo, L.

L. Guo, J. A. Jackman, H. H. Yang, P. Chen, N. J. Cho, and D. H. Kim, “Strategies for enhancing the sensitivity of plasmonic nanosensors,” Nano Today 10, 213–239 (2015).
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A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botelloméndez, N. Perealópez, A. L. Elías, C. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J. C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, J. H.

D. S. Tsai, K. K. Liu, D. H. Lien, M. L. Tsai, C. F. Kang, C. A. Lin, C. Lin, L. J. Li, and J. H. He, “Few-layer MoS2 with high broadband photogain and fast optical switching for use in harsh environments,” ACS Nano 7, 3905–3911 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, S.

Q. L. Ouyang, S. W. Zeng, L. Jiang, L. Y. Hong, G. X. Xu, X. Q. Dinh, J. Qian, S. He, J. L. Qu, C. Philippe, and K. T. Yong, “Sensitivity enhancement of transition metal dichalcogenides/silicon nanostructure-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28190 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ho, H. P.

S. W. Zeng, X. Yu, W. C. Law, Y. Zhang, R. Hu, X. Q. Dinh, H. P. Ho, and K. T. Yong, “Size dependence of Au NP-enhanced surface plasmon resonance based on differential phase measurement,” Sens. Actuators B 176, 1128–1133 (2013).
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Hong, L.

A. Li, J. Zhang, J. C. Qiu, Z. H. Zhao, C. Wang, C. J. Zhao, and L. Hong, “A novel aptameric biosensor based on the self-assembled DNA-WS2 nanosheet architecture,” Talanta 163, 78–84 (2017).
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Q. L. Ouyang, S. W. Zeng, L. Jiang, L. Y. Hong, G. X. Xu, X. Q. Dinh, J. Qian, S. He, J. L. Qu, C. Philippe, and K. T. Yong, “Sensitivity enhancement of transition metal dichalcogenides/silicon nanostructure-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28190 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, R.

S. W. Zeng, X. Yu, W. C. Law, Y. Zhang, R. Hu, X. Q. Dinh, H. P. Ho, and K. T. Yong, “Size dependence of Au NP-enhanced surface plasmon resonance based on differential phase measurement,” Sens. Actuators B 176, 1128–1133 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, T. Y.

N. F. Chiu and T. Y. Huang, “Sensitivity and kinetic analysis of graphene oxide-based surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B 197, 35–42 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

X. Cui, Y. Huang, J. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Rong, W. Lai, and T. Chen, “A remarkable sensitivity enhancement in a gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7,” RSC Adv. 5, 45092–45097 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. C.

W. Wei, P. Jin, N. Y. Zhu, W. Gui, N. Zhang, S. Q. Wang, N. Luo, G. L. Chen, C. J. Lan, and Y. C. Huang, “Graphene/Au-enhanced plastic clad silica fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Plasmonics 13, 483–491 (2018).

Jackman, J. A.

L. Guo, J. A. Jackman, H. H. Yang, P. Chen, N. J. Cho, and D. H. Kim, “Strategies for enhancing the sensitivity of plasmonic nanosensors,” Nano Today 10, 213–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jadkar, S. R.

A. S. Pawbake, R. Waykar, D. J. Late, and S. R. Jadkar, “Highly transparent wafer scale synthesis of crystalline WS2 nanoparticle thin film for photodetector and humidity sensing applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8, 3359–3365 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jellinek, F.

W. J. Schutte, J. L. de Boer, and F. Jellinek, “Crystal structures of tungsten disulfide and diselenide,” J. Solid State Chem. 70, 207–209 (1987).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L.

Q. L. Ouyang, S. W. Zeng, L. Jiang, L. Y. Hong, G. X. Xu, X. Q. Dinh, J. Qian, S. He, J. L. Qu, C. Philippe, and K. T. Yong, “Sensitivity enhancement of transition metal dichalcogenides/silicon nanostructure-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28190 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jin, P.

W. Wei, P. Jin, N. Y. Zhu, W. Gui, N. Zhang, S. Q. Wang, N. Luo, G. L. Chen, C. J. Lan, and Y. C. Huang, “Graphene/Au-enhanced plastic clad silica fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Plasmonics 13, 483–491 (2018).

Kalantar-Zadeh, K.

A. Zavabeti, J. Z. Ou, B. J. Carey, N. Syed, R. Orrell-Trigg, E. L. H. Mayes, C. L. Xu, O. Kavehei, A. P. O’Mullane, R. B. Kaner, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “A liquid metal reaction environment for the room-temperature synthesis of atomically thin metal oxides,” Science 358, 332–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. J. Carey, J. Z. Ou, R. M. Clark, K. J. Berean, A. Zavabeti, A. S. R. Chesman, S. P. Russo, D. W. M. Lau, Z. Q. Xu, Q. L. Bao, O. Kevehei, B. C. Gibson, M. D. Dickey, R. B. Kaner, T. Daeneke, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14482 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Wang, J. Z. Ou, A. Chrimes, B. Carey, T. Daeneke, M. M. Alsaif, M. Mortazavi, S. Zhuiykov, N. Medhekar, M. Bhaskaran, J. R. Friend, M. S. Strano, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Plasmon resonances of highly doped two-dimensional MoS2,” Nano Lett. 15, 883–890 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. J. Carey, T. Daeneke, E. P. Nguyen, Y. C. Wang, J. Z. Ou, S. Zhuiykov, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Two solvent grinding sonication method for the synthesis of two-dimensional tungsten disulphide flakes,” Chem. Commun. 51, 3770–3773 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kaner, R. B.

B. J. Carey, J. Z. Ou, R. M. Clark, K. J. Berean, A. Zavabeti, A. S. R. Chesman, S. P. Russo, D. W. M. Lau, Z. Q. Xu, Q. L. Bao, O. Kevehei, B. C. Gibson, M. D. Dickey, R. B. Kaner, T. Daeneke, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14482 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Zavabeti, J. Z. Ou, B. J. Carey, N. Syed, R. Orrell-Trigg, E. L. H. Mayes, C. L. Xu, O. Kavehei, A. P. O’Mullane, R. B. Kaner, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “A liquid metal reaction environment for the room-temperature synthesis of atomically thin metal oxides,” Science 358, 332–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kang, C. F.

D. S. Tsai, K. K. Liu, D. H. Lien, M. L. Tsai, C. F. Kang, C. A. Lin, C. Lin, L. J. Li, and J. H. He, “Few-layer MoS2 with high broadband photogain and fast optical switching for use in harsh environments,” ACS Nano 7, 3905–3911 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kavehei, O.

A. Zavabeti, J. Z. Ou, B. J. Carey, N. Syed, R. Orrell-Trigg, E. L. H. Mayes, C. L. Xu, O. Kavehei, A. P. O’Mullane, R. B. Kaner, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “A liquid metal reaction environment for the room-temperature synthesis of atomically thin metal oxides,” Science 358, 332–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kevehei, O.

B. J. Carey, J. Z. Ou, R. M. Clark, K. J. Berean, A. Zavabeti, A. S. R. Chesman, S. P. Russo, D. W. M. Lau, Z. Q. Xu, Q. L. Bao, O. Kevehei, B. C. Gibson, M. D. Dickey, R. B. Kaner, T. Daeneke, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14482 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. H.

L. Guo, J. A. Jackman, H. H. Yang, P. Chen, N. J. Cho, and D. H. Kim, “Strategies for enhancing the sensitivity of plasmonic nanosensors,” Nano Today 10, 213–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koh, K.

F. Zou, B. P. Wu, X. X. Wang, Y. Y. Chen, K. Koh, K. M. Wang, and H. X. Chen, “Signal amplification and dual recognition strategy for small-molecule detection by surface plasmon resonance based on calixarene crown ether-modified gold nanoparticles,” Sens. Actuators B 241, 160–167 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lai, W.

X. Cui, Y. Huang, J. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Rong, W. Lai, and T. Chen, “A remarkable sensitivity enhancement in a gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7,” RSC Adv. 5, 45092–45097 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lan, C. J.

W. Wei, P. Jin, N. Y. Zhu, W. Gui, N. Zhang, S. Q. Wang, N. Luo, G. L. Chen, C. J. Lan, and Y. C. Huang, “Graphene/Au-enhanced plastic clad silica fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Plasmonics 13, 483–491 (2018).

Late, D. J.

A. S. Pawbake, R. Waykar, D. J. Late, and S. R. Jadkar, “Highly transparent wafer scale synthesis of crystalline WS2 nanoparticle thin film for photodetector and humidity sensing applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8, 3359–3365 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lau, D. W. M.

B. J. Carey, J. Z. Ou, R. M. Clark, K. J. Berean, A. Zavabeti, A. S. R. Chesman, S. P. Russo, D. W. M. Lau, Z. Q. Xu, Q. L. Bao, O. Kevehei, B. C. Gibson, M. D. Dickey, R. B. Kaner, T. Daeneke, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14482 (2017).
[Crossref]

Law, W. C.

S. W. Zeng, X. Yu, W. C. Law, Y. Zhang, R. Hu, X. Q. Dinh, H. P. Ho, and K. T. Yong, “Size dependence of Au NP-enhanced surface plasmon resonance based on differential phase measurement,” Sens. Actuators B 176, 1128–1133 (2013).
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Y. C. Wang, J. Z. Ou, A. Chrimes, B. Carey, T. Daeneke, M. M. Alsaif, M. Mortazavi, S. Zhuiykov, N. Medhekar, M. Bhaskaran, J. R. Friend, M. S. Strano, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Plasmon resonances of highly doped two-dimensional MoS2,” Nano Lett. 15, 883–890 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. J. Carey, T. Daeneke, E. P. Nguyen, Y. C. Wang, J. Z. Ou, S. Zhuiykov, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Two solvent grinding sonication method for the synthesis of two-dimensional tungsten disulphide flakes,” Chem. Commun. 51, 3770–3773 (2015).
[Crossref]

Waykar, R.

A. S. Pawbake, R. Waykar, D. J. Late, and S. R. Jadkar, “Highly transparent wafer scale synthesis of crystalline WS2 nanoparticle thin film for photodetector and humidity sensing applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8, 3359–3365 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wei, W.

W. Wei, P. Jin, N. Y. Zhu, W. Gui, N. Zhang, S. Q. Wang, N. Luo, G. L. Chen, C. J. Lan, and Y. C. Huang, “Graphene/Au-enhanced plastic clad silica fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Plasmonics 13, 483–491 (2018).

Wolden, C. A.

M. O’Brien, K. Lee, R. Morrish, N. C. Berner, N. Mcevoy, C. A. Wolden, and G. S. Duesberg, “Plasma assisted synthesis of WS2 for gas sensing applications,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 615, 6–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, B. P.

F. Zou, B. P. Wu, X. X. Wang, Y. Y. Chen, K. Koh, K. M. Wang, and H. X. Chen, “Signal amplification and dual recognition strategy for small-molecule detection by surface plasmon resonance based on calixarene crown ether-modified gold nanoparticles,” Sens. Actuators B 241, 160–167 (2017).
[Crossref]

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F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8, 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xia, K.

Xiao, D.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8, 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

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A. Zavabeti, J. Z. Ou, B. J. Carey, N. Syed, R. Orrell-Trigg, E. L. H. Mayes, C. L. Xu, O. Kavehei, A. P. O’Mullane, R. B. Kaner, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “A liquid metal reaction environment for the room-temperature synthesis of atomically thin metal oxides,” Science 358, 332–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, G. X.

Q. L. Ouyang, S. W. Zeng, L. Jiang, L. Y. Hong, G. X. Xu, X. Q. Dinh, J. Qian, S. He, J. L. Qu, C. Philippe, and K. T. Yong, “Sensitivity enhancement of transition metal dichalcogenides/silicon nanostructure-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28190 (2016).
[Crossref]

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B. J. Carey, J. Z. Ou, R. M. Clark, K. J. Berean, A. Zavabeti, A. S. R. Chesman, S. P. Russo, D. W. M. Lau, Z. Q. Xu, Q. L. Bao, O. Kevehei, B. C. Gibson, M. D. Dickey, R. B. Kaner, T. Daeneke, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14482 (2017).
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Yamakawa, N.

P. Subramanian, F. Barkabouaifel, J. Bouckaert, N. Yamakawa, R. Boukherroub, and S. Szunerits, “Graphene-coated surface plasmon resonance interfaces for studying the interactions between bacteria and surfaces,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 5422–5431 (2014).
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Yang, H. H.

L. Guo, J. A. Jackman, H. H. Yang, P. Chen, N. J. Cho, and D. H. Kim, “Strategies for enhancing the sensitivity of plasmonic nanosensors,” Nano Today 10, 213–239 (2015).
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Q. L. Ouyang, S. W. Zeng, L. Jiang, L. Y. Hong, G. X. Xu, X. Q. Dinh, J. Qian, S. He, J. L. Qu, C. Philippe, and K. T. Yong, “Sensitivity enhancement of transition metal dichalcogenides/silicon nanostructure-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28190 (2016).
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S. W. Zeng, X. Yu, W. C. Law, Y. Zhang, R. Hu, X. Q. Dinh, H. P. Ho, and K. T. Yong, “Size dependence of Au NP-enhanced surface plasmon resonance based on differential phase measurement,” Sens. Actuators B 176, 1128–1133 (2013).
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Yu, J. H.

Yu, X.

S. W. Zeng, X. Yu, W. C. Law, Y. Zhang, R. Hu, X. Q. Dinh, H. P. Ho, and K. T. Yong, “Size dependence of Au NP-enhanced surface plasmon resonance based on differential phase measurement,” Sens. Actuators B 176, 1128–1133 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zavabeti, A.

B. J. Carey, J. Z. Ou, R. M. Clark, K. J. Berean, A. Zavabeti, A. S. R. Chesman, S. P. Russo, D. W. M. Lau, Z. Q. Xu, Q. L. Bao, O. Kevehei, B. C. Gibson, M. D. Dickey, R. B. Kaner, T. Daeneke, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14482 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Zavabeti, J. Z. Ou, B. J. Carey, N. Syed, R. Orrell-Trigg, E. L. H. Mayes, C. L. Xu, O. Kavehei, A. P. O’Mullane, R. B. Kaner, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “A liquid metal reaction environment for the room-temperature synthesis of atomically thin metal oxides,” Science 358, 332–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zeng, S. W.

Q. L. Ouyang, S. W. Zeng, L. Jiang, L. Y. Hong, G. X. Xu, X. Q. Dinh, J. Qian, S. He, J. L. Qu, C. Philippe, and K. T. Yong, “Sensitivity enhancement of transition metal dichalcogenides/silicon nanostructure-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28190 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. W. Zeng, X. Yu, W. C. Law, Y. Zhang, R. Hu, X. Q. Dinh, H. P. Ho, and K. T. Yong, “Size dependence of Au NP-enhanced surface plasmon resonance based on differential phase measurement,” Sens. Actuators B 176, 1128–1133 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

M. Chhowalla, H. S. Shin, G. Eda, L. J. Li, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhang, “The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Nat. Chem. 5, 263–275 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

A. Li, J. Zhang, J. C. Qiu, Z. H. Zhao, C. Wang, C. J. Zhao, and L. Hong, “A novel aptameric biosensor based on the self-assembled DNA-WS2 nanosheet architecture,” Talanta 163, 78–84 (2017).
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H. Y. Guan, K. Xia, C. Y. Chen, Y. H. Luo, J. Y. Tang, H. H. Lu, J. H. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. C. Zhong, and Z. Chen, “Tungsten disulfide wrapped on micro fiber for enhanced humidity sensing,” Opt. Mater. Express 7, 1686–1696 (2017).
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X. Cui, Y. Huang, J. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Rong, W. Lai, and T. Chen, “A remarkable sensitivity enhancement in a gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7,” RSC Adv. 5, 45092–45097 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L. L.

X. J. Cai, W. Gao, L. L. Zhang, M. Ma, T. Z. Liu, W. X. Du, Y. Y. Zheng, H. R. Chen, and J. L. Shi, “Enabling prussian blue with tunable localized surface plasmon resonances: simultaneously enhanced dual-mode imaging and tumor photothermal therapy,” ACS Nano 10, 11115–11126 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, N.

W. Wei, P. Jin, N. Y. Zhu, W. Gui, N. Zhang, S. Q. Wang, N. Luo, G. L. Chen, C. J. Lan, and Y. C. Huang, “Graphene/Au-enhanced plastic clad silica fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Plasmonics 13, 483–491 (2018).

Zhang, Y.

S. W. Zeng, X. Yu, W. C. Law, Y. Zhang, R. Hu, X. Q. Dinh, H. P. Ho, and K. T. Yong, “Size dependence of Au NP-enhanced surface plasmon resonance based on differential phase measurement,” Sens. Actuators B 176, 1128–1133 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C. J.

A. Li, J. Zhang, J. C. Qiu, Z. H. Zhao, C. Wang, C. J. Zhao, and L. Hong, “A novel aptameric biosensor based on the self-assembled DNA-WS2 nanosheet architecture,” Talanta 163, 78–84 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z. H.

A. Li, J. Zhang, J. C. Qiu, Z. H. Zhao, C. Wang, C. J. Zhao, and L. Hong, “A novel aptameric biosensor based on the self-assembled DNA-WS2 nanosheet architecture,” Talanta 163, 78–84 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y. Y.

X. J. Cai, W. Gao, L. L. Zhang, M. Ma, T. Z. Liu, W. X. Du, Y. Y. Zheng, H. R. Chen, and J. L. Shi, “Enabling prussian blue with tunable localized surface plasmon resonances: simultaneously enhanced dual-mode imaging and tumor photothermal therapy,” ACS Nano 10, 11115–11126 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhong, Y. C.

Zhu, N. Y.

W. Wei, P. Jin, N. Y. Zhu, W. Gui, N. Zhang, S. Q. Wang, N. Luo, G. L. Chen, C. J. Lan, and Y. C. Huang, “Graphene/Au-enhanced plastic clad silica fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Plasmonics 13, 483–491 (2018).

Zhuiykov, S.

Y. C. Wang, J. Z. Ou, A. Chrimes, B. Carey, T. Daeneke, M. M. Alsaif, M. Mortazavi, S. Zhuiykov, N. Medhekar, M. Bhaskaran, J. R. Friend, M. S. Strano, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Plasmon resonances of highly doped two-dimensional MoS2,” Nano Lett. 15, 883–890 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. J. Carey, T. Daeneke, E. P. Nguyen, Y. C. Wang, J. Z. Ou, S. Zhuiykov, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Two solvent grinding sonication method for the synthesis of two-dimensional tungsten disulphide flakes,” Chem. Commun. 51, 3770–3773 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zou, F.

F. Zou, B. P. Wu, X. X. Wang, Y. Y. Chen, K. Koh, K. M. Wang, and H. X. Chen, “Signal amplification and dual recognition strategy for small-molecule detection by surface plasmon resonance based on calixarene crown ether-modified gold nanoparticles,” Sens. Actuators B 241, 160–167 (2017).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (3)

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[Crossref]

P. Subramanian, F. Barkabouaifel, J. Bouckaert, N. Yamakawa, R. Boukherroub, and S. Szunerits, “Graphene-coated surface plasmon resonance interfaces for studying the interactions between bacteria and surfaces,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 5422–5431 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (2)

X. J. Cai, W. Gao, L. L. Zhang, M. Ma, T. Z. Liu, W. X. Du, Y. Y. Zheng, H. R. Chen, and J. L. Shi, “Enabling prussian blue with tunable localized surface plasmon resonances: simultaneously enhanced dual-mode imaging and tumor photothermal therapy,” ACS Nano 10, 11115–11126 (2016).
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D. S. Tsai, K. K. Liu, D. H. Lien, M. L. Tsai, C. F. Kang, C. A. Lin, C. Lin, L. J. Li, and J. H. He, “Few-layer MoS2 with high broadband photogain and fast optical switching for use in harsh environments,” ACS Nano 7, 3905–3911 (2013).
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Chem. Commun. (1)

B. J. Carey, T. Daeneke, E. P. Nguyen, Y. C. Wang, J. Z. Ou, S. Zhuiykov, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Two solvent grinding sonication method for the synthesis of two-dimensional tungsten disulphide flakes,” Chem. Commun. 51, 3770–3773 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. O’Brien, K. Lee, R. Morrish, N. C. Berner, N. Mcevoy, C. A. Wolden, and G. S. Duesberg, “Plasma assisted synthesis of WS2 for gas sensing applications,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 615, 6–10 (2014).
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Langmuir (1)

L. Touahir, J. Niedziółka-Jönsson, E. Galopin, R. Boukherroub, A. C. Gouget-Laemmel, L. Solomon, M. Petukhov, J. N. Chazalviel, F. Ozanam, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon resonance on gold and silver films coated with thin layers of amorphous silicon–carbon alloys,” Langmuir 26, 6058–6065 (2010).
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[Crossref]

Nano Today (1)

L. Guo, J. A. Jackman, H. H. Yang, P. Chen, N. J. Cho, and D. H. Kim, “Strategies for enhancing the sensitivity of plasmonic nanosensors,” Nano Today 10, 213–239 (2015).
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Nat. Chem. (1)

M. Chhowalla, H. S. Shin, G. Eda, L. J. Li, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhang, “The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Nat. Chem. 5, 263–275 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

B. J. Carey, J. Z. Ou, R. M. Clark, K. J. Berean, A. Zavabeti, A. S. R. Chesman, S. P. Russo, D. W. M. Lau, Z. Q. Xu, Q. L. Bao, O. Kevehei, B. C. Gibson, M. D. Dickey, R. B. Kaner, T. Daeneke, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14482 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8, 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Plasmonics (1)

W. Wei, P. Jin, N. Y. Zhu, W. Gui, N. Zhang, S. Q. Wang, N. Luo, G. L. Chen, C. J. Lan, and Y. C. Huang, “Graphene/Au-enhanced plastic clad silica fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Plasmonics 13, 483–491 (2018).

RSC Adv. (1)

X. Cui, Y. Huang, J. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Rong, W. Lai, and T. Chen, “A remarkable sensitivity enhancement in a gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7,” RSC Adv. 5, 45092–45097 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

Q. L. Ouyang, S. W. Zeng, L. Jiang, L. Y. Hong, G. X. Xu, X. Q. Dinh, J. Qian, S. He, J. L. Qu, C. Philippe, and K. T. Yong, “Sensitivity enhancement of transition metal dichalcogenides/silicon nanostructure-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28190 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botelloméndez, N. Perealópez, A. L. Elías, C. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J. C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
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Science (1)

A. Zavabeti, J. Z. Ou, B. J. Carey, N. Syed, R. Orrell-Trigg, E. L. H. Mayes, C. L. Xu, O. Kavehei, A. P. O’Mullane, R. B. Kaner, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “A liquid metal reaction environment for the room-temperature synthesis of atomically thin metal oxides,” Science 358, 332–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

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N. F. Chiu and T. Y. Huang, “Sensitivity and kinetic analysis of graphene oxide-based surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B 197, 35–42 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. W. Zeng, X. Yu, W. C. Law, Y. Zhang, R. Hu, X. Q. Dinh, H. P. Ho, and K. T. Yong, “Size dependence of Au NP-enhanced surface plasmon resonance based on differential phase measurement,” Sens. Actuators B 176, 1128–1133 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Zou, B. P. Wu, X. X. Wang, Y. Y. Chen, K. Koh, K. M. Wang, and H. X. Chen, “Signal amplification and dual recognition strategy for small-molecule detection by surface plasmon resonance based on calixarene crown ether-modified gold nanoparticles,” Sens. Actuators B 241, 160–167 (2017).
[Crossref]

Talanta (1)

A. Li, J. Zhang, J. C. Qiu, Z. H. Zhao, C. Wang, C. J. Zhao, and L. Hong, “A novel aptameric biosensor based on the self-assembled DNA-WS2 nanosheet architecture,” Talanta 163, 78–84 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Raman spectrum of the WS 2 layers on the SPR sensor structure.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a)  WS 2 surface morphology image of the SPR sensor. The WS 2 cross section SEM images after different numbers of times of repeated post-coating: (b) one; (c) two; (d) three; (e) four; (f) five.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental setup for RI sensing measurement.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Reflectance spectra of the WS 2 -SPR sensors corresponding to different post-coating times: (a) Without coating; (b) one; (c) two; (d) three; (e) four; (f) five. The refractive index of the sensing analyte changes from 1.333 to 1.360.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Experimental variation of shift in the resonance wavelength with refractive index under different times of WS 2 nanosheet post-coating: (a) Without coating; (b) one; (c) two; (d) three; (e) four; (f) five.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Sensitivity and (b) figure of merit comparison for different number of times of WS 2 nanosheets coatings.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Experimental variation of shift in the resonance wavelength with surrounding refractive index ranging from 1.333 to 1.40. (b) Evanescent electric field distribution at the resonance wavelength within the prism/gold film (50 nm)/analyte ( n = 1.36 ) structure.

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